World War II casualties

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Soviet soldiers killed during the Toropets-Kholm Offensive, January 1942. Officially, roughly 8.7 million Soviet soldiers died in the course of the war, including millions of POWs. Bundesarchiv Bild 101I-004-3633-32A, Russland, Cholm, gefallene Rotarmisten.jpg
Soviet soldiers killed during the Toropets–Kholm Offensive, January 1942. Officially, roughly 8.7 million Soviet soldiers died in the course of the war, including millions of POWs.
Einsatzgruppen murder Jewish civilians outside Ivanhorod, Ukraine, 1942. Einsatzgruppen murder Jews in Ivanhorod, Ukraine, 1942.jpg
Einsatzgruppen murder Jewish civilians outside Ivanhorod, Ukraine, 1942.
Bodies of American soldiers on the beach of Tarawa. The Marines secured the island after 76 hours of intense fighting. Over 6,000 American and Japanese troops died in the fighting. Tarawa beach HD-SN-99-03001.JPEG
Bodies of American soldiers on the beach of Tarawa. The Marines secured the island after 76 hours of intense fighting. Over 6,000 American and Japanese troops died in the fighting.

World War II was the deadliest military conflict in history. An estimated total of 70–85 million people perished, which was about 3% of the 1940 world population (est. 2.3 billion). [1]

World War II 1939–1945 global war

World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.

Contents

The tables below give a detailed country-by-country count of human losses. World War II fatality statistics vary, with estimates of total deaths ranging from 70 million to 85 million. [2] Deaths directly caused by the war (including military and civilians killed) are estimated at 50–56 million people, while there were an additional estimated 19 to 28 million deaths from war-related disease and famine.

Civilians deaths totaled 50 to 55 million. Military deaths from all causes totaled 21 to 25 million, including deaths in captivity of about 5 million prisoners of war. Statistics on the number of military wounded are included whenever available. More than half of the total number of casualties are accounted for by the dead of the Republic of China and of the Soviet Union. The government of the Russian Federation in the 1990s published an estimate of USSR losses at 26.6 million, [3] [4] including 8 to 9 million due to famine and disease. [4] [5] [6] These losses are for the territory of the USSR in the borders of 1946–1991, including territories annexed in 1939–40. The People's Republic of China as of 2005 estimated the number of Chinese casualties in the Second Sino-Japanese War from 1937 to 1945 are 20 million dead and 15 million wounded. [7]

Casualty (person) member of military personnel that becomes unavailable for duty

A casualty, as a term in military usage, is a person in military service, combatant or non-combatant, who becomes unavailable for duty due to several circumstances, including death, injury, illness, capture or desertion.

Republic of China (1912–1949) 1912–1949 country in Asia, when the Republic of China governed mainland China

The Republic of China (ROC) was a sovereign country that existed between 1912 and 1949 in what is now the People's Republic of China. It was established in January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China. The Republic's first president, Sun Yat-sen, served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, the leader of the Beiyang Army. Sun's party, the Kuomintang (KMT), then led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. However, Song was assassinated on Yuan's orders shortly after; and the Beiyang Army, led by Yuan, maintained full control of the Beiyang government. Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan Shikai was the self-proclaimed Emperor of China before abdicating due to popular unrest. After Yuan's death in 1916, the authority of the Beiyang government was further weakened by a brief restoration of the Qing dynasty. Cliques in the Beiyang Army claimed individual autonomy and clashed with each other during the ensuing Warlord Era.

Soviet Union 1922–1991 country in Europe and Asia

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Kiev, Minsk, Tashkent, Alma-Ata, and Novosibirsk. It spanned over 10,000 kilometres (6,200 mi) east to west across 11 time zones, and over 7,200 kilometres (4,500 mi) north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, taiga, steppes, desert and mountains.

In 2000, the total number of German military dead was estimated at 5.3 million by Rüdiger Overmans of the Military History Research Office (Germany); this number includes 900,000 men conscripted from outside of Germany's 1937 borders, in Austria, and in east-central Europe. Civilian deaths are not included. [8] [9] [10] However, in 2005 the German government put the war dead at 7,395,000 persons (including 4,300,000 military dead and missing) from Germany, Austria, and men conscripted from outside of Germany's 1937 borders. [11]

German casualties in World War II

Statistics for German World War II military casualties are divergent. The wartime military casualty figures compiled by German High Command, up until January 31, 1945, are often cited by military historians when covering individual campaigns in the war. A recent study by German historian Rüdiger Overmans found that the German military casualties were 5.3 million, including 900,000 men conscripted from outside of Germany's 1937 borders, in Austria and in east-central Europe, higher than those originally reported by the German high command. The German government reported that its records list 4.3 million dead and missing military personnel. Civilian deaths during the war include air raid deaths, estimates of German civilians killed only by Allied strategic bombing have ranged from around 350,000 to 500,000. Civilian deaths, due to the flight and expulsion of Germans, Soviet war crimes and the forced labor of Germans in the Soviet Union are disputed and range from 500,000 to over 2.0 million. According to the German government Suchdienste there were 300,000 German victims of Nazi racial, political and religious persecution. This statistic does not include 200,000 German people with disabilities who were murdered in the Action T4 and Action 14f13 euthanasia programs.

Rüdiger Overmans is German military historian who specializes in World War II history. His book "German Military Losses in World War II", which he conducted as leader of a project sponsored by the Gerda Henkel foundation, is one of the most comprehensive works about the German casualties in World War II.

Military History Research Office (Germany)

The Military History Research Office is an office of the Bundeswehr located at Potsdam, Germany.

The number of Polish dead are estimated to number between 5.6 and 5.8 million according to the Institute of National Remembrance (2009). [12] Documentation remains fragmentary, but today scholars of independent Poland believe that 1.8 to 1.9 million Polish civilians (non-Jews) and 3 million Jews were victims of German Occupation policies and the war for a total of just under 5 million dead." [13]

World War II casualties of Poland

Approximately six million Polish citizens perished during World War II: about one fifth of the pre-war population. Most were civilian victims of the war crimes and crimes against humanity during the occupation by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. Statistics for Polish World War II casualties are divergent and contradictory. This article provides a summarization of these estimates of Poland's human losses in the war and their causes.

Institute of National Remembrance Polish government-affiliated research institute with lustration prerogatives and prosecution powers

The Institute of National RemembranceCommission for the Prosecution of Crimes against the Polish Nation is a Polish government-affiliated research institute with lustration prerogatives, as well as prosecution powers. It was created by legislation enacted by the Parliament of Poland. The Institute specialises in the legal and historical examination of the 20th century history of Poland in particular. IPN investigates both Nazi and Communist crimes committed in Poland between 1939 and the Revolutions of 1989, documents its findings and disseminates the results of its investigations to the public.

The Japanese government as of 2005 put the number of Japanese deaths at 3.1 million. [14]

Classification of casualties

Polish military officers executed by the Soviet NKVD in the Katyn massacre, exhumation photo taken by the Polish Red Cross delegation in 1943. Katyn, ekshumacja ofiar.jpg
Polish military officers executed by the Soviet NKVD in the Katyn massacre, exhumation photo taken by the Polish Red Cross delegation in 1943.

Compiling or estimating the numbers of deaths and wounded caused during wars and other violent conflicts is a controversial subject. Historians often put forward many different estimates of the numbers killed and wounded during World War II. [15] The authors of the Oxford Companion to World War II maintain that "casualty statistics are notoriously unreliable." [16] The table below gives data on the number of dead and military wounded for each country, along with population information to show the relative impact of losses. When scholarly sources differ on the number of deaths in a country, a range of war losses is given, in order to inform readers that the death toll is disputed. Since casualty statistics are sometimes disputed the footnotes to this article present the different estimates by official governmental sources as well as historians. Military figures include battle deaths (KIA) and personnel missing in action (MIA), as well as fatalities due to accidents, disease and deaths of prisoners of war in captivity. Civilian casualties include deaths caused by strategic bombing, Holocaust victims, German war crimes, Japanese war crimes, population transfers in the Soviet Union, Allied war crimes, and deaths due to war related famine and disease.

The sources for the casualties of the individual nations do not use the same methods, and civilian deaths due to starvation and disease make up a large proportion of the civilian deaths in China and the Soviet Union. The losses listed here are actual deaths; hypothetical losses due to a decline in births are not included with the total dead. The distinction between military and civilian casualties caused directly by warfare and collateral damage is not always clear-cut. For nations that suffered huge losses such as the Soviet Union, China, Poland, Germany, and Yugoslavia, sources can give only the total estimated population loss caused by the war and a rough estimate of the breakdown of deaths caused by military activity, crimes against humanity and war-related famine. The casualties listed here include 19 to 25 million war-related famine deaths in the USSR, China, Indonesia, Vietnam, the Philippines, and India that are often omitted from other compilations of World War II casualties. [17] [18]

The footnotes give a detailed breakdown of the casualties and their sources, including data on the number of wounded where reliable sources are available.

Human losses by country

Total deaths

Death toll of World War II & military wounded by country
(when the number of deaths in a country is disputed, a range of war losses is given)
The details of the figures are provided in the footnotes
CountryTotal population
1/1/1939
Military
deaths from all causes
Civilian deaths due to
military activity and crimes against humanity
Civilian deaths due to
war-related famine and disease
Total
deaths
Deaths as % of
1939 population
Military
wounded
Flag of Albania (1939-1943).svg Albania A 1,073,000 [19] 30,000 [20] 30,0002.80NA
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia B 6,968,000 [19] 39,700 [21] 700 [22] 40,4000.5839,803 [23]
Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Austria (Unified with Germany) C 6,653,000 [19] Included with GermanyIncluded with Germany(see table below) S2 Included with Germany
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium D 8,387,000 [19] 12,000 [24] 76,000 [24] 88,0001.0555,513 [23]
Flag of Brazil (1889-1960).svg Brazil E 40,289,000 [19] 1,000 [25] 1,000 [26] 2,0000.004,222 [23]
Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria F 6,458,000 [19] 18,500 [25] 3,000 [27] 21,5000.3321,878 [23]
British Burma 1937 flag.svg Burma (British colony) G 16,119,000 [19] 2,600 [28] 250,000 [28] 252,6001.57NA
Canadian Red Ensign (1921-1957).svg  Canada H 11,267,000 [19] 42,000 [29] 1,600 [30] 43,6000.3853,174 [23]
Flag of the Republic of China.svg  China I (1937–1945)517,568,000 [19] 3,000,000 [31]
to 3,750,000+ [32]
7,357,000 [33]
to 8,191,000 [34]
5,000,000
to 10,000,000
15,000,000 [35]
to 20,000,000 [35]
2.90 to 3.861,761,335 [23]
Flag of Cuba.svg  Cuba J 4,235,000 [19] 100 [36] 1000.00NA
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czechoslovakia (in postwar 1945–1992 borders) K 14,612,000 [37] 35,000 [38] to 46,000 [39]
294,000 [39] to
320,000 [38]
340,000 to 355,0002.33 to 2.438,017 [23]
Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark L 3,795,000 [19] 6,000 [40] 6,0000.162,000 [23]
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Dutch East Indies M 69,435,000 [19] 11,500 [41] [42] 300,000 [43] 2,400,000 [44]
to 4,000,000 [45]
3,000,000
to 4,000,000
4.3 to 5.76NA
Flag of Egypt (1922-1958).svg Egypt MA 16,492,000 [19] 1,100 [46] 1,1000.00NA
Flag of Estonia.svg  Estonia (within 1939 borders) N 1,134,000 [19] 34,000 (in both Soviet & German armed forces) [47] 49,000 [48] 83,0007.3NA
Flag of Ethiopia (1897-1936; 1941-1974).svg Ethiopia O 17,700,000 [19] 15,000 [49] 85,000100,000 [49] 0.56NA
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland P 3,700,000 [19] 83,000 [50] to 95,000 [51] 2,000 [52] 85,000 to 95,0002.30 to 2.5750,000 [23]
Flag of France (1794-1958).svg  France Q (including colonies)41,680,000 [52] 210,000 [52] 390,000 [52] 600,0001.44390,000 [23]
Flag of France (1794-1815).svg  French Indochina R 24,664,000 [19] 1,000,000
to 2,000,000 [53]
1,000,000
to 2,200,000
4.05 to 8.11NA
Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg  Germany S 69,300,000 [54] 4,440,000 [55] to 5,318,000 [56] [57] 1,500,000
to 3,000,000 S1
6,900,000
to 7,400,000
(see table below) S2 7,300,000 [23]
Flag of Greece (1822-1978).svg  Greece T 7,222,000 [19] 35,100 [58] 171,800 [58] 300,000 [59]
to 600,000 [58]
507,000
to 807,000
7.02 to 11.1747,290 [23]
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg Guam TA 22,800 [60] 1,000 [61]
to 2,000 [62]
1,000
to 2,000
4.39 to 8.77NA
Flag of Hungary (1915-1918, 1919-1946).svg  Hungary U (figures in 1938 borders not including territories annexed in 1938–41)9,129,000 [60] 200,000 [63] 264,000 [64] 464,0005.0889,313 [23]
Flag of Iceland.svg Iceland V 118,900 [65] 200 [66] 2000.17NA
British Raj Red Ensign.svg  India W 377,800,000 [65] 87,000 [67] 2,100,000 [68]
to 3,000,000 [69]
2,200,000
to 3,087,000
0.5864,354 [23]
State Flag of Iran (1925).svg  Iran X 14,340,000 [70] 200 [71] 2000.00NA
Flag of Iraq (1924-1959).svg  Iraq Y 3,698,000 [65] 500 [71] 200 [72] 7000.01NA
Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland Z 2,960,000 [73] 5000 Irish volunteers deaths included with UK Armed Forces [74] 100 [75] 1000.00NA
Flag of Italy (1861-1946) crowned.svg  Italy (in postwar 1947 borders) AA 44,394,000 [76] 319,200 [77] to 341,000 Italian nationals and c. 20,000 Africans conscripted by Italy [78] [79] 153,200 [80] 492,400 to 514,0001.11 to 1.16225,000 [23] -320,000 [81] (incomplete data)
Merchant flag of Japan (1870).svg  Japan AB 71,380,000 [82] 2,100,000 [83] to
2,300,000 [84]
550,000 [85] to
800,000 [86]
2,500,000 [87]
to 3,100,000 [88]
3.50 to 4.34326,000 [23]
Merchant flag of Japan (1870).svg Korea (Japanese colony) AC 24,326,000 [60] Included with Japanese military483,000 [89]
to 533,000 [90]
483,000
to 533,000
1.99 to 2.19NA
Flag of Latvia.svg  Latvia (within 1939 borders) AD 1,994,500 [60] 30,000 [91] (in both Soviet and German Armies)220,000 [92] 250,00012.5NA
Flag of Lithuania 1918-1940.svg  Lithuania (within 1939 borders) AE 2,575,000 [82] 25,000 [93] (in both Soviet and German Armies)345,000 [94] 370,00014.36NA
Flag of Luxembourg.svg  Luxembourg AF 295,000 [82] Included with German & Belgian military5,000 [52] 5,0001.69NA
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Malaya & Singapore AG 5,118,000 [60] 100,000 [95] 100,0001.95NA
Flag of Malta (1943-1964).svg Malta (British) AH 269,000 [60] Included with U.K.1,500 [96] 1,5000.55NA
Flag of Mexico (1934-1968).svg  Mexico AI 19,320,000 [65] 100 [97] 1000.00NA
Flag of the People's Republic of Mongolia (1940-1945).svg  Mongolia AJ 819,000 [98] 300 [99] 3000.04NA
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Nauru (Australian) AK 3,400 [60] 500 [100] 50014.7NA
Pre-1962 Flag of Nepal.svg  Nepal AL 6,087,000 [60] Included with British Indian ArmyNA
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands AM 8,729,000 [60] 6,700 [101] 187,300 [101] 16,000 [101] 210,0002.412,860 [23]
Dominion of Newfoundland Red Ensign.svg  Newfoundland (British) AN 320,000 [102] 1,100 [103] (included with the U.K. & Canada)100 [104] 1,2000.03(included with the/ U.K. & Canada)
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand AO 1,629,000 [60] 11,700 [105] 11,7000.7219,314 [23]
Flag of Norway.svg  Norway AP 2,945,000 [70] 2,000 [52] 8,200 [106] 10,2000.35364 [23]
Flag of Australia (converted).svg Papua and New Guinea (Australian) AQ 1,292,000 [60] 15,000 [107] 15,0001.16NA
Flag of the Philippines (navy blue).svg  Philippines (U.S. Territory) AR 16,000,303 [108] 57,000 [109] 164,000 [110] 336,000 [110] 557,0003.48NA
Flag of Poland (1928-1980).svg  Poland (within 1939 borders) AS 34,849,000 [111] 240,000 [112] 5,620,000 [113]
to 5,820,000 [114]
5,900,000 [115]
to 6,000,000 [116]
16.93 to 17.22766,606 [23]
Flag of Portugal.svg  Portuguese Timor AT 480,000 [60] 40,000 [117]
to 70,000 [117]
40,000
to 70,000
8.33 to 14.58NA
Flag of Romania.svg  Romania (in postwar 1945 borders) AU 15,970,000 [52] 300,000 [39] 200,000 [39] 500,000 [39] 3.13332,769 [118]
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Ruanda-Urundi (Belgian) AV 3,800,000 [119] 36,000 [120] and 50,000 [121] 36,000–50,0000.09–1.3NA
Flag of South Africa (1928-1994).svg  South Africa AW 10,160,000 [65] 11,900 [67] 11,9000.1214,363 [23]
Flag of the South Pacific Mandate.svg South Pacific Mandate (Japanese Colony) AX 127,000 [122] 10,000 [123] 10,0007.87 [23]
Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg  Soviet Union (within 1946–91 borders [124] ) AY 188,793,000 [125] [126] 8,668,000 [127] [128] [129] to 11,400,000 [130] [131] [132] [133] 4,500,000 [134] to 10,000,000 [135] [136] [137] 8,000,000 to 9,000,000 [138] [139] [140] 20,000,000 [141] to 27,000,000 [142] [143] [144] [145] [146] (see table below) AY4 14,685,593 [23]
Flag of Spain (1945-1977).svg  Spain AZ 25,637,000 [65] Included with the German ArmyIncluded with France,see footnoteNA
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden BA 6,341,000 [65] 100 [147] 2,000 [148] 2,1000.03NA
Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland BB 4,210,000 [70] 100 [149] 1000.00NA
Flag of Thailand.svg  Thailand BC 15,023,000 [150] 5,600 [151] 2,000 [151] 7,6000.05NA
Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey BD 17,370,000 [70] 200 [152] 2000.00NA
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom BE including Crown Colonies 47,760,000 [153] 383,700 [154] 67,200 [155] [156] 450,9000.94376,239 [23]
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States BF 131,028,000 [157] 407,300 BF1 12,100 BF2 419,4000.32671,801 [23]
Flag of Yugoslavia (1918-1943).svg  Yugoslavia BG 15,490,000 [158] 300,000 [159]
to 446,000 [160]
581,000 [160] to 1,400,000 [159] 1,027,000 [160] to 1,700,000 [159] 6.63 to 10.97425,000 [23]
Other nations BH 300,000,000NA
Approx. totals2,300,000,000 [1] 21,000,000
to 25,500,000
29,000,000
to 30,500,000
19,000,000
to 28,000,000
70,000,000
to 85,000,000
3.0 to 3.7NA

Nazi Germany

Human losses of the Third Reich in World War II (included in above figures of total war dead) A detailed description is given in the footnotes for Germany and Austria. ^S2
CountryPopulation
1939
Military
deaths
Civilian deaths due to
Allied Strategic Bombing
Civilian deaths due to
Nazi persecution
Civilian deaths due to Expulsion of GermansTotal
deaths
Deaths as
% of 1939
population
Austria6,653,000 [19] 250,000 [161] to 261,000 [56] 24,000 [161] [162] 100,000 [163] 370,000 [163] 5.56
Germany (within 1937 borders) [164] 69,300,000 [54] 3,760,000 [161] to 4,456,000 [56] 353,000(1942 borders) [165] to 410,000 [161] [166] 300,000 [167] to 500,000 [168] [169] 400,000 [170] to 1,225,000 [161] 5,700,000 [171] 8.23
Foreign nationals of German ancestry in eastern Europe [172] 7,423,000 [173] 430,000 [55] to 538,000 [56] 200,000 [174] to 886,000 [175] 738,000 [56] [174] to 1,316,000 [176] 9.96 to 17.76
Foreign nationals in western Europe215,000 [177] 63,000 [56] 63,000 [56] 29.3
Approx. Totals83,500,0004,440,000 [178] to 5,318,000 [56] 353,000 [165] to 434,000 [178] 400,000 [179] [168] to 600,000 [168] [169] [179] 600,000 [180] to 2,111,000 [176] 6,900,000 to 7,400,0008.26 to 8.86

USSR

The estimated breakdown for each Soviet republic of total war dead ^AY4

Soviet RepublicPopulation 1940 (within 1946–91 borders)Military deathsCivilian deaths due to
military activity and crimes against humanity
Civilian deaths due to
war related famine and disease
TotalDeaths as % of 1940 population
Armenia 1,320,000150,00030,000180,00013.6%
Azerbaijan 3,270,000210,00090,000300,0009.1%
Belarus 9,050,000620,0001,360,000310,0002,290,00025.3%
Estonia 1,050,00030,00050,00080,0007.6%
Georgia 3,610,000190,000110,000300,0008.3%
Kazakhstan 6,150,000310,000350,000660,00010.7%
Kyrgyzstan 1,530,00070,00050,000120,0007.8%
Latvia 1,890,00030,000190,00040,000260,00013.7%
Lithuania 2,930,00025,000275,00075,000375,00012.7%
Moldova 2,470,00050,00075,00045,000170,0006.9%
Russia 110,100,0006,750,0004,100,0003,100,00013,950,00012.7%
Tajikistan 1,530,00050,00070,000120,0007.8%
Turkmenistan 1,300,00070,00030,000100,0007.7%
Ukraine 41,340,0001,650,0003,700,0001,500,0006,850,00016.3%
Uzbekistan 6,550,000330,000220,000550,0008.4%
Unidentified165,000130,000295,000
Total USSR 194,090,00010,600,00010,000,0006,000,00026,600,00013.7%

The source of the figures is Vadim Erlikman. Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke: spravochnik. Moscow, 2004. ISBN   5-93165-107-1. pp. 21–35. Erlikman, a Russian historian, notes that these figures are his estimates.

Holocaust deaths

Included in the figures of total war dead for each nation are victims of the Holocaust.

Jewish deaths

The Holocaust is the term generally used to describe the genocide of approximately six million European Jews during World War II. Martin Gilbert estimates 5.7 million (78%) of the 7.3 million Jews in German occupied Europe were Holocaust victims. [192] Estimates of Holocaust deaths range between 4.9 and 5.9 million Jews. [193]

Statistical breakdown of Jewish dead:

The figures for the pre-war Jewish population and deaths in the table below are from The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust. [193] The low, high and average percentage figures for deaths of the pre-war population have been added.

CountryPre-war Jewish population [193] in 1933Low estimate deaths [193] High estimate deaths. [193] Low %High %Average %
Austria191,000 (see footnote)50,00065,00026.2%34.0%30.1%
Belgium60,000 (see footnote)25,00029,00041.7%48.3%45.0%
Czech Republic [197] 92,00077,00078,30083.7%85.1%84.4%
Denmark8,000601160.8 %1.5%1.1%
Estonia 4,6001,5002,00032.6%43.5%38.0%
France260,000 (see footnote)75,00077,00028.8%29.6%29.2%
Germany566,000 (see footnote)135,000142,00023.9%25.1%24.5%
Greece73,00059,00067,00080.8%91.8%86.3%
Hungary (borders 1940) [198] 725,000502,000569,00069.2%78.5%73.9%
Italy48,0006,5009,00013.5%18.8%16.1%
Latvia 95,00070,00072,00073.7%75.8%74.7%
Lithuania 155,000130,000143,00083.9%92.3%88.1%
Luxembourg3,5001,0002,00028.6%57.1%42.9%
Netherlands112,000 (see footnote)100,000105,00089.3%93.8%91.5%
Norway1,70080080047.1%47.1%47.1%
Poland (borders 1939)3,250,0002,700,0003,000,00083.1%92.3%87.7%
Romania (borders 1940)441,000121,000287,00027.4%65.1%46.3%
Slovakia 89,00060,00071,00067.4%79.8%73.6%
Soviet Union (borders 1939)2,825,000700,0001,100,00024.8%38.9%31.9%
Yugoslavia 68,00056,00065,00082.4%95.6%89.0%
Total9,067,0004,869,8605,894,71650.4% (avg.)59.7% (avg.)55.1% (avg.)
  • The total population figures from 1933 listed here are taken from The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust. From 1933 to 1939 about 400,000 Jews fled Germany, Austria, and Czechoslovakia. Some of these refugees were in western Europe when Germany occupied these countries in 1940. In 1940 there were 30,000 Jewish refugees in the Netherlands, 12,000 in Belgium, 30,000 in France, 2,000 in Denmark, 5,000 in Italy, and 2,000 in Norway [199]
  • Hungarian Jewish losses of 569,000 presented here include the territories annexed in 1939–41. [200] The number of Holocaust dead in 1938 Hungarian borders were 220,000. [64] According to Martin Gilbert, the Jewish population inside Hungary's 1941 borders was 764,000 (445,000 in the 1938 borders and 319,000 in the annexed territories). Holocaust deaths from inside the 1938 borders was 200,000, not including 20,000 men conscripted as forced labor for the military. [201]
  • Netherlands figure listed in the table of 112,000 Jews taken from The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust includes those Jews who were resident in Holland in 1933.

By 1940 the Jewish population had increased to 140,000 with the inclusion of 30,000 Jewish refugees. [199] In the Netherlands 8,000 Jews in mixed marriages were not subject to deportation. [202] However, an article in the Dutch periodical De Groene Amsterdammer maintains that some Jews in mixed marriages were deported before the practice was ended by Hitler. [203]

Non-Jews persecuted and killed by Nazi and Nazi-affiliated forces

Some scholars maintain that the definition of the Holocaust should also include the other victims persecuted and killed by the Nazis. [207] [208]

  • Donald L. Niewyk, professor of history at Southern Methodist University, maintains that the Holocaust can be defined in four ways: first, that it was the genocide of the Jews alone; second, that there were several parallel Holocausts, one for each of the several groups; third, the Holocaust would include Roma and the handicapped along with the Jews; fourth, it would include all racially motivated German crimes, such as the murder of Soviet prisoners of war, Polish and Soviet civilians, as well as political prisoners, religious dissenters, and homosexuals. Using this definition, the total number of Holocaust victims is between 11 million and 17 million people. [209]
  • According to the College of Education of the University of South Florida Approximately 11 million people were killed because of Nazi genocidal policy. [210]
  • R.J. Rummel estimated the death toll due to Nazi Democide at 20.9 million persons. [211]
  • Timothy Snyder put the victims of the Nazis killed only as result of deliberate policies of mass murder such as executions, deliberate famine and in death camps at 10.4 million persons including 5.4 million Jews. [212]
  • German scholar Hellmuth Auerbach puts the death toll in the Hitler era at 6 million Jews killed in the Holocaust and 7 million other victims of the Nazis. [213]
  • Dieter Pohl (de) puts the total number of victims of the Nazi era at between 12 and 14 million persons, including 5.6–5.7 million Jews. [214]
  • Roma Included in the figures of total war dead are the Roma victims of the Nazi persecution; some scholars include the Roma deaths with the Holocaust. Most estimates of Roma (Gypsies) victims range from 130,000 to 500,000. [209] [215] Ian Hancock, Director of the Program of Romani Studies and the Romani Archives and Documentation Center at the University of Texas at Austin, has argued in favour of a higher figure of between 500,000 and 1,500,000 Roma dead. [216] Hancock writes that, proportionately, the death toll equaled "and almost certainly exceed[ed], that of Jewish victims". [217] In a 2010 publication, Ian Hancock stated that he agrees with the view that the number of Romanis killed has been underestimated as a result of being grouped with others in Nazi records under headings such as "remainder to be liquidated", "hangers-on" and "partisans". [218]
  • In 2018, the United States Holocaust museum has the number of murdered during the time period of the holocaust at 17 million - 6 million Jews and 11 million others. [219]

The following figures are from The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust, the authors maintain that "statistics on Gypsy losses are especially unreliable and controversial. These figures (cited below) are based on necessarily rough estimates". [220]

CountryPre-war Roma populationLow estimate victimsHigh estimate victims
Austria11,2006,8008,250
Belgium600350500
Czech Republic [197] 13,0005,0006,500
Estonia 1,0005001,000
France40,00015,15015,150
Germany20,00015,00015,000
Greece?5050
Hungary100,0001,00028,000
Italy25,0001,0001,000
Latvia 5,0001,5002,500
Lithuania 1,0005001,000
Luxembourg200100200
Netherlands500215500
Poland50,0008,00035,000
Romania300,00019,00036,000
Slovakia 80,00040010,000
Soviet Union (borders 1939)200,00030,00035,000
Yugoslavia 100,00026,00090,000
Total947,500130,565285,650
  • Handicapped persons: 200,000 to 250,000 handicapped persons were killed. [221] A 2003 report by the German Federal Archive put the total murdered during the Action T4 and Action 14f13 programs at 200,000. [222] [223]
  • Prisoners of War: POW deaths in Nazi captivity totalled 3.1 million [224] including 2.6 to 3 million Soviet prisoners of war. [225]
  • Ethnic Poles : According to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum "It is estimated that the Germans killed at least 1.9 million non-Jewish Polish civilians during World War II." [226] They maintain that "Documentation remains fragmentary, but today scholars of independent Poland believe that 1.8 to 1.9 million Polish civilians (non-Jews) were victims of German Occupation policies and the war." [227] However the Polish government affiliated Institute of National Remembrance (IPN) in 2009 estimated 2,770,000 ethnic Polish deaths due to the German occupation [228] (see World War II casualties of Poland).
  • Russians , Ukrainians and Belarusians : According to Nazi ideology, Slavs were useless sub-humans. As such, their leaders, the Soviet elite, were to be killed and the remainder of the population enslaved, starved to death, or expelled further eastward. As a result, millions of civilians in the Soviet Union were deliberately killed, starved, or worked to death. [229] Contemporary Russian sources use the terms "genocide" and "premeditated extermination" when referring to civilian losses in the occupied USSR. Civilians killed in reprisals during the Soviet partisan war and wartime-related famine account for a major part of the huge toll. [230] The Cambridge History of Russia puts overall civilian deaths in the Nazi-occupied USSR at 13.7 million persons including 2 million Jews. There were an additional 2.6 million deaths in the interior regions of the Soviet Union. The authors maintain "scope for error in this number is very wide". At least 1 million perished in the wartime GULAG camps or in deportations. Other deaths occurred in the wartime evacuations and due to war related malnutrition and disease in the interior. The authors maintain that both Stalin and Hitler "were both responsible but in different ways for these deaths", and "In short the general picture of Soviet wartime losses suggests a jigsaw puzzle. The general outline is clear: people died in colossal numbers but in many different miserable and terrible circumstances. But individual pieces of the puzzle do not fit well; some overlap and others are yet to be found". [231] Bohdan Wytwycky maintained that civilian losses of 3.0 million Ukrainians and 1.4 million Belarusians "were racially motivated". [232] [233] According to Paul Robert Magocsi, between 1941 and 1945, approximately 3,000,000 Ukrainian and other non-Jewish victims were killed as part of Nazi extermination policies in the territory of modern Ukraine. [234] Dieter Pohl puts the total number of victims of the Nazi policies in the USSR at 500,000 civilians killed in the repression of partisans, 1.0 million victims of the Nazi Hunger Plan, c. 3.0 million Soviet POW and 1.0 million Jews (in pre-war borders). [235] Soviet author Georgiy A. Kumanev put the civilian death toll in the Nazi-occupied USSR at 8.2 million (4.0 million Ukrainians, 2.5 million Belarusians, and 1.7 million Russians). [236] A report published by the Russian Academy of Sciences in 1995 put the death toll due to the German occupation at 13.7 million civilians (including Jews): 7.4 million victims of Nazi genocide and reprisals; 2.2 million persons deported to Germany for forced labor; and 4.1 million famine and disease deaths in occupied territory. Sources published in the Soviet Union were cited to support these figures. [237]
  • Homosexuals: According to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum "Between 1933 and 1945 the police arrested an estimated 100,000 men as homosexuals. Most of the 50,000 men sentenced by the courts spent time in regular prisons, and between 5,000 and 15,000 were interned in concentration camps." They also noted that there are no known statistics for the number of homosexuals who died in the camps. [238]
  • Other victims of Nazi persecution: Between 1,000 and 2,000 Roman Catholic clergy, [239] about 1,000 Jehovah's Witnesses, [240] and an unknown number of Freemasons [241] perished in Nazi prisons and camps. "The fate of black people from 1933 to 1945 in Nazi Germany and in German-occupied territories ranged from isolation to persecution, sterilization, medical experimentation, incarceration, brutality, and murder." [242] During the Nazi era Communists, Socialists, Social Democrats, and trade union leaders were victims of Nazi persecution. [243]
  • Serbs : The numbers of Serbs murdered by the Ustaše is the subject of debate and estimates vary widely. Yad Vashem estimates over 500,000 murdered, 250,000 expelled and 200,000 forcibly converted to Catholicism. [244] The estimate of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum is that the Ustaše murdered between 320,000 and 340,000 ethnic Serbs in the Independent State of Croatia between 1941–45, with roughly 45,000 to 52,000 murdered at the Jasenovac concentration camp alone. [245] According to the Wiesenthal Center at least 90,000 Serbs, Jews, Gypsies and anti-fascist Croatians perished at the hands of the Ustashe at the camp at Jasenovac. [246] According to Yugoslav sources published in the Tito era the estimates of the number of Serb victims range from 200,000 to at least 600,000 persons. [247] See also World War II persecution of Serbs.

German war crimes

During World War II, the German military helped fulfill Nazism's racial, political, and territorial ambitions. Long after the war, a myth persisted claiming the German military (or Wehrmacht) was not involved in the Holocaust and other crimes associated with Nazi genocidal policy. This belief is untrue. The German military participated in many aspects of the Holocaust: in supporting Hitler, in the use of forced labor, and in the mass murder of Jews and other groups targeted by the Nazis. The military’s complicity extended not only to the generals and upper leadership but also to the rank and file. In addition, the war and genocidal policy were inextricably linked. The German army (or Heer) was the most complicit as a result of being on the ground in Germany’s eastern campaigns, but all branches participated.

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum [248]

Naked Soviet POWs held by the Nazis in Mauthausen concentration camp. It is estimated that at least 3.3 million Soviet POWs died in German custody. Bundesarchiv Bild 192-208, KZ Mauthausen, Sowjetische Kriegsgefangene.jpg
Naked Soviet POWs held by the Nazis in Mauthausen concentration camp. It is estimated that at least 3.3 million Soviet POWs died in German custody.

Nazi Germany ordered, organized and condoned a substantial number of war crimes in World War II. The most notable of these is the Holocaust in which millions of Jews, Poles, and Romani were systematically murdered or died from abuse and mistreatment. Millions also died as a result of other German actions.

While the Nazi Party's own SS forces (in particular the SS-Totenkopfverbände , Einsatzgruppen and Waffen-SS) of Nazi Germany was the organization most responsible for the genocidal killing of the Holocaust, the regular armed forces represented by the Wehrmacht committed war crimes of their own, particularly on the Eastern Front in the war against the Soviet Union.

Japanese war crimes

Included with total war dead are victims of Japanese war crimes.

Oppression in the Soviet Union

The total war dead in the USSR includes about 1 million [256] victims of Stalin's regime. The number of deaths in the Gulag labor camps increased as a result of wartime overcrowding and food shortages. [257] The Stalin regime deported the entire populations of ethnic minorities considered to be potentially disloyal. [258] Since 1990 Russian scholars have been given access to the Soviet-era archives and have published data on the numbers of people executed and those who died in Gulag labor camps and prisons. [259] The Russian scholar Viktor Zemskov puts the death toll from 1941–1945 at about 1 million based on data from the Soviet archives. [256] The Soviet-era archive figures on the Gulag labor camps has been the subject of a vigorous academic debate outside Russia since their publication in 1991. J. Arch Getty and Stephen G. Wheatcroft maintain that Soviet-era figures more accurately detail the victims of the Gulag labor camp system in the Stalin era. [260] [261] Robert Conquest and Steven Rosefielde have disputed the accuracy of the data from the Soviet archives, maintaining that the demographic data and testimonials by survivors of the Gulag labor camps indicate a higher death toll. [262] [263] Rosefielde posits that the release of the Soviet Archive figures is disinformation generated by the modern KGB. [264] Rosefielde maintains that the data from the Soviet archives is incomplete; for example, he pointed out that the figures do not include the 22,000 victims of the Katyn massacre. [265] Rosefielde's demographic analysis puts the number of excess deaths due to Soviet repression at 2,183,000 in 1939–40 and 5,458,000 from 1941–1945. [266] Michael Haynes and Rumy Husun accept the figures from the Soviet archives as being an accurate tally of Stalin's victims, they maintain that the demographic data depicts an underdeveloped Soviet economy and the losses in World War Two rather than indicating a higher death toll in the Gulag labor camps. [267]

In August 2009 the Polish Institute of National Remembrance (IPN) researchers estimated 150,000 Polish citizens were killed due to Soviet repression. Since the collapse of the USSR, Polish scholars have been able to do research in the Soviet archives on Polish losses during the Soviet occupation. [190] Andrzej Paczkowski puts the number of Polish deaths at 90,000–100,000 of the 1.0 million persons deported and 30,000 executed by the Soviets. [268] In 2005 Tadeusz Piotrowski estimated the death toll in Soviet hands at 350,000. [269]

The Estonian State Commission for the Examination of Repressive Policies Carried out During the Occupations put civilian deaths due to the Soviet occupation in 1940–1941 at 33,900 including (7,800 deaths) of arrested people, (6,000) deportee deaths, (5,000) evacuee deaths, (1,100) people gone missing and (14,000) conscripted for forced labor. After the reoccupation by the U.S.S.R., 5,000 Estonians died in Soviet prisons during 1944–45. [270]

The following is a summary of the data from the Soviet archives:
Reported deaths for the years 1939–1945 1,187,783, including: judicial executions 46,350; deaths in Gulag labor camps 718,804; deaths in labor colonies and prisons 422,629. [271]

Deported to special settlements: (figures are for deportations to Special Settlements only, not including those executed, sent to Gulag labor camps or conscripted into the Soviet Army. Nor do the figures include additional deportations after the war).
Deported from annexed territories 1940–41 380,000 to 390,000 persons, including: Poland 309–312,000; Lithuania 17,500; Latvia 17,000; Estonia 6,000; Moldova 22,842. [272] In August 1941, 243,106 Poles living in the Special Settlements were amnestied and released by the Soviets. [273]
Deported during the War 1941–1945 about 2.3 million persons of Soviet ethnic minorities including: Soviet Germans 1,209,000; Finns 9,000; Karachays 69,000; Kalmyks 92,000; Chechens and Ingush 479,000; Balkars 37,000; Crimean Tatars 191,014; Meskhetian Turks 91,000; Greeks, Bulgarians and Armenians from Crimea 42,000; Ukrainian OUN members 100,000; Poles 30,000. [274]
A total of 2,230,500 [275] persons were living in the settlements in October 1945 and 309,100 deaths were reported in special settlements for the years 1941–1948. [276]

Russian sources list Axis prisoner of war deaths of 580,589 in Soviet captivity based on data in the Soviet archives (Germany 381,067; Hungary 54,755; Romania 54,612; Italy 27,683; Finland 403, and Japan 62,069). [277] However some western scholars estimate the total at between 1.7 and 2.3 million. [278]

Military casualties by branch of service

CountryBranch of serviceNumber servedKilled/missingWoundedPrisoners of war CapturedPercent killed
Germany Army [279] 13,600,0004,202,00030.9
Germany Air Force (including infantry units) [279] 2,500,000433,00017.3
Germany Navy [279] 1,200,000138,00011.5
Germany Waffen SS [279] 900,000314,00034.9
Germany Volkssturm and other Paramilitary Forces [279] 231,000
Germany Total (incl. conscripted foreigners)18,200,0005,318,0006,035,00011,100,00029.2
Japan [280] [281] Army (1937–1945)6,300,0001,326,07685,60030,00024.2
Japan Navy (1941–1945)2,100,000414,8798,90010,00019.8
JapanPOW dead after Surrender. [282] [283] [284] 381,000
Japan Imperial Japan Total8,400,0002,121,95594,50040,00025.3
ItalyArmy3,040,000246,4328.1
ItalyNavy259,082 [285] 31,34712.0
ItalyAir Force130,000 [286] 13,21010.2
ItalyPartisan forces80,000 [287] to 250,000 [288] [289] 35,82814 to 44
ItalyRSI forces520,000 [290] 13,021 to 35,0002.5 to 6.7
Italy Total Italian Forces3,430,000 [291] [292] 319,207 [293] to 341,000320,0001,300,000 [294] 9.3 to 9.9
Soviet Union (1939–40)All branches of service [295] 136,945205,924
Soviet Union (1941–45)All branches of service [296] 34,476,7008,668,40014,685,5934,050,00025.1
Soviet UnionConscripted Reservists not yet in active service (see note below) [297] 500,000
Soviet UnionCivilians in POW camps (see note below) [298] 1,000,0001,750,000
Soviet Union Paramilitary and Soviet partisan units [299] 400,000
Soviet Union Total Soviet Forces34,476,70010,725,34514,915,5175,750,00031.1
British Empire and Commonwealth [67] [300] [301] All branches of service17,843,000580,497475,000318,0003.3
United States [302] Army [303] 11,260,000318,274565,861124,079 [303] [304] 2.8
United States Air Force (included with Army) [303] (3,400,000)(88,119)(17,360)2.5
United States Navy 4,183,44662,61437,7783,848 [305] 1.5
United States Maritime Service 215,0009,40012,000663 [306] 4.5
United States Marine Corps 669,10024,51168,2072,274 [307] [305] 3.7
United States Coast Guard [308] 241,0931,9170.8
United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps [309] 2,6008 [310] 0.3
United States Coast and Geodetic Survey Corps [311] 3
United States Total U.S. Armed Forces16,353,639407,316671,846130,201 [312] [313] 2.5

Germany

  1. The number killed in action was 2,303,320; died of wounds, disease or accidents 500,165; 11,000 sentenced to death by court martial; 2,007,571 missing in action or unaccounted for after the war; 25,000 suicides; 12,000 unknown; [314] 459,475 confirmed POW deaths, of whom 77,000 were in the custody of the U.S., UK and France; and 363,000 in Soviet custody. POW deaths includes 266,000 in the post-war period after June 1945, primarily in Soviet captivity. [315]
  2. Rüdiger Overmans writes "It seems entirely plausible, while not provable, that one half of the 1.5 million missing on the eastern front were killed in action, the other half (700,000) however in fact died in Soviet custody". [316]
  3. Soviet sources list the deaths of 474,967 of the 2,652,672 German Armed Forces POW taken in the war. [317]

USSR

  1. Estimated total Soviet military war dead in 1941–45 on the Eastern Front (World War II) including missing in action, POWs and Soviet partisans range from 8.6 to 10.6 million. [299] There were an additional 127,000 war dead in 1939–40 during the Winter War with Finland. [318]
  2. The official figures for military war dead and missing in 1941–45 are 8,668,400 comprising 6,329,600 combat related deaths, 555,500 non-combat deaths. [319] 500,000 missing in action and 1,103,300 POW dead and another 180,000 liberated POWs who most likely emigrated to other countries. [320] [321] [322] Figures include Navy losses of 154,771. [323] Non-combat deaths include 157,000 sentenced to death by court martial. [324]
  3. Casualties in 1939–40 include the following dead and missing: Battle of Khalkhin Gol in 1939 (8,931), Invasion of Poland of 1939 (1,139), Winter War with Finland (1939–40) (126,875). [295]
  4. The number of wounded includes 2,576,000 permanently disabled. [325]
  5. The official Russian figure for total POW held by the Germans is 4,059,000; the number of Soviet POW who survived the war was 2,016,000, including 180,000 who most likely emigrated to other countries, and an additional 939,700 POW and MIA who were redrafted as territory was liberated. This leaves 1,103,000 POW dead. However, western historians put the number of POW held by the Germans at 5.7 million and about 3 million as dead in captivity (in the official Russian figures 1.1 million are military POW and remaining balance of about 2 million are included with civilian war dead). [320] [326]
  6. Conscripted reservists is an estimate of men called up, primarily in 1941, who were killed in battle or died as POWs before being listed on active strength. Soviet and Russian sources classify these losses as civilian deaths. [298]

British Commonwealth

  1. Number served: UK and Crown Colonies (5,896,000); India-(British colonial administration) (2,582,000), Australia (993,000); Canada (1,100,000); New Zealand (295,000); South Africa (250,000). [327]
  2. Total war related deaths reported by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission: UK and Crown Colonies (383,786); India-(British colonial administration) (87,032), Australia (40,464); Canada (45,383); New Zealand (11,929); South Africa (11,903). [328]
  3. Total military dead for the United Kingdom alone(according to preliminary 1945 figures): 264,443. Royal Navy (50,758); British Army (144,079); Royal Air Force (69,606). [329] [330]
  4. Wounded: UK and Crown Colonies (284,049); India-(British colonial administration) (64,354), Australia (39,803); Canada (53,174); New Zealand (19,314); South Africa (14,363). [300] [331] [332]
  5. Prisoner of war: UK and Crown Colonies (180,488); India-(British colonial administration) (79,481); Australia (26,358); South Africa (14,750); Canada (9,334); New Zealand (8,415). [300] [331] [332]
  6. The Debt of Honour Register from the Commonwealth War Graves Commission lists the 1.7m men and women of the Commonwealth forces who died during the two world wars. [333]

U.S.

  1. Battle deaths (including POWs who died in captivity, does not include those who died of disease and accidents) [303] were 292,131: Army 234,874 (including Army Air Forces 52,173); Navy 36,950; Marine Corps 19,733; and Coast Guard 574 (185,924 deaths occurred in the European/Atlantic theater of operations and 106,207 deaths occurred in Asia/Pacific theater of operations). [303] [334]
  2. During World War II, 14,059 American POWs died in enemy captivity throughout the war (12,935 held by Japan and 1,124 held by Germany). [335]
  3. During World War II, 1.2 million African Americans served in the U.S. Armed Forces and 708 were killed in action. 350,000 American women served in the Armed Forces during World War II and 16 were killed in action. [336] During World War II, 26,000 Japanese-Americans served in the Armed Forces and over 800 were killed in action. [337]

Commonwealth military casualties

The Commonwealth War Graves Commission (CWGC) Annual Report 2014–2015 [67] is the source of the military dead for the British Empire. The war dead totals listed in the report are based on the research by the CWGC to identify and commemorate Commonwealth war dead. The statistics tabulated by the CWGC are representative of the number of names commemorated for all servicemen/women of the Armed Forces of the Commonwealth and former UK Dependencies, whose death was attributable to their war service. Some auxiliary and civilian organizations are also accorded war grave status if death occurred under certain specified conditions. For the purposes of CWGC the dates of inclusion for Commonwealth War Dead are 3 September 1939 to 31 December 1947.

See also

Footnotes

^A  Albania

^B  Australia

^C  Austria

^D  Belgium

^E  Brazil

^F  Bulgaria

^G  Burma

^H  Canada

^I  China Sources for total Chinese war dead are divergent and range from 10 to 20 million as detailed below.

^J  Cuba

^K  Czechoslovakia

^L  Denmark

^M   Dutch East Indies

^MA  Egypt

^N  Estonia

^O  Ethiopia

^P  Finland

^Q  France

^R  French Indochina

^S  Germany The following notes summarize German casualties, the details are presented in German casualties in World War II.

German population

Total German war dead

German military casualties

Civilian Casualties

  1. ^S2  German civilian casualties are combined from (a) air raid dead, (b) racial, religious and political persecution and (c) casualties due to expulsion of the Germans from east-central Europe:
    (a) Official German and Austrian sources from the 1950s cite 434,000 air raid dead (410,000 in Germany, 24,000 in) Austria [393] The figure cited by Overy (2013) is 353,000 000 air raid dead. [394]
    (b) The number of victims of Nazi persecution in Germany and Austria (victims of the Nazi euthanasia program) is estimated at close to 400,000 (300,000 in Germany, 100,000 in Austria). [395] [396] According to the German government the euthanasia accounted for an additional 200,000 victims. [397]
    (c) The number of victims of the flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–50) is contentious. Estimates in the 1960s cited a total of 2,111,000 deaths, [398] [399] and the German government as of 2005 still maintained a number of "ca. 2 million". [400] Direct civilian deaths due to the expulsion of Germans is estimated at 600,000 by the German Federal Archive (1974) [401] and at 100,000 to 200,000 by Haar (2009). [402] The substantial difference of close to 1.5 million comprises people whose fate is uncertain in the reported German statistics. The German government maintains that these deaths are due to famine and disease during the flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–50) [403] This was disputed by historian Ingo Haar who maintains that the difference classified as missing is due to a decline in births, the assimilation of ethnic Germans in Eastern Europe after the war, the understatement of military casualties and murdered Jews. [402]

Civilian casualties in air raids

  1- The summary report of September 30, 1945 put total casualties for the entire period of the war at 305,000 killed and 780,000 wounded. [404]
  2- The section Effects of Strategic Bombing on the German War Economy of October 31, 1945 put the losses at 375,000 killed and 625,000 wounded. [404]
  3- The section The Effect of Bombing on Health and Medical Care in Germany of January 1947 made a preliminary calculated estimate of air raid dead at 422,000. Regarding overall losses, they concluded that "It was further estimated that an additional number, approximately 25% of known deaths in 1944–45, were still unrecovered and unrecorded. With an addition of this estimate of 1944–45 unrecorded deaths, the final estimation gave in round numbers a half a million German civilians killed by Allied aerial attacks." [404]

Civilians killed in 1945 military campaign

Deaths due to Nazi political, racial and religious persecution

Expulsion and flight of ethnic Germans The following notes summarize German expulsion casualties, the details are presented in the flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–1950), the forced labor of Germans in the Soviet Union' and the Demographic estimates of the flight and expulsion of Germans. The figures for these losses are currently disputed, estimates of the total deaths range from 500,000 to 2,000,000. The death toll attributable to the flight and expulsions was estimated at 2.2 million by the West German government in 1958. [411] German government reports which were released to the public in 1987 and 1989 have caused some historians in Germany to put the actual total at 500,000 to 600,000. [412] English language sources put the death toll at 2 to 3 million based on the West German government statistical analysis of the 1950s. [413] [414] [415] [416] [417] [418] [419] [420] [421] [422]

German government figures of 2.0 to 2.5 million civilian deaths due to expulsions have been disputed by scholars since the publication of the results of the German church search service survey and the report by the German Federal Archive. [437] [438] [439] [440] [441] [442] [443] [444]

Post war increase in natural deaths

^T  Greece

^TA  Guam

^U  Hungary

^V  Iceland

^W  India

Bengal famine of 1943

^X  Iran

^Y  Iraq

^Z  Ireland

^AA  Italy

  • The Italian government issued an accounting of the war dead in 1957, they broke out the losses before and after the Armistice with Italy: military dead and missing 291,376 (204,376 pre-armistice and 87,030 post armistice). Civilian dead and missing at 153,147 (123,119 post armistice) including in air raids 61,432 (42,613 post armistice). [463] A brief summary of data from this report can be found online. [464]

 Military war dead
 Confirmed dead were 159,957 (92,767 pre-armistice, 67,090 post armistice) [465]
 Missing and presumed dead(including POWs) were 131,419 (111,579 pre-armistice, 19,840 post armistice) [466]
 Losses by branch of service: Army 201,405; Navy 22,034; Air Force 9,096; Colonial Forces 354; Chaplains 91; Fascist militia
  10,066; Paramilitary 3,252; not indicated 45,078. [467]
 Military Losses by theatre of war: Italy 74,725 (37,573 post armistice); France 2,060 (1,039 post armistice);
  Germany 25,430 (24,020 post armistice); Greece, Albania, and Yugoslavia 49,459 (10,090 post armistice);
  USSR 82,079 (3,522 post armistice); Africa 22,341 (1,565 post armistice), at sea 28,438 (5,526 post armistice);
  other and unknown 6,844 (3,695 post armistice). [468]

^AB  Japan

Military dead

 Key: Location, Army dead, Navy dead, (Total dead)
 Japan Proper: 58,100, 45,800, (103,900)
 Bonin Islands: 2,700, 12,500, (15,200)
 Okinawa: 67,900, 21,500, (89,400)
 Formosa (Taiwan): 28,500, 10,600, (39,100)
 Korea: 19,600, 6,900, (26,500)
 Sakhalin, the Aleutian, and Kuril Islands: 8,200, 3,200, (11,400)
 Manchuria: 45,900, 800, (46,700)
 China (inc. Hong Kong): 435,600, 20,100, (455,700)
 Siberia: 52,300, 400, (52,700)
 Central Pacific: 95,800, 151,400, (247,200)
 Philippines: 377,500, 121,100, (498,600)
 French Indochina: 7,900, 4,500, (12,400)
 Thailand: 6,900, 100, (7,000)
 Burma (inc. India): 163,000, 1,500, (164,500)
 Malaya & Singapore: 8,500, 2,900, (11,400)
 Andaman & Nicobar Islands: 900, 1,500, (2,400)
 Sumatra: 2,700, 500, (3,200)
 Java: 2,700, 3,800, (6,500)
 Lesser Sundas: 51,800, 1,200, (53,000)
 Borneo: 11,300, 6,700, (18,000)
 Celebes: 1,500, 4,000, (5,500)
 Moluccas: 2,600, 1,800, (4,400)
 New Guinea: 112,400, 15,200, (127,600)
 Bismarck Archipelago: 19,700, 10,800, (30,500)
 Solomon Islands: 63,200, 25,000, (88,200)

 Total: 1,647,200, 473,800, (2,121,000)
 

Overall, perhaps two thirds of all Japanese military dead came not from combat, but from starvation and disease. [472] In some cases this figure was potentially even higher, up to 80% in the Philippines [473] and a staggering 97% in New Guinea. [474]

 Army
 China after Pearl Harbor 202,958 killed and 88,920 wounded.
 vs. United States 485,717 killed and 34,679 wounded.
 vs. U.K. and Netherlands 208,026 killed and 139,225 wounded.
 vs. Australia 199,511 killed and 15,000 wounded.
 French Indochina 2,803 killed and 6,000 wounded.
 Manchuria & USSR 7,483 killed and 4,641 wounded.
 other overseas 23,388 killed and 0 wounded
 Japan proper 10,543 killed and 6,782 wounded
 Army total 1,140,429 killed and 295,247 wounded.
 Navy
 Sailors 300,386 killed and 12,275 wounded and missing.
 Civilians in Navy service 114,493 killed and 1,880 wounded and missing.
 Navy total 414,879 killed and 14,155 wounded and missing.
 

Civilian Dead

1-Summary Report (July 1946) Total civilian casualties in Japan, as a result of 9 months of air attack, including those from the atomic bombs, were approximately 806,000. Of these, approximately 330,000 were fatalities. [494]

2-United States Strategic Bombing Survey, Medical Division (1947) The bombing of Japan killed 333,000 civilians and injured 473,000. Of this total 120,000 died and 160,000 were injured in the atomic bombings, leaving 213,000 dead and 313,000 injured by conventional bombing. [495]

3-The effects of air attack on Japanese urban economy. Summary report (1947) Estimated that 252,769 Japanese were killed and 298,650 injured in the air war. [496]

4-The Effects of strategic bombing on Japanese morale Based on a survey of Japanese households the death toll was put at 900,000 dead and 1.3 million injured, the SBS noted that this figure was subject to a maximum sampling error of 30%. [497]

5-Strategic Bombing Survey The Effects of Atomic Bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki The most striking result of the atomic bombs was the great number of casualties. The exact number of dead and injured will never be known because of the confusion after the explosions. Persons unaccounted for might have been burned beyond recognition in the falling buildings, disposed of in one of the mass cremations of the first week of recovery, or driven out of the city to die or recover without any record remaining. No sure count of even the prepaid populations existed. Because of the decline in activity in the two port cities, the constant threat of incendiary raids, and the formal evacuation programs of the Government, an unknown number of the inhabitants had either drifter away from the cities or been removed according to plan. In this uncertain situation, estimates of casualties have generally ranged between 100,000 and 180,000 for Hiroshima, and between 50,000 and 100,000 for Nagasaki. The Survey believes the dead at Hiroshima to have been between 70,000 and 80,000, with an equal number injured; at Nagasaki over 35,000 dead and somewhat more than that injured seems the most plausible estimate. [498]

^AC  Korea

^AD  Latvia

^AE  Lithuania

^AF  Luxembourg

^AG  Malaya and Singapore

^AH  Malta 1,493 civilians were killed and 3,734 wounded during the Siege of Malta (World War II) [96] Maltese civilians killed during the siege are also included with U.K. civilian deaths by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission

^AI  Mexico

^AJ  Mongolia

^AK  Nauru

^AL  Nepal

^AM  Netherlands

  • In 1948 the Netherlands Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) issued a report of war losses. They listed 210,000 direct war casualties in the Netherlands, not including the Dutch East Indies.

 Military deaths 6,750 which included 3,900 regular Army, 2,600 Navy forces, and 250 POW in Germany.
 Civilian deaths of 203,250 which included 1,350 Merchant seaman, 2,800 executed, 2,500 dead in Dutch concentration camps,
  20,400 killed by acts of war, 104,000 Jewish Holocaust dead, 18,000 political prisoners in Germany, 27,000 workers in Germany,
  3,700 Dutch nationals in the German armed forces and 7,500 missing and presumed dead in Germany and 16,000 deaths
  in the Dutch famine of 1944. Not Included in the figure of 210,000 war dead are 70,000 "indirect war casualties",
  which are attributed to an increase in natural deaths from 1940–1945 and 1,650 foreign nationals killed while serving in the
  Dutch Merchant Marine [101]

^AN  Newfoundland

^AO  New Zealand

^AP  Norway

  • According to Norwegian government sources the war dead were 10,200 [106]

 Military(Norwegian & Allied Forces) 2,000 (800 Army, 900 Navy and 100 Air). [106]
 Civilians 7,500 (3,600 Merchant seaman, 1,500 resistance fighters, 1,800 civilians killed and 600 Jews killed) [106]
 In German Armed Forces 700 [106]

^AQ  Papua New Guinea

^AR  Philippines

^AS  Poland

Total Polish war dead

Polish losses during the Soviet occupation (1939–1941)

Polish military casualties

^AT  Timor

^AU  Romania

^AV  Ruanda Urundi

^AW  South Africa

^AX   South Pacific Mandate

The following notes summarize Soviet casualties, the details are presented in World War II casualties of the Soviet Union

^AZ  Spain

^BA  Sweden

^BB  Switzerland

^BC  Thailand

^BD  Turkey

. ^BE  United Kingdom and Colonies

  • The official UK report on war casualties of June 1946 provided a summary of the UK war losses, excluding colonies. This report (HMSO 6832) listed: [300] [588]

 Total war dead of 357,116; Navy (50,758); Army (144,079); Air Force (69,606); Women's Auxiliary Territorial Service (624);
  Merchant Navy (30,248); British Home Guard (1,206) and Civilians (60,595).
 The total still missing on 2/28/1946 were 6,244; Navy (340); Army (2,267); Air Force (3,089); Women's Auxiliary Territorial Service (18);
  Merchant Navy (530); British Home Guard (0) and Civilians (0).
  These figures included the losses of Newfoundland and Southern Rhodesia.
  Colonial forces are not included in these figures.
  There were an additional 31,271 military deaths due to "natural causes" which are not included in these figures.
  Deaths due to air and V-rocket attacks were 60,595 civilians and 1,206 British Home Guard.

^BF  United States
American military dead# ^BF1

American civilian dead # ^BF2

^BG  Yugoslavia

The losses of Yugoslav collaborators

The reasons for the high human toll in Yugoslavia were as follows A. Military operations between the occupying German military forces and their "Quislings and collaborators" against the Yugoslav resistance. [160]
B. German forces, under express orders from Hitler, fought with a special vengeance against the Serbs, who were considered Untermensch. [160] One of the worst one-day massacres during the German military occupation of Serbia was the Kragujevac massacre.
C. Deliberate acts of reprisal against target populations were perpetrated by all combatants. All sides practiced the shooting of hostages on a large scale. At the end of the war, many Ustaše and Slovene collaborators were killed in or as a result of the Bleiburg repatriations. [160]
D. The systematic extermination of large numbers of people for political, religious or racial reasons. The most numerous victims were Serbs. [160] According to Yad Vashem, "During their four years in power, the Ustasa carried out a Serb genocide, exterminating over 500,000, expelling 250,000 and forcing another 200,000 to convert to Catholicism. The Ustasa also killed most of Croatia's Jews, 20,000 Gypsies, and many thousands of their political enemies." [622] According to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum "The Croat authorities murdered between 320,000 and 340,000 ethnic Serb residents of Croatia and Bosnia during the period of Ustaša rule; more than 30,000 Croatian Jews were killed either in Croatia or at Auschwitz-Birkenau". [623] The USHMM reports between 77,000 and 99,000 persons were killed at the Jasenovac and Stara Gradiška concentration camps. [624] The Jasenovac Memorial Site quotes a similar figure of between 80,000 and 100,000 victims. Stara Gradiška was a sub-camp of Jasenovac established for women and children. [625] The names and data for 12,790 victims at Stara Gradiška have been established http://www.jusp-jasenovac.hr/Default.aspx?sid=6751 Serbian sources currently claim that 700,000 persons were murdered at Jasenovac [625]
Some 40,000 Roma were murdered. [626] Jewish victims in Yugoslavia totaled 67,122. [627]
E. Reduced food supply caused famine and disease. [160]
F. Allied bombing of German supply lines caused civilian casualties. The hardest hit localities were Podgorica, Leskovac, Zadar and Belgrade. [160]
G. The demographic losses due to the reduction of 335,000 births and emigration of about 660,000 are not included with war casualties. [160]

^BH  Other Nations

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