Military production during World War II

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Russian women working in city factory at the height of the Siege of Leningrad RIAN archive 348 During the siege.jpg
Russian women working in city factory at the height of the Siege of Leningrad
Assembly line of Messerschmitt Bf 109G-6s fighters in a German aircraft factory Bundesarchiv Bild 101I-638-4221-06, Produktion von Messerschmitt Bf 109.jpg
Assembly line of Messerschmitt Bf 109G-6s fighters in a German aircraft factory

Military production during World War II was the arms, ammunition, personnel and financing which were produced or mobilized by the belligerents of the war from the occupation of Austria in early 1938 to the surrender and occupation of Japan in late 1945.


The mobilization of funds, people, natural resources and materiel for the production and supply of military equipment and military forces during World War II was a critical component of the war effort. During the conflict, the Allies outpaced the Axis powers in most production categories. Access to the funding and industrial resources necessary to sustain the war effort was linked to their respective economic and political alliances. As formerly neutral powers, such as the United States, joined the escalating conflict, territory changed hands, combatants were defeated, and the balance of power shifted in favor of the Allies -- as did the means to sustain the military production required to win the war.

Historical context

German poster entitled "Designing and Building the East" Bundesarchiv R 49 Bild-0025, Ausstellung "Planung und Aufbau im Osten", Schautafel.jpg
German poster entitled "Designing and Building the East"

During the 1930s, political forces in Germany increased their financial investment in the military to develop the armed forces required to support near- and long-term political and territorial goals. Germany's economic, scientific, research and industrial capabilities were one of the most technically advanced in the world at the time and supported a rapidly growing, innovative military. However, access to (and control of) the resources and production capacity required to entertain long-term goals (such as European control, German territorial expansion and the destruction of the USSR) were limited. Political demands necessitated the expansion of Germany's control of natural and human resources, industrial capacity and farmland beyond its borders. Germany's military production was tied to resources outside its area of control, a dynamic not found amongst the Allies.

British Empire in 1921 British Empire 1921.png
British Empire in 1921

In 1938 Britain was a global superpower, with political and economic control of a quarter of the world's population, industry and resources, in addition to its close allies in the independent Dominion nations (such as Canada and South Africa). From 1938 to mid-1942, the British coordinated the Allied effort in all global theatres. They fought the German, Italian, Japanese and Vichy armies, air forces and navies across Europe, Africa, Asia, the Middle East, India, the Mediterranean and in the Atlantic, Indian, Pacific and Arctic Oceans. British forces destroyed Italian armies in North and East Africa and occupied overseas colonies of occupied European nations. Following engagements with Axis forces, British Empire troops occupied Libya, Italian Somaliland, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Iran and Iraq. The Empire funded and delivered needed supplies by Arctic convoys to the USSR, and supported Free French forces to recapture French Equatorial Africa. Britain also established governments in exile in London to rally support in occupied Europe for the Allied effort. The British held back or slowed the Axis powers for three years while mobilising their globally integrated economy and industrial infrastructure to build what became, by 1942, the most extensive military apparatus of the war. This allowed their later allies (such as the United States) to mobilise their economies and develop the military forces required to play a role in the war effort, and for the British to go on the offensive in its theatres of operation.

The first atomic bomb Trinity atmospheric nucleat test - July 1945 - Flickr - The Official CTBTO Photostream.jpg
The first atomic bomb

The entry of the United States into the war in late 1941 injected financial, human and industrial resources into Allied operations. The US produced more than its own military forces required and armed itself and its allies for the most industrialized war in history. [1] At the beginning of the war, the British and French placed large orders for aircraft with American manufacturers and the US Congress approved plans to increase its air forces by 3,000 planes. In May 1940, Franklin D. Roosevelt called for the production of 185,000 aeroplanes,120,000 tanks, 55,000 anti-aircraft guns and 18 million tons of merchant shipping in two years. Adolf Hitler was told by his advisors that this was American propaganda; in 1939, annual aircraft production for the US military was less than 3,000 planes. By the end of the war US factories had produced 300,000 planes, [2] [3] and by 1944 had produced two-thirds of the Allied military equipment used in the war[ citation needed ] — bringing military forces into play in North and South America, the Caribbean, the Atlantic, Western Europe and the Pacific.

The U.S. produced vast quantities of military equipment into late 1945, including nuclear weapons, and became the strongest, most technologically advanced military forces in the world. In addition to out-producing the Axis, the Allies produced technological innovations; through the Tizard Mission, British contributions included radar (instrumental in winning the Battle of Britain), sonar (improving their ability to sink U-boats), and the proximity fuze; the Americans led the Manhattan Project (which eliminated the need to invade Japan). The proximity fuze, for example, was five times as effective as contact or timed fuzes and was devastating in naval use against Japanese aircraft and so effective against German ground troops that General George S. Patton said it "won the Battle of the Bulge for us." [4]

The human and social costs of the war on the population of the USSR were immense, with combat deaths alone in the millions. Recognising the importance of their population and industrial production to the war effort, the USSR evacuated the majority of its European territory—moving 2,500 factories, 17 million people and great quantities of resources to the east. [5] Out of German reach, the USSR produced equipment and forces critical to the Axis defeat in Europe. Over one million women served in the Soviet armed forces.

Assembly line production of fighter aircraft near Niagara Falls, New York Airacobra P39 Assembly LOC 02902u.jpg
Assembly line production of fighter aircraft near Niagara Falls, New York

The statistics below illustrate the extent to which the Allies outproduced the Axis. Production of machine tools tripled, and thousands of ships were built in shipyards which did not exist before the war. [6] According to William S. Knudsen, "We won because we smothered the enemy in an avalanche of production, the like of which he had never seen, nor dreamed possible." [7]

Access to resources and large, controlled international labour pools and the ability to build arms in relative peace were critical to the eventual victory of the Allies. Donald Douglas (founder of the Douglas Aircraft Company) declared, "Here's proof that free men can out-produce slaves." [8]

Production summaries 1939–1945


Auxiliary force30,000
Merchant Marine50,000

Major weapons groups

Tanks, self-propelled artillery, vehicles4,358,649670,288
Artillery, mortars, guns6,792,6961,363,491
Missiles(only for test)45,458


In thousands of international dollars, at 2014 prices.[ citation needed ]



Vital commerce and raw materials

To move raw materials and supply distant forces, large numbers of cargo ships had to be built WSA Photo 4235.jpg
To move raw materials and supply distant forces, large numbers of cargo ships had to be built
Cargo ships47,11812,762
Merchant shipping46,817,1725,621,967
Crude oil1,043,000,00066,000,000

Production overview: service, power and type

Land forces

PowerTanks & SPGsArmoured vehiclesOther vehiclesArtilleryMortarsMachine gunsPersonnel
British Empire47,86247,4201,475,521226,113239,5401,090,41011,192,533
USA and territories108,4102,382,311257,390105,0552,679,84010,000,000
(excluding 6 million
sub-machine guns)
Germany and territories67,42949,777159,14773,484674,2801,000,73016,540,835
Italian Empire3,36883,0007,20022,000
Japanese Empire4,524165,94513,35029,000380,000

Air forces

PowerTotal AircraftFightersAttackBombersReconTransportTrainingOtherPersonnel
British Empire177,02538,78633,81138,1587,01412,58546,2564151,927,395
USA and territories295,959 [10] 99,46596,8724,10623,90058,08513,5312,403,806 [11]
Germany and territories133,38757,6538,99128,5775,0258,39614,31111,3613,402,200
Italian Empire13,4029,157343,3813882,4719683
Japanese Empire64,48433,4059,55811,9433,7091,0733,4201,376
PowerTotal large shipsCarriersBattleshipsCruisersDestroyersFrigates

& Destroyer Escorts

CorvettesSloopsPatrol boatsSubmarinesDe/ MiningLanding craftPersonnel
British Empire885 [note 1] 6520101461209387334,2092381,2449,5381,227,415
USA and territories1216124(101)237237744024535,000x
USSR2 [note 2] 22552
Germany & territories12171,1525401,500,000
Italian Empire136663
Japanese Empire182963199
Axis       1,416


Munitions Production in World War II
(Expenditures in billions of dollars, US 1944 munitions prices)
Allies Total2.410.020.041.564.570.5204.4
Axis Total2.

Source: Goldsmith data in Harrison (1988) p. 172

Commercial forces

British EmpireUSAUSSRGermanyHungaryItalyJapanRomania
Harbour craft1,092
Cargo tonnage12,823,942 [ citation needed ]33,993,230 [12] 1,469,606 [ citation needed ]4,152,361 [13]


CountryCoalIron oreCrude oilSteelAluminiumNickelZinc
USA[ citation needed ]2,149.7396.9833.2
Britain [14] 1,441.2119.290.83.7000.205
Australia[ citation needed ]83.11.56
India [15]
Canada101.93.68.416.43.500 [16]
New Zealand [17] 18
USSR590.871.3110.60.263 [18] 0.069 [19] 0.384 [19]
Total Allied4581.45971043
Germany2,420.3240.733.4 [20] 1.9 [21] 0.046 [21] 2.1 [21]
Japan[ citation needed ]184.521.05.2
Italy[ citation needed ]16.94.4
Hungary[ citation needed ]6.614.13.1
Romania[ citation needed ]1.610.825.0
Total Axis2629.9291

All figures in millions of tonnes

Reference data for summary tables

Ratio of GDP between the major Allied and Axis powers 1938-1945 WorldWarII-GDP-Relations-Allies-Axis-simple.svg
Ratio of GDP between the major Allied and Axis powers 1938–1945


GDP provides insight into the relative strength of the belligerents in the run up to, and during the conflict.

Gross domestic product [nb 1] [22] [23]
United Kingdom284287316344353361346331
British Empire684687716744753761746731
French Empire235248131179165159142150
Soviet Union359366417359274305362343
Soviet Union Total359366417359274305362343
United States80086994310941235139914991474
United States Total82489396811181259142315231498
Nationalist China320.5
German Reich351384387412417426437310
German Reich Total35146181711451150856681310
Italian Empire144154170167168160140115
Japanese Empire232247255259260257252207

Romanian, Hungarian, Bulgarian and Albanian GDP calculated by multiplying the GDP per capita of the four countries in 1938 ($1,242 for Romania, $2,655 for Hungary, $1,595 for Bulgaria and over $900 for Albania) [24] by their estimated populations in 1938: 19,750,000 for Romania, [25] 9,082,400 for Hungary, [26] 6,380,000 for Bulgaria [27] and 1,040,400 for Albania. [28]

  1. Billions of international dollars, at 1990 prices. Adjusted annually for changing compositions within each alliance.

Table notes

  1. France to Axis: 1940:50% (light green), 1941–44:100% (brown)
  2. USSR to Allies: 1941:44% (light green), 1942–1945:100%.
  3. US direct support to the Allies begins with Lend Lease in March 1941, though the US made it possible for the Allies to purchase US-produced materiel from 1939 [29]
  4. Italy to Allies and Axis: 1938:0%, 1939–1943:100% Axis (brown), 1944-1945:100% Allies
  5. Japanese to Axis begins with Tripartite Pact in 1940
  6. The Allied and Axis totals are not the immediate sum of the table values; see the distribution rules[ clarification needed ] used above.

United States World War II GDP (compared to other countries)

GDP during World War II

US unemployment during World War II

Price of war

Many concerns and political influence come from the price of war. While GDP can easily increase Federal expenditures, it also can influence political elections and government decision making. No matter how much percentages of GDP increase or decrease we need higher amounts of GDP in order to pay for more investments, one of those investments being more wars. To pay for these wars, taxes are held at a very high rate. For example, by the end of World War II tax rates went from 1.5% to 15%. Along with tax percentages reaching high amounts, spending on non-defense programs were cut in half during the period of World War II. Tax cuts allow one to see GDP in effect for the average American. Still, almost ten years after World War II, in 1950 and 1951 congress raised taxes close to 4% in order to pay for the Korean War. After the Korean War, in 1968 taxes again were raised 10% to pay for the Vietnam War. This caused GDP to raise 1%. Although research can support positive relationship between production and jobs with GDP, research can also show the negative relationship with tax increases and GDP. [36]

US Wartime Production

Prior to the Second World War, the United States was cautious with regard to its manufacturing capabilities as the country was still recovering from the Great Depression. However, during the war, Franklin Roosevelt set ambitious production goals to fulfill. The early 1940s were set to have 60,000 aircraft increasing to 125,000 in 1943. In addition, targets for the production of 120,000 tanks and 55,000 aircraft were set during the same time period. The Ford Motor Company in Michigan built one motor car (comprising 15,000 parts) on the assembly lines every 69 seconds. Ford's production contributed to America's total production of vehicles totalling three million in 1941. American production numbers caused the US employed workforce to increase massively. America's yearly production exceeded Japan's production building more planes in 1944 than Japan built in all the war years combined. As a result, half of the world's war production came from America. The government paid for this production using techniques of selling war bonds to financial institutions, rationing household items and creating more tax revenues. Some contribution to the US wartime manufacturing boom can be ascribed to the prior creation of the Alcoa plant in the 1930s. The Alcoa plant prepared thousands of tons of aluminum used for the production of 304,000 aeroplanes during the war. The United States quickly adjusted to the levels of production required to equip its military with the millions of war products used during World War II. [37]

Personnel – Allied – Britain, dominions and possessions

Including all non-British subjects in British services. [38]

ArmyArmy (female)NavyNavy (female)MarinesAir ForceAir Force (female)AuxiliaryMerchant marinePartisansTotal combatOther labour
Argentine volunteers [39] 1,7001,7006004,000
Free Belgian Forces 42,3001,2001,90045,770370
B. Indian Ocean6,5006,500
Caribbean / Bermuda10,000
Chinese volunteers10,00010,000
Czech volunteers4,0002,0006,000
East Africa200,000228,000
Free French Forces 3,700203,720
Free Greek 5,0008,50025014,000
Guiana, British 321042334819631
Hong Kong2,2002,200
Lesoto 21,00021,000
Free Luxembourg 8080
Free Dutch 4,0001,00010006,000
South Africa ?


  1. Auxiliary units include Home Guard, Reserves, Police regiments, etc.

Personnel – Axis – German Reich

This includes all German and non-German subjects serving within German Reich forces.

ArmyArmy (female)NavyNavy (female)MarinesAir forceAir force (female)AuxiliaryMerchant marinePartisansTotal combatOther labour
Arab legion20,00020,000
Finland vol2,5002,500
France & territories8,0004,5005,08017,580348,500
Germany & territories14,793,2001,500,0003,400,00019,693,200


  1. Auxiliary units include Home Guard, Wehrmachtsgefolge, Reserves, Police regiments, etc.
  2. USSR includes Armenia 4k SS,14k Wehr, 7k Aux; Azerbaijan 55k SS, 70k Wehr; Belarus 12k Wehr, 20k Aux; Cossack 200k Wehr; Estonia 20k SS, 50k Wehr, 7k Aux; Georgia 10k SS; 30k Wehr; Kalmyk 5k Wehr; Latvia 55k SS; 87k Wehr, 300 Air, 23k Aux; Lithuania 50k Wehr, 10 Aux; North Caucuses 4k SS; Russia 60k SS, 26k Wehr; Turkestan 16k Wehr; Ukrainian 300k Wehr; 2k Aux; Tatar/Urals 12k Wehr

Aircraft – Allied – British Empire

Within the UK, initially aircraft production was very vulnerable to enemy bombing. To expand and diversify the production base the British set up "Shadow factories". These brought other manufacturing companies – such as vehicle manufacturers – into aircraft production, or aircraft parts production. These inexperienced companies were set up in groups under the guidance or control of the aircraft manufacturers. New factory buildings were provided with government money. [40]

FightersAustraliaBritainCanadaIndiaNew ZealandSouth AfricaTotal
Blackburn Roc 136136
Boulton Paul Defiant 1,0651065
CAC Boomerang 250250
CAC Mustang 200200
de Havilland Hornet 6060
de Havilland Vampire 244244
Fairey Firefly 872872
Fairey Fulmar 600600
Gloster Gladiator [note 3] 9898
Gloster Meteor 239239
Hawker Hurricane 14,2311,45115,682
Hawker Tempest 1,7021,702
Hawker Typhoon 3,3303,330
Supermarine Seafire [note 4] 2,3342,334
Supermarine Spitfire 20,35120,351 [41]
Westland Whirlwind 116116
Total Fighters45050,8972,07753,424
BombersAustraliaBritainCanadaIndiaNew ZealandSouth Africa
Armstrong Whitworth Whitley [note 5] 1,7801,780
Avro Lancaster 7,3074307,377
Avro Lincoln [42] 616
Avro Manchester 202202
Fairey Barracuda 2,6072,607
Blackburn Skua 192192
Bristol Beaufighter 3645,5645,928
Bristol Beaufort 7001,4292,129
Bristol Blenheim 5,5196266,145
Bristol Buckingham 119119
de Havilland Mosquito 2126,1991,1347,545
Fairchild SBF &
CCF SBW Helldiver
Fairey Albacore 800800
Fairey Swordfish [note 5] 2,3962,396
Handley Page Halifax 6,178 [note 6] 6,178
Handley Page Hampden 152152
Short Stirling 2,3832,383
Vickers Wellington [note 5] 11,46111,461
Total Bombers1,34944,3912,85954,417
Reconnaissance & patrolAustraliaBritainCanadaIndiaNew ZealandSouth Africa
Bristol Bolingbroke [note 7] 676626
Bristol Bombay 5151
Blackburn Botha 580580
Blackburn Shark 1717
Consolidated Canso 721 [43] 993
Piper Cub 150150
Saro Lerwick 2121
Supermarine Sea Otter 292292
Short Seaford 1010
Short Sunderland 767767
Supermarine Stranraer 3232
Supermarine Walrus 746746
Taylorcraft Auster 1,8001,800
Vickers Warwick 845845
Total Reconnaissance5,1128756,930
TransportAustraliaBritainCanadaIndiaNew ZealandSouth Africa
Airspeed Horsa 5,0005,000
Armstrong Whitworth Albemarle 602602
Armstrong Whitworth Whitley 1,8141,814
Avro Lancastrian 82682
Avro York 2591259
CAC Gliders88
De Havilland Australia DHA-G1/G2 88
de Havilland Dragon Dominie 474474
de Havilland Flamingo 1414
General Aircraft Hamilcar 412412
General Aircraft Hotspur 1,0151,015
Miles Messenger 9393
Miles Monitor 2222
Noorduyn Norseman 861861
Northrop/Canadian-Vickers Delta [note 8] 1919
Percival Petrel 77
Short S.26 33
Slingsby Hengist 1818
Westland Lysander 1,4452251,670
total Transports1611,2601,11212,381
TrainersAustraliaBritainCanadaIndiaNew ZealandSouth Africa
Airspeed Oxford 8,5868,586
Avions Fairey Tipsy B 1515
Avro Anson 8,4883,19711,685
Bristol Buckmaster 112112
CAC Wackett 202202
CAC Wirraway 755755
de Havilland Don 3030
de Havilland Moth Minor 100100
de Havilland Tiger Moth 1,0805,7381,7481508,716
Fairchild Cornell (PT-19/26)1,6421,642
Fairey Battle [note 9] 2,2012,201
Fleet Finch 606606
Fleet Fort 101101
Hawker Henley 200200
Harlow PC-5 55055
Miles Magister 1,3031,303
Miles Martinet 1,7241,724
Miles Master 3,2503,250
Miles Mentor 4545
North American Harvard 3,9853,985
Percival Proctor 1,1431,143
Total Trainers2,03732,93511,2845015046,456
OtherAustraliaBritainCanadaIndiaNew ZealandSouth AfricaEmpire
Prototypes [note 10] 2611
Total Other2139 [note 11] 3 [note 12] 144
Grand Total3,854144,73418,210501500173,752

Aircraft – Allies – France, Poland and minor powers

Production numbers until the time of the German occupation of the respective country. Some types listed were in production before the war, those listed were still in production at the time of or after the Munich crisis.

Avia B.534-IV/Bk.534 274
Caudron CR.714 90
Dewoitine D.520 403
Fokker D.XXI 10110120
Koolhoven F.K.58 20 [note 13]
Avions Fairey Fox VI/VII106
Fokker G.I 63
Hawker Hurricane I1520
Ikarus IK-2 12
Rogozarski IK-3 12
Bloch MB.151/152 636
Morane-Saulnier MS.406 1,077
Potez 630/631 280
PZL.50 Jastrząb (6) [note 14]
PZL P.24 118 [note 15]
Arsenal VG.33/36/39 40 [note 16]
Total121274102,526193119 (+5)443,287 [note 17]
Breguet Br.690 230
Laté 298 121
Loire-Nieuport LN.40 68
Fairey P.4/34 (12) [note 18]
Rogožarski PVT [note 19] 61
Total(12)41961480 [note 20]
Aero A.101 64
Aero A.304 19
Amiot 351/354 80
Avia B-71 61
Fairey Battle I18 [note 21]
Fokker C.X/Fokker C.XI 53
Dornier Do 17K70
Farman F.222.2/F.223 25
LeO 45 452
LWS-6 Żubr 17
Bloch MB.131 143
Bloch MB.174/175 79
Bloch MB.210 298
Potez 633 55
PZL.37 120
PZL.43 54 [note 22]
PZL.46 2 [note 23]
Rogožarski SIM-XIV-H 19
Fokker T.V 16
Fokker T.VIII 36

Aircraft - Axis - All

Occupied countries produced weapons for the Axis powers. Figures are for the period of occupation only.

Mitsubishi A6M Zero 10,939
Nakajima A6M2-N 327
Arado Ar 240 14
Avia B-135 12
Avia B-534 78
Bachem Ba 349 36 [note 24]
Messerschmitt Bf 109 33,14230933,984
Messerschmitt Bf 110 6,1706,170
Macchi C.200/Macchi C.202/Macchi C.205 2,766
Fiat CR.25 12
Fiat CR.42 1,782
Dewoitine D.520 [note 25] 440
Dornier Do 17Z-7/Z-1012
Dornier Do 335 37
Caproni Vizzola F.5 14
Koolhoven F.K.52 6
Focke-Wulf Fw 190 20,000
Fiat G.50 666
Fiat G.55 305
Heinkel He 100 [note 26] 25
Heinkel He 112 60
Heinkel He 162 320
Heinkel He 219 300
IAR 80 346
Nakajima J1N 479
Mitsubishi J2M 621
Kawasaki Ki-10 283
Nakajima Ki-27 3,399
Nakajima Ki-43 5,919
Nakajima Ki-44 1,227
Kawasaki Ki-45 1,701
Kawasaki Ki-61 3,159
Nakajima Ki-84 3,514
Kawasaki Ki-100 395
Bloch MB.150 [note 25] 35
Messerschmitt Me 163 /Mitsubishi J8M 3707377
Messerschmitt Me 262 1,430
Mörkö-Morane [note 27] 41
Morane-Saulnier MS.410 [note 28] 74
Kawanishi N1K 1,435
PZL P.24 252550
Reggiane Re.2000, 2001, 2002 & 2005 204531735
IMAM Ro.44 35
IMAM Ro.57 75
Ambrosini SAI.207 14
Focke-Wulf Ta 152 & Focke-Wulf Ta 154 200these are unrelated types.
VL Myrsky 51
VL Pyry 41
Nakajima B5N 1,149
Nakajima B6N 1,268
Aichi B7A 114
Breda Ba.65 218
Breda Ba.88 149
Aichi D3A 1,486
Yokosuka D4Y 2,038
CANSA FC.12 11
Heinkel He 115 138
Heinkel He 118 [note 29] 15
Henschel Hs 123 [note 30] 250
Henschel Hs 129 865
Junkers Ju 87 Stuka6,500
Mitsubishi Ki-51 2,385
Kawasaki Ki-102 238
Aichi M6A 28
Messerschmitt Me 210 [note 31] 400272672
Messerschmitt Me 410 [note 32] 1,189
Yokosuka MXY7 852
Fiat RS.14 188
Savoia-Marchetti SM.85 34
Aero A.304 4
Arado Ar 234 210
Bloch MB.174/175 [note 33] 38
Fiat BR.20 602
Caproni Ca.135 140
Caproni Ca.309-314 1,516
Dornier Do 22 30
Dornier Do 17E/F405
Dornier Do 17K14
Dornier Do 17M/P/R/S/U448
Dornier Do 17Z875
Dornier Do 215 105
Dornier Do 217 1,025
Fieseler Fi 167 14
Focke-Wulf Fw 200 276
Mitsubishi G3M 1,048
Mitsubishi G4M 2,435
Heinkel He 111 7,300
Heinkel He 177 1,190
IAR 37 380
Junkers Ju 88/188/388 16,517
Kaproni-Bulgarski KB.6 24
Mitsubishi Ki-21 2,064
Mitsubishi Ki-30 704
Kawasaki Ki-32 854
Kawasaki Ki-48 1,997
Nakajima Ki-49 819
Mitsubishi Ki-67/Mitsubishi Ki-109 767
LeO 45 [note 25] 162
Piaggio P.108 35
Yokosuka P1Y 1,102
Kyushu Q1W 153
Letov Š-328 80
Savoia-Marchetti SM.79 1,35064
Savoia-Marchetti SM.82 [note 34] 379
Savoia-Marchetti SM.84 246
Weiss WM-21 128
CANT Z.506B320
CANT Z.1007 660
CANT Z.1018 15

Propaganda posters

See also


  1. Naval History of WW2 Royal Navy
  2. Two battlecruisers of Kronshtadt-class laid down but never progressed
  3. wartime production only. Majority of Gladiators were built before the war. 165 additional to export customers. Sea Gladiator conversions and production in Sea Gladiator entry.
  4. Includes some post-war production and conversions of Spitfires
  5. 1 2 3 Includes pre-war production
  6. includes transport and Coastal Command reconnaissance versions
  7. Includes 457 trainers
  8. most built pre-war
  9. Most production was pre-war
  10. Including: Airspeed Cambridge (2), Airspeed Fleet Shadower (1), Avro Tudor (2), Blackburn B-20 (1), Blackburn Firebrand (3) , Boulton Paul P.92 (1), Bristol Brigand (4), Burnelli CBY-3, Canada (1), CAC Woomera, Australia (2), de Havilland Dove (1), Fairey Spearfish (5), Fane F.1/40 (1), General Aircraft Cagnet (1), General Aircraft Owlet (1), General Aircraft Fleet Shadower (1), General Aircraft GAL.47 (1), General Aircraft GAL.55 (2), General Aircraft GAL.56 (4), Gloster E.28/39 (2), Gloster F.9/37 (2), Handley Page Manx (1), Hawker Tornado (4), Martin-Baker MB 3 (1), Martin-Baker MB 5 (1), Miles M.20 (2), Miles X Minor (1), Miles M.35 (1), Miles M.39 (1), Miles M.64 L.R.5 (1), Reid and Sigrist R.S.1/2 (2), Reid and Sigrist R.S.3 (1), Saro Shrimp (1), Short Shetland (2), Supermarine Type 322 (2), Vickers Type 432 (1), Vickers VC.1 Viking (1), Vickers Windsor (3)
  11. includes: Folland Fo.108 engine test bed (12), General Aircraft Cygnet (10), General Aircraft GAL-41 (1), Hawker Sea Fury (10), Miles Mercury (6), Percival Vega Gull (~20), Supermarine Spiteful fighter (19)
  12. includes: CCF Maple Leaf Trainer II (2 plus 10 built in Mexico )
  13. Delivered to France.
  14. First prototype incomplete by German occupation.
  15. Only 1 (designated P.11g) used by Poland in 1939. The remaining ones were exported to various Balkan countries.
  16. Around 200 more airframes were in advanced production stage.
  17. not counting uncompleted PZL.50
  18. Production was started in Denmark, but not completed before the German invasion.
  19. Originally an advanced fighter-training aircraft, this type was later used as a light attack plane, in particular by the Air Force of the Independent State of Croatia.
  20. not counting P.4/34
  21. According to some sources license production started in Denmark but not completed before the German invasion.
  22. All but 5 delivered to Bulgaria.
  23. Prototypes that were used in combat.
  24. Never entered service
  25. 1 2 3 Number refers to production resumed after German occupation.
  26. Produced shortly before the war and mainly used for testing and propaganda purposes.
  27. Conversion from MS.406/410.
  28. Conversion from MS.406.
  29. Produced before the war and 2 used by Japanese for testing.
  30. All produced before the war, but used until 1944.
  31. Only 90 German-built Me 210 were completed and delivered, about 100 Hungarian-built were supplied to Germany
  32. Also used as a fighter and for reconnaissance
  33. Produced for Germany after German occupation.
  34. Only bomber versions listed here.


  1. Herman, Arthur. Freedom's Forge: How American Business Produced Victory in World War II, p. IX, Random House, New York, NY, 2012. ISBN   978-1-4000-6964-4.
  2. Parker, Dana T. Building Victory: Aircraft Manufacturing in the Los Angeles Area in World War II, p. 7, Cypress, CA, 2013. ISBN   978-0-9897906-0-4.
  3. Wrynn, V. Dennis. Forge of Freedom: American Aircraft Production in World War II, pp. 4-5, Motorbooks International, Osceola, WI, 1995. ISBN   0-7603-0143-3.
  4. Baldwin, Ralph B. The Deadly Fuze: Secret Weapon of World War II, pp. 4-6, 11, 50, 279, Presidio Press, San Rafael, California, 1980. ISBN   978-0-89141-087-4.
  5. Kumanev, G.A., "War and the evacuation of the USSR: 1941-1942", New Age, 2006
  6. Sawyer, L. A. and Mitchell, W. H. The Liberty Ships: The History of the "Emergency" Type Cargo Ships Constructed in the United States During the Second World War, Second Edition, pp. vii, 1-8, Lloyd's of London Press Ltd., London, England, 1985. ISBN   1-85044-049-2.
  7. Parker, Dana T. Building Victory: Aircraft Manufacturing in the Los Angeles Area in World War II, pp. 5, 7, Cypress, CA, 2013. ISBN   978-0-9897906-0-4.
  8. Parker, Dana T. Building Victory: Aircraft Manufacturing in the Los Angeles Area in World War II, p. 8, Cypress, California, 2013. ISBN   978-0-9897906-0-4.
  9. "Financial Calculators".
  10. Office of Statistical Control. Army Air Force Statistical Digest, World War II. p. 127.
  11. Office of Statistical Control. Army Air Force Statistical Digest. p. 16.
  12. "Why Japan Really Lost The War". Combined Fleet. Retrieved 2018-06-18.
  13. "Why Japan Really Lost The War". Combined Fleet. Retrieved 2018-06-18.
  14. Mitchell, B.R. British Historical Statistics, 1988 [ page needed ]
  16. Dialogue on Aluminium 110 years of history in Canada approximation
  17. Baker The New Zealand People at War: War Economy 1965 [ page needed ]
  18. Lend Lease as a Function of the Soviet war Economy
  19. 1 2 Accounting for War: Soviet Production, Employment and the Defense Burden, 1940-1945 Mark Harrison, 1996
  20. Including 23.4 synthetic.
  21. 1 2 3 Volume 3 -The Effects of Strategic Bombing on the German War Economy 1940-1944 only, retrieved June 8, 2014
  22. "Comparison of GDP adjusted for actual yearly shared contribution to war efforts after Zuljan, Ralph, Allied and Axis GDP", "Articles On War",, 2003, archived from the original on August 6, 2014, retrieved June 8, 2014
  23. Harrison, 1998
  24. Stephen Broadberry, Kevin H. O'Rourke, The Cambridge Economic History of Modern Europe: Volume 2, 1870 to the Present, p. 190
  25. ROMANIA: historical demographical data of the whole country
  26. HUNGARY: historical demographical data of the whole country
  27. BULGARIA historical demographical data of the whole country
  28. ALBANIA: historical demographical data of the whole country
  29. General Article: Foreign Affairs,
  30. "The Economic Consequences of War on US Economy" (PDF). Institute for Economics and Peace. June 2015. Retrieved 6 October 2017.
  31. "Defence Spending since 1900". UK Public Spending. Retrieved 2018-06-18 via Christopher Chantrill.
  32. "The Economic Consequences of War on US Economy" (PDF). Institute of Economics and Peace. June 2015. Retrieved 6 October 2017.
  33. "THE WAR: At Home – War Production". The War At Home Production. PBS. Retrieved 2017-04-12.
  34. "Graph of U.S. Unemployment Rate, 1930-1945". Bureau Of Labor Statistics. HERB: Resources for Teachers. Retrieved 30 November 2017.
  35. Bartlett, Bruce. "The Cost Of War". Forbes. Retrieved 2017-10-26.
  36. "THE WAR: At Home – War Production". PBS. Retrieved 2017-04-12.
  37. Rose, Patrick (2012). The Indian Army, 1939–47: Experience and Development. Routledge.
  38. Granatstein, Dr. J. L. (May 27, 2005). "ARMING THE NATION: CANADA'S INDUSTRIAL WAR EFFORT, 1939-1945" (PDF). Canadian Council of Chief Executives. Retrieved April 5, 2016.
  39. Ethell, Jeffrey L. and Steve Pace. Spitfire. St. Paul, Minnesota: Motorbooks International, 1997. ISBN   0-7603-0300-2. p117
  40. 3 prototypes and 3 delivered to RAF
  41. Canso production

Table data

Personnel -Allied - British Empire

Personnel - Axis

Aircraft - Allied

  • Australia
  • Bristol Brigand
  • Free Dutch
  • New Zealand
  • Barnes 1989
  • Bishop 2002
  • Bowyer 1980
  • Butler 2004
  • Flint 2006
  • Green 1967
  • Jackson 1987
  • Jane's 1989
  • Mason 1994
  • Morgan ?
  • Otway 1990
  • Swanborough 1997
  • Tapper 1988
  • The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft, 1985

Aircraft - Axis

  • Comando Supremo: Italy at War
  • Dressel and Griehl 1994
  • Encyclopedia of weapons of World War Two
  • Francillon 1970
  • The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft, 1985
  • Jane's 1989
  • Mondey 1996
  • Smith and Anthony ?

Raw materials

  • The Mineral Industry of the British Empire and Foreign Countries, Statistical Summary 1938–1944, The Imperial Institute, HMSO, 1948
  • The Mineral Industry of the British Empire and Foreign Countries, Statistical Summary 1941–1947, The Imperial Institute, HMSO, 1949

Official histories

  • History of the Second World War (104 volumes), Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London 1949 to 1993
  • Official History of Australia in the War of 1939–1945 (22 volumes), Australian Government Printing Service, 1952 to 1977
  • Official History of the Canadian Army in the Second World War, Vol I Six Years of War, Stacey, C P., Queen's Printer, Ottawa, 1955
  • Official History of the Indian Armed Forces in the Second World War 1939-45 (24 volumes), Combined Inter-Services Historical Section, India & Pakistan, New Delhi, 1956-1966
  • Official History of New Zealand in the Second World War 1939–45, Historical Publications Branch, Wellington, New Zealand, 1965


  • Ailsby, Christopher, Hitler's Renegades: Foreign Nationals in the Service of the Third Reich (Photographic Histories), Potomac Books, 2004
  • Barnett, Correlli, The audit of war : the illusion & reality of Britain as a great nation, Macmillan, 1986
  • Barnes, C.H.; James D.N. Shorts Aircraft since 1900, London, Putnam, 1989
  • Bishop, Chris, The Encyclopaedia of Weapons of World War II, Sterling Publishing, 2002
  • Bowyer, Michael J.F. Aircraft for the Royal Air Force: The "Griffon" Spitfire, The Albemarle Bomber and the Shetland Flying-Boat, London, Faber & Faber, 1980
  • Boyd, David, (2009) "Wartime Production by the Commonwealth during WWII" British Equipment of the Second World War
  • Boyd, David (2009), "British Production of Aircraft By Year During The Second World War", British Equipment of the Second World War
  • Butler, Tony. British Secret Projects: Fighters and Bombers 1935–1950. Hinckley, UK: Midland Publishing, 2004
  • Canada at War, "The Canadian War Industry"
  • Dressel, Joachim and Manfred Griehl. Bombers of the Luftwaffe. London: DAG Publications, 1994
  • Flint, Keith, Airborne Armour: Tetrarch, Locust, Hamilcar and the 6th Airborne Armoured Reconnaissance Regiment 1938-1950. Helion & Company Ltd., 2006
  • Francillon, René J., Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, London, Putnam, 1970
  • Gregg, W.A ed., Canada’s Fighting Vehicles Europe 1943-1945, Canadian Military Historical Society, 1980
  • Green, William. War Planes of The Second World War:Volume Seven - Bombers and Reconnaissance Aircraft. London: Macdonald, 1967
  • Harrison, Mark, "The Economics of World War II: Six Great Powers in International Comparison", Cambridge University Press, 1998 (Author's overview)
  • Herman, Arthur. Freedom's Forge: How American Business Produced Victory in World War II, Random House, New York, 2012
  • The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft (Part Work 1982-1985). London: Orbis Publishing, 1985
  • Jackson, A.J., De Havilland Aircraft since 1909 (Third ed.), London, Putnam, 1987
  • Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War II, London, Studio Editions Ltd, 1989
  • "Les luxembourgeois de la Brigade Piron". (in French) Retrieved 29 June 2013
  • Long, Jason, Lend Lease as a Function of the Soviet war Economy,, Retrieved June 12, 2014
  • Mason, Francis K. The British Bomber since 1914, London: Putnam Aeronautical Books, 1994
  • Milward, Alan S., War, economy, and society, 1939-1945, University of California Press, 1979
  • Morgan, Eric B. "Albemarle" in Twentyfirst Profile, Volume 1, No. 11. New Milton, Hants, UK: 21st Profile Ltd.
  • Munoz, A.J., For Croatia and Christ: The Croatian Army in World War II 1941–1945, Axis Europa Books, NY, 1996
  • Mondey, David. The Concise Guide to Axis Aircraft of World War II. New York: Bounty Books, 1996
  • Ness, Leland, Jane's World War II Tanks and Fighting Vehicles, The Complete Guide, Harper Collins, 2002
  • Otway, Lieutenant-Colonel T.B.H. The Second World War 1939-1945 Army: Airborne Forces. London: Imperial War Museum, 1990
  • Overy, Richard, Why the Allies Won (Paperback), W. W. Norton & Company, 1997
  • Scientia Militaria, South African Journal of Military Studies
  • Smith, J.R. and Anthony L. Kay. German Aircraft of the Second World War. London: Putnam and Company Ltd.,
  • Swanborough, Gordon. British Aircraft at War, 1939-1945. East Sussex, UK: HPC Publishing, 1997
  • Tapper, Oliver. Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft since 1913. London: Putnam, 1988
  • Tomasevich, Jozo, War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941–1945: Occupation and Collaboration 2. San Francisco: Stanford University Press, 2001
  • Veterans Affairs Canada, "Canadian Production of War Materials"
  • Wilson, Stewart, Aircraft of WWII, 1998
  • Wrynn, V. Dennis. Forge of Freedom: American Aircraft Production in World War II, Motorbooks International, Osceola, WI, 1995
  • Zuljan, Ralph, "Allied and Axis GDP" Articles On War (2003)

Related Research Articles

World War II 1939–1945 global war between the Axis and the Allies

World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from more than 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 70 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, genocides, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.

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Following the outbreak of World War II on 1 September 1939, the Kingdom of Romania under King Carol II officially adopted a position of neutrality. However, the rapidly changing situation in Europe during 1940, as well as domestic political upheaval, undermined this stance. Fascist political forces such as the Iron Guard rose in popularity and power, urging an alliance with Nazi Germany and its allies. As the military fortunes of Romania's two main guarantors of territorial integrity—France and Britain—crumbled in the Fall of France, the government of Romania turned to Germany in hopes of a similar guarantee, unaware that the then dominant European power had already granted its consent to Soviet territorial claims in a secret protocol of 1939's Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact.

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Technology played a significant role in World War II. Some of the technologies used during the war were developed during the interwar years of the 1920s and 1930s, much was developed in response to needs and lessons learned during the war, while others were beginning to be developed as the war ended. Many wars had major effects on the technologies that we use in our daily lives. However, compared to previous wars, World War II had the greatest effect on the technology and devices that are used today. Technology also played a greater role in the conduct of World War II than in any other war in history, and had a critical role in its final outcome.

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The European theatre of World War II was an area of heavy fighting across Europe, starting with Germany's invasion of Poland on 1 September 1939 and ending with the United States, the United Kingdom and France conquering most of Western Europe, the Soviet Union conquering most of Eastern Europe and Germany's unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945. The Allied powers fought the Axis powers on two major fronts as well as in a strategic bombing offensive and in the adjoining Mediterranean and Middle East theatre.

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The Italian campaign of World War II consisted of Allied and Axis operations in and around Italy, from 1943 to 1945. The Joint Allied Forces Headquarters (AFHQ) was operationally responsible for all Allied land forces in the Mediterranean theatre and it planned and led the invasion of Sicily in July 1943, followed in September by the invasion of the Italian mainland and the campaign in Italy until the surrender of the German Armed Forces in Italy in May 1945.

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The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union (USSR), Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945. It has been known as the Great Patriotic War in the former Soviet Union and modern Russia, while in Germany it was called the Eastern Front, or the German-Soviet War by outside parties.

World War II by country Wikimedia list article

Nearly every country and territory in the world participated in World War II. Most were neutral at the beginning, but only a few nations remained neutral to the end. The Second World War pitted two alliances against each other, the Axis powers and the Allied powers; the U.S having served 16 million men, Germany serving 13 million, the Soviet Union serving 35 million and Japan serving 6 million. With millions serving in other countries, an estimated 300 million soldiers saw combat. A total of 72 million people died with the lowest estimate being 40 million dead and the highest estimate being 120 million dead. The leading Axis powers were Nazi Germany, the Kingdom of Italy and the Empire of Japan; while the United Kingdom, the United States, the Soviet Union and China to an extent were the "Big Four" Allied powers.

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The Mediterranean and Middle East Theatre was a major theatre of operations during the Second World War. The vast size of the Mediterranean and Middle East theatre saw interconnected naval, land, and air campaigns fought for control of the Mediterranean, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, the Middle East and Southern Europe. The fighting in this theatre lasted from 10 June 1940, when Italy entered the war on the side of Germany, until 2 May 1945 when all Axis forces in Italy surrendered. However, fighting would continue in Greece – where British troops had been dispatched to aid the Greek government – during the early stages of the Greek Civil War.

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Allied leaders of World War II political and military leaders of the Allied nations during World War II

The Allied leaders of World War II listed below comprise the important political and military figures who fought for or supported the Allies during World War II. Engaged in total war, they had to adapt to new types of modern warfare, on the military, psychological and economic fronts.

Neutral powers during World War II

The neutral powers were countries that remained neutral during World War II. Some of these countries had large colonies abroad or had great economic power. Spain had just been through its civil war, which ended on April 1, 1939 —a war that involved several countries that subsequently participated in World War II.

Foreign relations of the Axis powers

Foreign relations of the Axis powers includes states which were not officially members of the Axis but had relations with one or more Axis members.

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to World War II:

British Empire in World War II

When the United Kingdom declared war on Nazi Germany at the outset of World War II it controlled to varying degrees numerous crown colonies, protectorates and the Indian Empire. It also maintained unique political ties to four semi-independent Dominions—Australia, Canada, South Africa, and New Zealand—as part of the Commonwealth. In 1939 the British Empire was a global power, with direct or de facto political and economic control of 25% of the world's population, and 30% of its land mass.

The article summarizes casualties in different theatres of World War II in Europe and North Africa. Only the military losses and civilian losses directly associated with hostilities are included into the article. The actions of the Axis' and Allied military or civilian authorities that fit the definition of genocide, or war crimes are left beyond the scope of the present article.

Azerbaijan in World War II

Azerbaijan, officially by its full name – the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic, entered World War II alongside the Soviet Union, after the German declaration of war on June 22, 1941. Azerbaijan's oilfields were enticing to the Germans due to the USSR's heavy dependency on Caucasus oil – setting the scene for German campaigns attempting to capture and seize the oilfields in Baku during the Battle of the Caucasus. Azerbaijan’s oil was very decisive for Soviet victory.More than 600,000 people from Azerbaijan were conscripted to the Workers’ and Peasants’ Red Army during World War II from 1941 to 1945.

The diplomatic history of World War II includes the major foreign policies and interactions inside the opposing coalitions, the Allies of World War II and the Axis powers. The military history of the war is covered at World War II. The prewar diplomacy is covered in Causes of World War II and International relations (1919–1939).