Military production during World War II

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Russian women working in city factory at the height of the Siege of Leningrad RIAN archive 348 During the siege.jpg
Russian women working in city factory at the height of the Siege of Leningrad
Assembly line of Messerschmitt Bf 109G-6s fighters in a German aircraft factory Bundesarchiv Bild 101I-638-4221-06, Produktion von Messerschmitt Bf 109.jpg
Assembly line of Messerschmitt Bf 109G-6s fighters in a German aircraft factory

Military production during World War II includes the arms, ammunitions, personnel and financing which were mobilized for the war. Military production, in this article, means everything produced by the belligerents from the occupation of Austria in early 1938 to the surrender and occupation of Japan in late 1945.


The mobilization of funds, people, natural resources and materiel for the production and supply of military equipment and military forces during World War II was a critical component of the war effort. During the conflict, the Allies outpaced the Axis powers in most production categories. Access to the funding and industrial resources necessary to sustain the war effort was linked to their respective economic and political alliances. As formerly neutral powers (such as the United States) joined the escalating conflict, territory changed hands, combatants were defeated, the balance of power shifted in favour of the Allies (as did the means to sustain the military production required to win the war).

World War II 1939–1945 global war

World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 70 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.

Allies of World War II Grouping of the victorious countries of World War II

The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945). The Allies promoted the alliance as a means to control German, Japanese and Italian aggression.

Axis powers Alliance of countries defeated in World War II

The Axis powers, also known as "Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis", were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allies. The Axis powers agreed on their opposition to the Allies, but did not completely coordinate their activity.

Historical context

German poster entitled "Designing and Building the East" Bundesarchiv R 49 Bild-0025, Ausstellung "Planung und Aufbau im Osten", Schautafel.jpg
German poster entitled "Designing and Building the East"

During the 1930s, political forces in Germany increased their financial investment in the military to develop the armed forces required to support near- and long-term political and territorial goals. Germany's economic, scientific, research and industrial capabilities were one of the most technically advanced in the world at the time and supported a rapidly growing, innovative military. However, access to (and control of) the resources and production capacity required to entertain long-term goals (such as European control, German territorial expansion and the destruction of the USSR) were limited. Political demands necessitated the expansion of Germany's control of natural and human resources, industrial capacity and farmland beyond its borders. Germany's military production was tied to resources outside its area of control, a dynamic not found amongst the Allies.

British Empire in 1921 British Empire 1921.png
British Empire in 1921

In 1938 Britain was a global superpower, with political and economic control of a quarter of the world's population, industry and resources, in addition to its close allies in the independent Dominion nations (such as Canada and South Africa). From 1938 to mid-1942, the British coordinated the Allied effort in all global theatres. They fought the German, Italian, Japanese and Vichy armies, air forces and navies across Europe, Africa, Asia, the Middle East, India, the Mediterranean and in the Atlantic, Indian, Pacific and Arctic Oceans. British forces destroyed Italian armies in North and East Africa and occupied overseas colonies of occupied European nations. Following engagements with Axis forces, British Empire troops occupied Libya, Italian Somaliland, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Iran and Iraq. The Empire funded and delivered needed supplies by Arctic convoys to the USSR, and supported Free French forces to recapture French Equatorial Africa. Britain also established governments in exile in London to rally support in occupied Europe for the Allied effort. The British held back or slowed the Axis powers for three years while mobilising their globally integrated economy and industrial infrastructure to build what became, by 1942, the most extensive military apparatus of the war. This allowed their later allies (such as the United States) to mobilise their economies and develop the military forces required to play a role in the war effort, and for the British to go on the offensive in its theatres of operation.

The first atomic bomb Trinity atmospheric nucleat test - July 1945 - Flickr - The Official CTBTO Photostream.jpg
The first atomic bomb

The entry of the United States into the war in late 1941 injected financial, human and industrial resources into Allied operations. The US produced more than its own military forces required and armed itself and its allies for the most industrialized war in history. [1] At the beginning of the war, the British and French placed large orders for aircraft with American manufacturers and the US Congress approved plans to increase its air forces by 3,000 planes. In May 1940, Franklin D. Roosevelt called for the production of 185,000 aeroplanes,120,000 tanks, 55,000 anti-aircraft guns and 18 million tons of merchant shipping in two years. Adolf Hitler was told by his advisors that this was American propaganda; in 1939, annual aircraft production for the US military was less than 3,000 planes. By the end of the war US factories had produced 300,000 planes, [2] [3] and by 1944 had produced two-thirds of the Allied military equipment used in the war[ citation needed ] — bringing military forces into play in North and South America, the Caribbean, the Atlantic, Western Europe and the Pacific.

Franklin D. Roosevelt 32nd president of the United States

Franklin Delano Roosevelt, often referred to by the initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd president of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945. A member of the Democratic Party, he won a record four presidential elections and became a central figure in world events during the first half of the 20th century. Roosevelt directed the federal government during most of the Great Depression, implementing his New Deal domestic agenda in response to the worst economic crisis in U.S. history. As a dominant leader of his party, he built the New Deal Coalition, which realigned American politics into the Fifth Party System and defined American liberalism throughout the middle third of the 20th century. His third and fourth terms were dominated by World War II, which ended shortly after he died in office. He is rated by scholars as one of the three greatest U.S. presidents, along with George Washington and Abraham Lincoln, but has also been subject to substantial criticism.

Adolf Hitler Leader of Germany from 1934 to 1945

Adolf Hitler was a German politician and leader of the Nazi Party. He rose to power as Chancellor of Germany in 1933 and later Führer in 1934. During his dictatorship from 1933 to 1945, he initiated World War II in Europe by invading Poland on 1 September 1939. He was closely involved in military operations throughout the war and was central to the perpetration of the Holocaust.

The U.S. produced vast quantities of military equipment into late 1945, including nuclear weapons, and became the strongest, most technologically advanced military forces in the world. In addition to out-producing the Axis, the Allies produced technological innovations; through the Tizard Mission, British contributions included radar (instrumental in winning the Battle of Britain), sonar (improving their ability to sink U-boats), and the proximity fuze; the Americans led the Manhattan Project (which eliminated the need to invade Japan). The proximity fuze, for example, was five times as effective as contact or timed fuzes and was devastating in naval use against Japanese aircraft and so effective against German ground troops that General George S. Patton said it "won the Battle of the Bulge for us." [4]

The Tizard Mission, officially the British Technical and Scientific Mission, was a British delegation that visited the United States during the Second World War in order to obtain the industrial resources to exploit the military potential of the research and development (R&D) work completed by the UK up to the beginning of World War II, but that Britain itself could not exploit due to the immediate requirements of war-related production. It received its popular name from the program's instigator, Henry Tizard. Tizard was a British scientist and chairman of the Aeronautical Research Committee, which had propelled the development of radar.

Radar object detection system based on radio waves

Radar is a detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects. It can be used to detect aircraft, ships, spacecraft, guided missiles, motor vehicles, weather formations, and terrain. A radar system consists of a transmitter producing electromagnetic waves in the radio or microwaves domain, a transmitting antenna, a receiving antenna and a receiver and processor to determine properties of the object(s). Radio waves from the transmitter reflect off the object and return to the receiver, giving information about the object's location and speed.

Battle of Britain 1940 German daylight air bombing campaign attempting to gain air superiority over southern England in order to prepare for invasion or force Britain into an armistice

The Battle of Britain was a military campaign of the Second World War, in which the Royal Air Force (RAF) defended the United Kingdom (UK) against large-scale attacks by Nazi Germany's air force, the Luftwaffe. It has been described as the first major military campaign fought entirely by air forces. The British officially recognise the battle's duration as being from 10 July until 31 October 1940, which overlaps the period of large-scale night attacks known as the Blitz, that lasted from 7 September 1940 to 11 May 1941. German historians do not accept this subdivision and regard the battle as a single campaign lasting from July 1940 to June 1941, including the Blitz.

The human and social costs of the war on the population of the USSR were immense, with combat deaths alone in the millions. Recognising the importance of their population and industrial production to the war effort, the USSR evacuated the majority of its European territory—moving 2,500 factories, 17 million people and great quantities of resources to the east. [5] Out of German reach, the USSR produced equipment and forces critical to the Axis defeat in Europe. Over one million women served in the Soviet armed forces.

Assembly line production of fighter aircraft near Niagara Falls, New York Airacobra P39 Assembly LOC 02902u.jpg
Assembly line production of fighter aircraft near Niagara Falls, New York

The statistics below illustrate the extent to which the Allies outproduced the Axis. Production of machine tools tripled, and thousands of ships were built in shipyards which did not exist before the war. [6] According to William S. Knudsen, "We won because we smothered the enemy in an avalanche of production, the like of which he had never seen, nor dreamed possible." [7]

William S. Knudsen American executive in the automotive industry, commissioned as a lieutenant general in the U.S. Army during WWII to help direct industrial production

William Signius Knudsen was a leading automotive industry executive and an American general during World War II. His experience and success as a key senior manager in the operations sides of Ford Motor Company and later General Motors led the Franklin Roosevelt Administration to directly commission him as a lieutenant general in the United States Army to help lead the United States' war materiel production efforts for World War II.

Access to resources and large, controlled international labour pools and the ability to build arms in relative peace were critical to the eventual victory of the Allies. Donald Douglas (founder of the Douglas Aircraft Company) declared, "Here's proof that free men can out-produce slaves." [8]

Production summaries 1939–1945


Auxiliary force30,000
Merchant Marine50,000

Major weapons groups

Tanks, self-propelled artillery, vehicles4,358,649670,288
Artillery, mortars, guns6,792,6961,363,491
Missiles(only for test)45,458


In thousands of international dollars, at 2014 prices.[ citation needed ]



Vital commerce and raw materials

To move raw materials and supply distant forces, large numbers of cargo ships had to be built WSA Photo 4235.jpg
To move raw materials and supply distant forces, large numbers of cargo ships had to be built
Cargo ships47,11812,762
Merchant shipping46,817,1725,621,967
Crude oil1,043,000,00066,000,000

Production overview: service, power and type

Land forces

PowerTanks & SPGsArmoured vehiclesOther vehiclesArtilleryMortarsMachine gunsPersonnel
British Empire47,86247,4201,475,521226,113239,5401,090,41011,192,533
USA and territories108,4102,382,311257,390105,0552,679,84010,000,000
(excluding 6 million
sub-machine guns)
Germany and territories67,42949,777159,14773,484674,2801,000,73016,540,835
Italian Empire3,36883,0007,20022,000
Japanese Empire4,524165,94513,35029,000380,000

Air forces

PowerTotal AircraftFightersAttackBombersReconTransportTrainingOtherPersonnel
British Empire177,02538,78633,81138,1587,01412,58546,2564151,927,395
USA and territories295,959 [10] 99,46596,8724,10623,90058,08513,5312,403,806 [11]
Germany and territories133,38757,6538,99128,5775,0258,39614,31111,3613,402,200
Italian Empire13,4029,157343,3813882,4719683
Japanese Empire64,48433,4059,55811,9433,7091,0733,4201,376
PowerTotal large shipsCarriersBattleshipsCruisersDestroyersFrigates

& Destroyer Escorts

CorvettesSloopsPatrol boatsSubmarinesDe/ MiningLanding craftPersonnel
British Empire885 [note 1] 6520101461209387334,2092381,2449,5381,227,415
USA and territories1216124(101)237237744024535,000x
USSR2 [note 2] 22552
Germany & territories12171,1525401,500,000
Italian Empire136663
Japanese Empire182963199
Axis       1,416


Munitions Production in World War II
(Expenditures in billions of dollars, US 1944 munitions prices)
Allies Total2.410.020.041.564.570.5204.4
Axis Total2.

Source: Goldsmith data in Harrison (1988) p. 172

Commercial forces

British EmpireUSAUSSRGermanyHungaryItalyJapanRomania
Harbour craft1,092
Cargo tonnage12,823,942 [ citation needed ]33,993,230 [12] 1,469,606 [ citation needed ]4,152,361 [13]


CountryCoalIron oreCrude oilSteelAluminiumNickelZinc
Britain [14] 1,441.2119.290.83.7000.205
India [15]
Canada101.93.68.416.43.500 [16]
New Zealand [17] 18
USSR590.871.3110.60.263 [18] 0.069 [19] 0.384 [19]
Total Allied4581.45971043
Germany2,420.3240.733.4 [20] 1.9 [21] 0.046 [21] 2.1 [21]
Total Axis2629.9291

All figures in millions of tonnes

Reference data for summary tables

Ratio of GDP between the major Allied and Axis powers 1938-1945 WorldWarII-GDP-Relations-Allies-Axis-simple.svg
Ratio of GDP between the major Allied and Axis powers 1938–1945


GDP provides insight into the relative strength of the belligerents in the run up to, and during the conflict.

Gross domestic product [nb 1] [22] [23]
United Kingdom284287316344353361346331
British Empire684687716744753761746731
French Empire235248131179165159142150
Soviet Union359366417359274305362343
Soviet Union Total359366417359274305362343
United States80086994310941235139914991474
United States Total82489396811181259142315231498
Nationalist China320.5
German Reich351384387412417426437310
German Reich Total35146181711451150856681310
Italian Empire144154170167168160140115
Japanese Empire232247255259260257252207

Romanian, Hungarian, Bulgarian and Albanian GDP calculated by multiplying the GDP per capita of the four countries in 1938 ($1,242 for Romania, $2,655 for Hungary, $1,595 for Bulgaria and over $900 for Albania) [24] by their estimated populations in 1938: 19,750,000 for Romania, [25] 9,082,400 for Hungary, [26] 6,380,000 for Bulgaria [27] and 1,040,400 for Albania. [28]

  1. Billions of international dollars, at 1990 prices. Adjusted annually for changing compositions within each alliance.

Table notes

  1. France to Axis: 1940:50% (light green), 1941–44:100% (brown)
  2. USSR to Allies: 1941:44% (light green), 1942–1945:100%.
  3. US direct support to the Allies begins with Lend Lease in March 1941, though the US made it possible for the Allies to purchase US-produced materiel from 1939 [29]
  4. Italy to Allies and Axis: 1938:0%, 1939–1943:100% Axis (brown), 1944-1945:100% Allies
  5. Japanese to Axis begins with Tripartite Pact in 1940
  6. The Allied and Axis totals are not the immediate sum of the table values; see the distribution rules[ clarification needed ] used above.

United States World War II GDP (compared to other countries)

GDP during World War II

US unemployment during World War II

Price of war

Many concerns and political influence come from the price of war. While GDP can easily increase Federal expenditures, it also can influence political elections and government decision making. No matter how much percentages of GDP increase or decrease we need higher amounts of GDP in order to pay for more investments, one of those investments being more wars. To pay for these wars, taxes are held at a very high rate. For example, by the end of World War II tax rates went from 1.5% to 15%. Along with tax percentages reaching high amounts, spending on non-defense programs were cut in half during the period of World War II. Tax cuts allow one to see GDP in effect for the average American. Still, almost ten years after World War II, in 1950 and 1951 congress raised taxes close to 4% in order to pay for the Korean War. After the Korean War, in 1968 taxes again were raised 10% to pay for the Vietnam War. This caused GDP to raise 1%. Although research can support positive relationship between production and jobs with GDP, research can also show the negative relationship with tax increases and GDP. [36]

US Wartime Production

Prior to the Second World War, the United States was cautious with regard to its manufacturing capabilities as the country was still recovering from the Great Depression. However, during the war, Franklin Roosevelt set ambitious production goals to fulfill. The early 1940s were set to have 60,000 aircraft increasing to 125,000 in 1943. In addition, targets for the production of 120,000 tanks and 55,000 aircraft were set during the same time period. The Ford Motor Company in Michigan built one motor car (comprising 15,000 parts) on the assembly lines every 69 seconds. Ford's production contributed to America's total production of vehicles totalling three million in 1941. American production numbers caused the US employed workforce to increase massively. America's yearly production exceeded Japan's production building more planes in 1944 than Japan built in all the war years combined. As a result, half of the world's war production came from America. The government paid for this production using techniques of selling war bonds to financial institutions, rationing household items and creating more tax revenues. Some contribution to the US wartime manufacturing boom can be ascribed to the prior creation of the Alcoa plant in the 1930s. The Alcoa plant prepared thousands of tons of aluminum used for the production of 304,000 aeroplanes during the war. The United States quickly adjusted to the levels of production required to equip its military with the millions of war products used during World War II. [37]

Personnel – Allied – Britain, dominions and possessions

Including all non-British subjects in British services. [38]

ArmyArmy (female)NavyNavy (female)MarinesAir ForceAir Force (female)AuxiliaryMerchant marinePartisansTotal combatOther labour
Argentine volunteers [39] 1,7001,7006004,000
Free Belgian Forces 42,3001,2001,90045,770370
B. Indian Ocean6,5006,500
Caribbean / Bermuda10,000
Chinese volunteers10,00010,000
Czech volunteers4,0002,0006,000
East Africa200,000228,000
Free French Forces 3,700203,720
Free Greek 5,0008,50025014,000
Guiana, British 321042334819631
Hong Kong2,2002,200
Lesoto 21,00021,000
Free Luxembourg 8080
Free Dutch 4,0001,00010006,000


  1. Auxiliary units include Home Guard, Reserves, Police regiments, etc.

Personnel – Axis – German Reich

This includes all German and non-German subjects serving within German Reich forces.

ArmyArmy (female)NavyNavy (female)MarinesAir forceAir force (female)AuxiliaryMerchant marinePartisansTotal combatOther labour
Arab legion20,00020,000
Finland vol2,5002,500
France & territories8,0004,5005,08017,580348,500
Germany & territories14,793,2001,500,0003,400,00019,693,200
German Reich16,336,7551,506,5003,402,200204,08021,505,500348,000


  1. Auxiliary units include Home Guard, Wehrmachtsgefolge, Reserves, Police regiments, etc.
  2. USSR includes Armenia 4k SS,14k Wehr, 7k Aux; Azerbaijan 55k SS, 70k Wehr; Belarus 12k Wehr, 20k Aux; Cossack 200k Wehr; Estonia 20k SS, 50k Wehr, 7k Aux; Georgia 10k SS; 30k Wehr; Kalmyk 5k Wehr; Latvia 55k SS; 87k Wehr, 300 Air, 23k Aux; Lithuania 50k Wehr, 10 Aux; North Caucuses 4k SS; Russia 60k SS, 26k Wehr; Turkestan 16k Wehr; Ukrainian 300k Wehr; 2k Aux; Tatar/Urals 12k Wehr

Aircraft – Allied – British Empire

Within the UK, initially aircraft production was very vulnerable to enemy bombing. To expand and diversify the production base the British set up "Shadow factories". These brought other manufacturing companies – such as vehicle manufacturers – into aircraft production, or aircraft parts production. These inexperienced companies were set up in groups under the guidance or control of the aircraft manufacturers. New factory buildings were provided with government money. [40]

Bristol Blenheim [note 3] 5,5196266,145
CAC Boomerang 250250
Bristol Brigand 147147
Boulton Paul Defiant [note 4] 1,0651065
Blackburn Firebrand 230230
Fairey Firefly 872872
Fairey Fulmar 600600
de Havilland Hornet [note 5] 197197
Gloster Meteor 250250
North American Mustang 200200
Blackburn Roc 136136
Supermarine Seafire [note 6] 2,3342,334
Gloster Gladiator [note 7] 9898
Supermarine Spitfire 20,35120,351 [41]
Hawker Tempest 1,7021,702
de Havilland Vampire 244244
Westland Whirlwind [note 8] 116116
Bristol Beaufighter 3645,5645,928
Curtiss SB2C Helldiver 1,1341,134
Hawker Hurricane [note 9] 14,2311,45115,682
de Havilland Mosquito 2126,1991,1347,545
Blackburn Skua 192192
Hawker Typhoon 3,3303,330
Fairey Albacore 800800
Fairey Barracuda 2,6072,607
Bristol Beaufort 7001,4292,129
Bristol Buckingham 119119
Handley Page Halifax 6,178 [note 10] 6,178
Handley Page Hampden [note 11] 1,2701601,430
Handley Page Hampden 152152
Avro Lancaster 7,3074307,377
Avro Lincoln [note 5] 735301604
Avro Manchester 202202
Short Stirling 2,3832,383
Fairey Swordfish [note 11] 2,3962,396
Vickers Wellington [note 11] 11,46111,461
Armstrong Whitworth Whitley [note 11] 1,7801,780
& patrol
Taylorcraft Auster 1,8001,800
Bristol Bolingbroke [note 12] 676626
Bristol Bombay [note 13] 5151
Blackburn Botha 580580
Piper Cub 150150
Saro Lerwick 2121
Hawker Osprey 99
Consolidated Canso 721 [42] 993
Supermarine Sea Otter 292292
Short Seaford 1010
Blackburn Shark 1717
Supermarine Stranraer 174057
Short Sunderland 767767
Supermarine Walrus 746746
Vickers Warwick 845845
de Havilland Albatross 77
Armstrong Whitworth Albemarle 602602
CAC Gliders88
Northrop/Canadian Vickers Delta 1919
De Havilland Australia DHA-G1/G2 88
de Havilland Dragon 8787
de Havilland Dragon Rapide/Dominie474474
Short Empire 4242
Armstrong Whitworth Ensign 1515
de Havilland Flamingo 1414
Fleet 50 Freighter 55
General Aircraft Hamilcar [note 14] 412412
Slingsby Hengist 1818
Airspeed Horsa [note 14] 5,0005,000
General Aircraft Hotspur 1,0151,015
Avro Lancastrian 82682
Westland Lysander 1,4452251,670
Miles Messenger 9393
Miles Monarch 1111
Miles Monitor 2222
Noorduyn Norseman 861861
Short S.26 33
Avro York 2591259
Avro Anson 8,4883,19711,685
Fairey Battle [note 15] 2,201
Bristol Buckmaster 112
Fairchild Cornell (PT-19/26)1,642
de Havilland Don 30
Fleet Finch 606
Fleet Fort 101
Harlow PC-5 550
North American Harvard 3,985
Miles Magister 1,303
Miles Martinet 1,724
Miles Master 3,250
Miles Mentor 45
de Havilland Moth Minor 100
Airspeed Oxford 8,586
Percival Proctor 1,143
de Havilland Tiger Moth 1,0805,7381,7481508,716
Avions Fairey Tipsy B 15
CAC Wackett 202
CAC Wirraway 755
Prototypes [note 16] 2361
213 [note 17] 400 [note 18] 415

Aircraft – Allies – France, Poland and minor powers

Production numbers until the time of the German occupation of the respective country. Some types listed were in production before the war, those listed were still in production at the time of or after the Munich crisis.

Avia B.534-IV/Bk.534 274
Caudron CR.714 90
Dewoitine D.520 403
Fokker D.XXI 10110120
Koolhoven F.K.58 20 [note 19]
Avions Fairey Fox VI/VII106
Fokker G.I 63
Hawker Hurricane I1520
Ikarus IK-2 12
Rogozarski IK-3 12
Bloch MB.151/152 636
Morane-Saulnier MS.406 1,077
Potez 630/631 280
PZL.50 Jastrząb (6) [note 20]
PZL P.24 118 [note 21]
Arsenal VG.33/36/39 40 [note 22]
Total121274102,526193119 (+5)443,287 [note 23]
Breguet Br.690 230
Laté 298 121
Loire-Nieuport LN.40 68
Fairey P.4/34 (12) [note 24]
Rogožarski PVT [note 25] 61
Total(12)41961480 [note 26]
Aero A.101 64
Aero A.304 19
Amiot 351/354 80
Avia B-71 61
Fairey Battle I18 [note 27]
Fokker C.X/Fokker C.XI 53
Dornier Do 17K70
Farman F.222.2/F.223 25
LeO 45 452
LWS-6 Żubr 17
Bloch MB.131 143
Bloch MB.174/175 79
Bloch MB.210 298
Potez 633 55
PZL.37 120
PZL.43 54 [note 28]
PZL.46 2 [note 29]
Rogožarski SIM-XIV-H 19
Fokker T.V 16
Fokker T.VIII 36

Aircraft - Axis - All

Occupied countries produced weapons for the Axis powers. Figures are for the period of occupation only.

Mitsubishi A6M Zero 10,939
Nakajima A6M2-N 327
Arado Ar 240 14
Avia B-135 12
Avia B-534 78
Bachem Ba 349 36 [note 30]
Messerschmitt Bf 109 33,14230933,984
Messerschmitt Bf 110 6,1706,170
Macchi C.200/Macchi C.202/Macchi C.205 2,766
Fiat CR.25 12
Fiat CR.42 1,782
Dewoitine D.520 [note 31] 440
Dornier Do 17Z-7/Z-1012
Dornier Do 335 37
Caproni Vizzola F.5 14
Koolhoven F.K.52 6
Focke-Wulf Fw 190 20,000
Fiat G.50 666
Fiat G.55 305
Heinkel He 100 [note 32] 25
Heinkel He 112 60
Heinkel He 162 320
Heinkel He 219 300
IAR 80 346
Nakajima J1N 479
Mitsubishi J2M 621
Kawasaki Ki-10 283
Nakajima Ki-27 3,399
Nakajima Ki-43 5,919
Nakajima Ki-44 1,227
Kawasaki Ki-45 1,701
Kawasaki Ki-61 3,159
Nakajima Ki-84 3,514
Kawasaki Ki-100 395
Bloch MB.150 [note 31] 35
Messerschmitt Me 163 /Mitsubishi J8M 3707377
Messerschmitt Me 262 1,430
Mörkö-Morane [note 33] 41
Morane-Saulnier MS.410 [note 34] 74
Kawanishi N1K 1,435
PZL P.24 252550
Reggiane Re.2000, 2001, 2002 & 2005 204531735
IMAM Ro.44 35
IMAM Ro.57 75
Ambrosini SAI.207 14
Focke-Wulf Ta 152 & Focke-Wulf Ta 154 200these are unrelated types.
VL Myrsky 51
VL Pyry 41
Nakajima B5N 1,149
Nakajima B6N 1,268
Aichi B7A 114
Breda Ba.65 218
Breda Ba.88 149
Aichi D3A 1,486
Yokosuka D4Y 2,038
CANSA FC.12 11
Heinkel He 115 138
Heinkel He 118 [note 35] 15
Henschel Hs 123 [note 36] 250
Henschel Hs 129 865
Junkers Ju 87 Stuka6,500
Mitsubishi Ki-51 2,385
Kawasaki Ki-102 238
Aichi M6A 28
Messerschmitt Me 210 [note 37] 400272672
Messerschmitt Me 410 [note 38] 1,189
Yokosuka MXY7 852
Fiat RS.14 188
Savoia-Marchetti SM.85 34
Aero A.304 4
Arado Ar 234 210
Bloch MB.174/175 [note 39] 38
Fiat BR.20 602
Caproni Ca.135 140
Caproni Ca.309-314 1,516
Dornier Do 22 30
Dornier Do 17E/F405
Dornier Do 17K14
Dornier Do 17M/P/R/S/U448
Dornier Do 17Z875
Dornier Do 215 105
Dornier Do 217 1,025
Fieseler Fi 167 14
Focke-Wulf Fw 200 276
Mitsubishi G3M 1,048
Mitsubishi G4M 2,435
Heinkel He 111 7,300
Heinkel He 177 1,190
IAR 37 380
Junkers Ju 88/188/388 16,517
Kaproni-Bulgarski KB.6 24
Mitsubishi Ki-21 2,064
Mitsubishi Ki-30 704
Kawasaki Ki-32 854
Kawasaki Ki-48 1,997
Nakajima Ki-49 819
Mitsubishi Ki-67/Mitsubishi Ki-109 767
LeO 45 [note 31] 162
Piaggio P.108 35
Yokosuka P1Y 1,102
Kyushu Q1W 153
Letov Š-328 80
Savoia-Marchetti SM.79 1,35064
Savoia-Marchetti SM.82 [note 40] 379
Savoia-Marchetti SM.84 246
Weiss WM-21 128
CANT Z.506B320
CANT Z.1007 660
CANT Z.1018 15

Propaganda posters

See also


  1. Naval History of WW2 Royal Navy
  2. Two battlecruisers of Kronshtadt-class laid down but never progressed
  3. The majority of Blenheims were built as light bombers
  4. Total includes 140 unarmed Defiants produced as target tugs
  5. 1 2 includes post-war production
  6. Includes some post-war production and conversions of Spitfires
  7. wartime production. Majority of Gladiators in service were built before the war. 165 additional to export customers. Sea Gladiator conversions and production listed in Sea Gladiator entry.
  8. changed to ground attack role during war
  9. up to 1942 the Hurricane was chiefly used as a fighter aircraft
  10. includes transport and Coastal Command reconnaissance versions
  11. 1 2 3 4 Includes pre-war production
  12. Blenheim variant, includes 457 produced as trainers
  13. light bomber/transport used in Middle East and Mediterranean theatres
  14. 1 2 assault gliders generally not reusable following use
  15. Initially used as light bomber e.g. during Battle of France
  16. Including: Arpin A-1 (1) , Airspeed Cambridge (2), Airspeed Fleet Shadower (1), Avro Tudor (2), Blackburn B-20 (1), Boulton Paul P.92 (1), Burnelli CBY-3 (2), CAC Woomera, Australia (2), Chrislea Airguard (1) , de Havilland Dove (1), de Havilland T.K.5 (1) , Fairey Spearfish (5), Fane F.1/40 (1), General Aircraft Cagnet (1), General Aircraft Owlet (1), General Aircraft Fleet Shadower (1), General Aircraft GAL.47 (1), General Aircraft GAL.55 (2), General Aircraft GAL.56 (4), Canadian Car and Foundry FDB-1, Canada (1), Gloster F.5/34 (2) , Gloster F.9/37 (2) , Handley Page Manx (1), Hawker Hotspur (1), Hawker Tornado (4), Miles M.20 (2), Miles X Minor (1), Miles M.35 (1), Miles M.39 (1), Miles LR 5 (1), Parnall 382 (1), Reid and Sigrist R.S.1/2 (2), Saro A33 (1), Saro Shrimp (1), Short Shetland (2), Supermarine Type 322 (2), Vickers Type 432 (1), Vickers VC.1 Viking (1), Vickers Windsor (3)
  17. includes: CCF Maple Leaf Trainer II (2 plus 10 built in Mexico )
  18. includes: Folland Fo.108 engine test bed (12), General Aircraft Cygnet (10), General Aircraft Monospar ST-25 (30)[ clarification needed ], Hawker Henley (200)[ clarification needed ], Hawker Sea Fury (10), Miles M.15 (2), Miles M.18 (3) , Miles Mercury (6), Percival Petrel (27), Percival Vega Gull (~20), Supermarine Spiteful fighter (19)
  19. Delivered to France.
  20. First prototype incomplete by German occupation.
  21. Only 1 (designated P.11g) used by Poland in 1939. The remaining ones were exported to various Balkan countries.
  22. Around 200 more airframes were in advanced production stage.
  23. not counting uncompleted PZL.50
  24. Production was started in Denmark, but not completed before the German invasion.
  25. Originally an advanced fighter-training aircraft, this type was later used as a light attack plane, in particular by the Air Force of the Independent State of Croatia.
  26. not counting P.4/34
  27. According to some sources license production started in Denmark but not completed before the German invasion.
  28. All but 5 delivered to Bulgaria.
  29. Prototypes that were used in combat.
  30. Never entered service
  31. 1 2 3 Number refers to production resumed after German occupation.
  32. Produced shortly before the war and mainly used for testing and propaganda purposes.
  33. Conversion from MS.406/410.
  34. Conversion from MS.406.
  35. Produced before the war and 2 used by Japanese for testing.
  36. All produced before the war, but used until 1944.
  37. Only 90 German-built Me 210 were completed and delivered, about 100 Hungarian-built were supplied to Germany
  38. Also used as a fighter and for reconnaissance
  39. Produced for Germany after German occupation.
  40. Only bomber versions listed here.


  1. Herman, Arthur. Freedom's Forge: How American Business Produced Victory in World War II, p. IX, Random House, New York, NY, 2012. ISBN   978-1-4000-6964-4.
  2. Parker, Dana T. Building Victory: Aircraft Manufacturing in the Los Angeles Area in World War II, p. 7, Cypress, CA, 2013. ISBN   978-0-9897906-0-4.
  3. Wrynn, V. Dennis. Forge of Freedom: American Aircraft Production in World War II, pp. 4-5, Motorbooks International, Osceola, WI, 1995. ISBN   0-7603-0143-3.
  4. Baldwin, Ralph B. The Deadly Fuze: Secret Weapon of World War II, pp. 4-6, 11, 50, 279, Presidio Press, San Rafael, California, 1980. ISBN   978-0-89141-087-4.
  5. Kumanev, G.A., "War and the evacuation of the USSR: 1941-1942", New Age, 2006
  6. Sawyer, L. A. and Mitchell, W. H. The Liberty Ships: The History of the "Emergency" Type Cargo Ships Constructed in the United States During the Second World War, Second Edition, pp. vii, 1-8, Lloyd's of London Press Ltd., London, England, 1985. ISBN   1-85044-049-2.
  7. Parker, Dana T. Building Victory: Aircraft Manufacturing in the Los Angeles Area in World War II, pp. 5, 7, Cypress, CA, 2013. ISBN   978-0-9897906-0-4.
  8. Parker, Dana T. Building Victory: Aircraft Manufacturing in the Los Angeles Area in World War II, p. 8, Cypress, California, 2013. ISBN   978-0-9897906-0-4.
  9. "Financial Calculators".
  10. Office of Statistical Control. Army Air Force Statistical Digest, World War II. p. 127.
  11. Office of Statistical Control. Army Air Force Statistical Digest. p. 16.
  12. "Why Japan Really Lost The War". Combined Fleet. Retrieved 2018-06-18.
  13. "Why Japan Really Lost The War". Combined Fleet. Retrieved 2018-06-18.
  14. Mitchell, B.R. British Historical Statistics, 1988 [ page needed ]
  16. Dialogue on Aluminium 110 years of history in Canada approximation
  17. Baker The New Zealand People at War: War Economy 1965 [ page needed ]
  18. Lend Lease as a Function of the Soviet war Economy
  19. 1 2 Accounting for War: Soviet Production, Employment and the Defense Burden, 1940-1945 Mark Harrison, 1996
  20. Including 23.4 synthetic.
  21. 1 2 3 Volume 3 -The Effects of Strategic Bombing on the German War Economy 1940-1944 only, retrieved June 8, 2014
  22. "Comparison of GDP adjusted for actual yearly shared contribution to war efforts after Zuljan, Ralph, Allied and Axis GDP", "Articles On War",, 2003, retrieved June 8, 2014
  23. Harrison, 1998
  24. Stephen Broadberry, Kevin H. O'Rourke, The Cambridge Economic History of Modern Europe: Volume 2, 1870 to the Present, p. 190
  25. ROMANIA: historical demographical data of the whole country
  26. HUNGARY: historical demographical data of the whole country
  27. BULGARIA historical demographical data of the whole country
  28. ALBANIA: historical demographical data of the whole country
  29. General Article: Foreign Affairs,
  30. "The Economic Consequences of War on US Economy" (PDF). Institute for Economics and Peace. June 2015. Retrieved 6 October 2017.
  31. "Defence Spending since 1900". UK Public Spending. Retrieved 2018-06-18 via Christopher Chantrill.
  32. "The Economic Consequences of War on US Economy" (PDF). Institute of Economics and Peace. June 2015. Retrieved 6 October 2017.
  33. "THE WAR: At Home – War Production". The War At Home Production. PBS. Retrieved 2017-04-12.
  34. "Graph of U.S. Unemployment Rate, 1930-1945". Bureau Of Labor Statistics. HERB: Resources for Teachers. Retrieved 30 November 2017.
  35. Bartlett, Bruce. "The Cost Of War". Forbes. Retrieved 2017-10-26.
  36. "THE WAR: At Home – War Production". PBS. Retrieved 2017-04-12.
  37. Rose, Patrick (2012). The Indian Army, 1939–47: Experience and Development. Routledge.
  38. Granatstein, Dr. J. L. (May 27, 2005). "ARMING THE NATION: CANADA'S INDUSTRIAL WAR EFFORT, 1939-1945" (PDF). Canadian Council of Chief Executives. Retrieved April 5, 2016.
  39. Ethell, Jeffrey L. and Steve Pace. Spitfire. St. Paul, Minnesota: Motorbooks International, 1997. ISBN   0-7603-0300-2. p117
  40. Canso production

Table data

Personnel -Allied - British Empire

Personnel - Axis

Aircraft - Allied

  • Australia
  • Bristol Brigand
  • Free Dutch
  • New Zealand
  • Barnes 1989
  • Bishop 2002
  • Bowyer 1980
  • Butler 2004
  • Flint 2006
  • Green 1967
  • Jackson 1987
  • Jane's 1989
  • Mason 1994
  • Morgan ?
  • Otway 1990
  • Swanborough 1997
  • Tapper 1988
  • The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft, 1985

Aircraft - Axis

  • Comando Supremo: Italy at War
  • Dressel and Griehl 1994
  • Encyclopedia of weapons of World War Two
  • Francillon 1970
  • The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft, 1985
  • Jane's 1989
  • Mondey 1996
  • Smith and Anthony ?

Raw materials

  • The Mineral Industry of the British Empire and Foreign Countries, Statistical Summary 1938-1944, The Imperial Institute, HMSO, 1948
  • The Mineral Industry of the British Empire and Foreign Countries, Statistical Summary 1941-1947, The Imperial Institute, HMSO, 1949

Official histories

  • History of the Second World War (104 volumes), Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London 1949 to 1993
  • Official History of Australia in the War of 1939–1945 (22 volumes), Australian Government Printing Service, 1952 to 1977
  • Official History of the Canadian Army in the Second World War, Vol I Six Years of War, Stacey, C P., Queen's Printer, Ottawa, 1955
  • Official History of the Indian Armed Forces in the Second World War 1939-45 (24 volumes), Combined Inter-Services Historical Section, India & Pakistan, New Delhi, 1956-1966
  • Official History of New Zealand in the Second World War 1939–45, Historical Publications Branch, Wellington, New Zealand, 1965


  • Ailsby, Christopher, Hitler's Renegades: Foreign Nationals in the Service of the Third Reich (Photographic Histories), Potomac Books, 2004
  • Barnett, Correlli, The audit of war : the illusion & reality of Britain as a great nation, Macmillan, 1986
  • Barnes, C.H.; James D.N. Shorts Aircraft since 1900, London, Putnam, 1989
  • Bishop, Chris, The Encyclopaedia of Weapons of World War II, Sterling Publishing, 2002
  • Bowyer, Michael J.F. Aircraft for the Royal Air Force: The "Griffon" Spitfire, The Albemarle Bomber and the Shetland Flying-Boat, London, Faber & Faber, 1980
  • Boyd, David, (2009) "Wartime Production by the Commonwealth during WWII" British Equipment of the Second World War
  • Boyd, David (2009), "British Production of Aircraft By Year During The Second World War", British Equipment of the Second World War
  • Butler, Tony. British Secret Projects: Fighters and Bombers 1935–1950. Hinckley, UK: Midland Publishing, 2004
  • Canada at War, "The Canadian War Industry"
  • Dressel, Joachim and Manfred Griehl. Bombers of the Luftwaffe. London: DAG Publications, 1994
  • Flint, Keith, Airborne Armour: Tetrarch, Locust, Hamilcar and the 6th Airborne Armoured Reconnaissance Regiment 1938-1950. Helion & Company Ltd., 2006
  • Francillon, René J., Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, London, Putnam, 1970
  • Gregg, W.A ed., Canada’s Fighting Vehicles Europe 1943-1945, Canadian Military Historical Society, 1980
  • Green, William. War Planes of The Second World War:Volume Seven - Bombers and Reconnaissance Aircraft. London: Macdonald, 1967
  • Harrison, Mark, "The Economics of World War II: Six Great Powers in International Comparison", Cambridge University Press, 1998 (Author's overview)
  • Herman, Arthur. Freedom's Forge: How American Business Produced Victory in World War II, Random House, New York, 2012
  • The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft (Part Work 1982-1985). London: Orbis Publishing, 1985
  • Jackson, A.J., De Havilland Aircraft since 1909 (Third ed.), London, Putnam, 1987
  • Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War II, London, Studio Editions Ltd, 1989
  • "Les luxembourgeois de la Brigade Piron". (in French) Retrieved 29 June 2013
  • Long, Jason, Lend Lease as a Function of the Soviet war Economy,, Retrieved June 12, 2014
  • Mason, Francis K. The British Bomber since 1914, London: Putnam Aeronautical Books, 1994
  • Milward, Alan S., War, economy, and society, 1939-1945, University of California Press, 1979
  • Morgan, Eric B. "Albemarle" in Twentyfirst Profile, Volume 1, No. 11. New Milton, Hants, UK: 21st Profile Ltd.
  • Munoz, A.J., For Croatia and Christ: The Croatian Army in World War II 1941–1945, Axis Europa Books, NY, 1996
  • Mondey, David. The Concise Guide to Axis Aircraft of World War II. New York: Bounty Books, 1996
  • Ness, Leland, Jane's World War II Tanks and Fighting Vehicles, The Complete Guide, Harper Collins, 2002
  • Otway, Lieutenant-Colonel T.B.H. The Second World War 1939-1945 Army: Airborne Forces. London: Imperial War Museum, 1990
  • Overy, Richard, Why the Allies Won (Paperback), W. W. Norton & Company, 1997
  • Scientia Militaria, South African Journal of Military Studies
  • Smith, J.R. and Anthony L. Kay. German Aircraft of the Second World War. London: Putnam and Company Ltd.,
  • Swanborough, Gordon. British Aircraft at War, 1939-1945. East Sussex, UK: HPC Publishing, 1997
  • Tapper, Oliver. Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft since 1913. London: Putnam, 1988
  • Tomasevich, Jozo, War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941–1945: Occupation and Collaboration 2. San Francisco: Stanford University Press, 2001
  • Veterans Affairs Canada, "Canadian Production of War Materials"
  • Wilson, Stewart, Aircraft of WWII, 1998
  • Wrynn, V. Dennis. Forge of Freedom: American Aircraft Production in World War II, Motorbooks International, Osceola, WI, 1995
  • Zuljan, Ralph, "Allied and Axis GDP" Articles On War (2003)

Related Research Articles

<i>Luftwaffe</i> Aerial warfare branch of the German military forces during World War II

The Luftwaffe was the aerial warfare branch of the combined German Wehrmacht military forces during World War II. Germany's military air arms during World War I, the Luftstreitkräfte of the Army and the Marine-Fliegerabteilung of the Navy had been disbanded in May 1920 as a result of the terms of the Treaty of Versailles which stated that Germany was forbidden to have any air force.

Polish contribution to World War II

The European theatre of World War II opened with the German invasion of Poland on Friday September 1, 1939, which was then followed by the Soviet invasion of Poland on September 17, 1939. In the face of overwhelming forces of opponents and the betrayal of its allies, the Polish Army was defeated after more than a month of fierce fighting. Poland never officially capitulated. After Poland had been overrun, a government-in-exile, armed forces, and an intelligence service were established outside of Poland. These organizations contributed to the Allied effort throughout the war. The Polish Army was recreated in the West, as well as in the East.

Lend-Lease A United States program during World War II which provided countries fighting the Nazis with military equipment free of charge.

The Lend-Lease policy, formally titled An Act to Promote the Defense of the United States, was a program under which the United States supplied the United Kingdom, Free France, the Republic of China, and later the Soviet Union and other Allied nations with food, oil, and materiel between 1941 and August 1945. This included warships and warplanes, along with other weaponry. It was signed into law on March 11, 1941, and ended in September 1945. In general the aid was free, although some hardware were returned after the war. In return, the U.S. was given leases on army and naval bases in Allied territory during the war. Canada operated a similar smaller program called Mutual Aid.

Following the outbreak of World War II on 1 September 1939, the Kingdom of Romania under King Carol II officially adopted a position of neutrality. However, the rapidly changing situation in Europe during 1940, as well as domestic political upheaval, undermined this stance. Fascist political forces such as the Iron Guard rose in popularity and power, urging an alliance with Nazi Germany and its allies. As the military fortunes of Romania's two main guarantors of territorial integrity—France and Britain—crumbled in the Fall of France, the government of Romania turned to Germany in hopes of a similar guarantee, unaware that the then dominant European power had already granted its consent to Soviet territorial claims in a secret protocol of 1939's Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact.

Technology during World War II role played by technology during WW2

Technology played a significant role in World War II. Some of the technologies used during the war were developed during the interwar years of the 1920s and 1930s, much was developed in response to needs and lessons learned during the war, while others were beginning to be developed as the war ended. Many wars had major effects on the technologies that we use in our daily lives. However, compared to previous wars, World War II had the greatest effect on the technology and devices that are used today. Technology also played a greater role in the conduct of World War II than in any other war in history, and had a critical role in its final outcome.

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The European theatre of World War II, also known as the Second European War, was a huge area of heavy fighting across Europe, starting with Germany's invasion of Poland on 1 September 1939 and ending with the Soviet Union conquering most of Eastern Europe and Germany’s unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945. The Allied powers fought the Axis powers on two major fronts as well as in a massive air war and in the adjoining Mediterranean and Middle East theatre.

Eastern Front (World War II) theatre of World War II - war between Germany and USSR 1941-1945

The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union (USSR), Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945. It has been known as the Great Patriotic War in the former Soviet Union and modern Russia, while in Germany it was called the Eastern Front, or the German-Soviet War by outside parties.

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Strategic bombing during World War II

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World War II by country Wikimedia list article

Nearly every country and territory in the world participated in World War II. Most were neutral at the beginning, but only a few nations remained neutral to the end. The Second World War pitted two alliances against each other, the Axis powers and the Allied powers. The leading Axis powers were Nazi Germany, the Kingdom of Italy and the Empire of Japan; while the United Kingdom, the United States, the Soviet Union and China to an extent were the "Big Four" Allied powers.

Mediterranean and Middle East theatre of World War II major theatre of operations during the Second World War

The Mediterranean and Middle East Theatre was a major theatre of operations during the Second World War. The vast size of the Mediterranean and Middle East theatre saw interconnected naval, land, and air campaigns fought for control of the Mediterranean, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, the Middle East and Southern Europe. The fighting in this theatre lasted from 10 June 1940, when Italy entered the war on the side of Germany, until 2 May 1945 when all Axis forces in Italy surrendered. However, fighting would continue in Greece – where British troops had been dispatched to aid the Greek government – during the early stages of the Greek Civil War.

Military history of Canada during World War II

The military history of Canada during World War II begins with the German invasion of Poland on 1 September 1939. While the Canadian Armed Forces were eventually active in nearly every theatre of war, most combat was centred in Italy, Northwestern Europe, and the North Atlantic. In all, some 1.1 million Canadians served in the Canadian Army, Royal Canadian Navy, Royal Canadian Air Force, and in forces across the Commonwealth, with approximately 42,000 killed and another 55,000 wounded. During the war, Canada was subject to direct attack in the Battle of the St. Lawrence, and in the shelling of a lighthouse at Estevan Point in British Columbia.

Kawasaki Ki-32 aircraft

The Kawasaki Ki-32 was a Japanese light bomber aircraft of World War II. It was a single-engine, two-seat, mid-wing, cantilever monoplane with a fixed tailwheel undercarriage. An internal bomb bay accommodated a 300 kg (660 lb) offensive load, supplemented by 150 kg (330 lb) of bombs on external racks. During the war, it was known by the Allies by the name Mary.

Neutral powers during World War II

The neutral powers were countries that remained neutral during World War II. Some of these countries had large colonies abroad or had great economic power. Spain had just been through its civil war, which ended on 1 April 1939 —a war that involved several countries that subsequently participated in World War II.

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to World War II:

Air warfare of World War II major component in all theaters

The air warfare of World War II was a major component in all theaters and, together with anti-aircraft warfare, consumed a large fraction of the industrial output of the major powers. Germany and Japan depended on air forces that were closely integrated with land and naval forces; the Axis powers downplayed the advantage of fleets of strategic bombers, and were late in appreciating the need to defend against Allied strategic bombing. By contrast, Britain and the United States took an approach that greatly emphasised strategic bombing, and tactical control of the battlefield by air, as well as adequate air defences. Both Britain and the U.S. built a strategic force of large, long-range bombers that could carry the air war to the enemy's homeland. Simultaneously, they built tactical air forces that could win air superiority over the battlefields, thereby giving vital assistance to ground troops. The U.S. and Royal Navy also built a powerful naval-air component based on aircraft carriers, as did Japan; these played the central role in the war at sea.

Western Allied Campaign in Romania

The Western Allied Campaign in Romania consisted of war declarations and aerial operations during the Second World War by 8 Western Allied countries against Romania which itself was primarily engaged on the Eastern Front in fighting against the Soviet Union.