Hindustan Aeronautics Limited

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Hindustan Aeronautics Limited
State-owned enterprise
Industry Aerospace and Defence
Founded1940;79 years ago (1940)
(As Hindustan Aircraft)
1964;55 years ago (1964)
(Renamed Hindustan Aeronautics)
Key people
R Madhavan (Chairman and Managing director) [1]
Products Transport aircraft
Fighter aircraft
RevenueIncrease2.svg17,406 crore (US$2.5 billion) [2] (2016/17)
Increase2.svg3,294 crore (US$480 million) [2] (2016/17)
Increase2.svg2,692.5 crore (US$390 million) [3]
Total assets 63,898.42 crore (US$9.2 billion) [3]
Total equity 15,014.64 crore (US$2.2 billion) [3]
Number of employees
32,108 [3]
(March, 2014)
Website www.hal-india.com

Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) is an Indian state-owned aerospace and defence company headquartered in Bangalore, India. It is governed under the management of the Indian Ministry of Defence.

Aerospace engineering effort to fly in the atmosphere of Earth (aeronautics) and surrounding space (astronautics)

Aerospace is the human effort in science, engineering, and business to fly in the atmosphere of Earth (aeronautics) and surrounding space (astronautics). Aerospace organizations research, design, manufacture, operate, or maintain aircraft or spacecraft. Aerospace activity is very diverse, with a multitude of commercial, industrial and military applications.

Bangalore Capital of Karnataka, India

Bangalore, officially known as Bengaluru, is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka. It has a population of over ten million, making it a megacity and the third-most populous city and fifth-most populous urban agglomeration in India. It is located in southern India, on the Deccan Plateau at an elevation of over 900 m (3,000 ft) above sea level, which is the highest among India's major cities. Its multi-ethnic, multi-religious, and cosmopolitan character is reflected by its more than 1000 temples and Hindu mandirs, 400 Islamic mosques, 100 Christian churches, 40 Jain derasars, three Sikh gurdwaras, two Buddhist viharas and one Parsi fire temple located in an area of 741 km² of the metropolis. The religious places are further represented by the proposed Chabad of the Jewish community. The numerous Bahá'ís have a society called the Bahá'í Centre.

India Country in South Asia

India, official name, the Republic of India,, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives; its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia.


The government-owned corporation is primarily involved in the operations of the aerospace and is currently involved in the design, fabrication and assembly of aircraft, jet engines, helicopters and their spare parts. It has several facilities spread across India including Nasik, Korwa, Kanpur, Koraput, Lucknow, Bangalore, Hyderabad and Kasaragod. The HAL HF-24 Marut fighter-bomber was the first fighter aircraft made in India.

Aircraft machine that is able to fly by gaining support from the air other than the reactions of the air against the earth’s surface

An aircraft is a machine that is able to fly by gaining support from the air. It counters the force of gravity by using either static lift or by using the dynamic lift of an airfoil, or in a few cases the downward thrust from jet engines. Common examples of aircraft include airplanes, helicopters, airships, gliders, paramotors and hot air balloons.

Jet engine reaction engine which generates thrust by jet propulsion

A jet engine is a type of reaction engine discharging a fast-moving jet that generates thrust by jet propulsion. This broad definition includes airbreathing jet engines. In general, jet engines are combustion engines.

Helicopter Type of rotor craft in which lift and thrust are supplied by rotors

A helicopter, or chopper, is a type of rotorcraft in which lift and thrust are supplied by rotors. This allows the helicopter to take off and land vertically, to hover, and to fly forward, backward, and laterally. These attributes allow helicopters to be used in congested or isolated areas where fixed-wing aircraft and many forms of VTOL aircraft cannot perform.


Production line of the HAL Dhruv at Bangalore HAL Dhruv production line.JPG
Production line of the HAL Dhruv at Bangalore

HAL was established as Hindustan Aircraft Limited in Bangalore on 23 December 1940 by Walchand Hirachand who became Chairman of the company. The companies office was opened at a bungalow called "Eventide" on Domlur Road.

Walchand Hirachand Indian businessman

Walchand Hirachand Doshi was an Indian industrialist and the founder of the Walchand group. He established India's first modern shipyard, first aircraft factory and first car factory; he also established construction companies, sugarcane plantations, sugar factories, confectioneries, engineering companies and many other businesses. He used to eat Paan made specially for him in Kashi.

Domlur neighbourhood in Bangalore Urban, Karnataka, India

Domlur is a small township located in the eastern part of Bangalore city in India. Domlur was included in the erstwhile Bangalore Civil and Military Station under the British Madras Presidency till it was transferred to the Mysore State in 1949.

The organisation and equipment for the factory at Bangalore was set up by William D. Pawley of the Intercontinental Aircraft Corporation of New York, who had already established Central Aircraft Manufacturing Company (CAMCO) in partnership with Chinese Nationalist government. Pawley obtained a large number of machine-tools and equipment from the United States.

William Douglas Pawley was a U.S. ambassador, a noted businessman and associated with the Flying Tigers American Volunteer Group (AVG) during World War II.

Central Aircraft Manufacturing Company

The Central Aircraft Manufacturing Company, also known as the Loiwing Factory (雷允飛機製造廠), was a Chinese aircraft manufacturer established by American entrepreneur William D. Pawley in the 1930s.

The Indian Government bought a one-third stake in the company and by April 1941 by investing 25 lakhs as it believed this to be a strategic imperative. The decision by the government was primarily motivated to boost British military hardware supplies in Asia to counter the increasing threat posed by Imperial Japan during Second World War. The Kingdom of Mysore supplied two directors, Air Marshal John Higgins was resident director. The first aircraft built was a Harlow PC-5 [4] On 2 April 1942, the government announced that the company had been nationalised when it had bought out the stakes of Seth Walchand Hirachand and other promoters so that it could act freely. The Mysore Kingdom refused to sell its stake in the company but yielded the management control over to the Indian Government.

Harlow PC-5 aircraft

The Harlow PC-5 was a 1930s American military trainer version of the PJC-2 designed and built by the Harlow Aircraft Company.

In 1943 the Bangalore factory was handed over to the United States Army Air Forces but still using Hindustan Aircraft management. The factory expanded rapidly and became the centre for major overhaul and repair of American aircraft and was known as the 84th Air Depot. The first aircraft to be overhauled was a Consolidated PBY Catalina followed by every type of aircraft operated in India and Burma. When returned to Indian control two years later the factory had become one of the largest overhaul and repair organisations in the East. In the post war reorganisation the company built railway carriages as an interim activity.

United States Army Air Forces aerial warfare branch of the United States army from 1941 to 1947

The United States Army Air Forces, informally known as the Air Force, was the aerial warfare service component of the United States Army during and immediately after World War II (1939/41–1945), successor to the previous United States Army Air Corps and the direct predecessor of the United States Air Force of today, one of the five uniformed military services. The AAF was a component of the United States Army, which on 2 March 1942 was divided functionally by executive order into three autonomous forces: the Army Ground Forces, the Services of Supply, and the Army Air Forces. Each of these forces had a commanding general who reported directly to the Army Chief of Staff.

Consolidated PBY Catalina maritime patrol and transport flying boat

The Consolidated PBY Catalina, also known as the Canso in Canadian service, is an American flying boat, and later an amphibious aircraft of the 1930s and 1940s produced by Consolidated Aircraft. It was one of the most widely used seaplanes of World War II. Catalinas served with every branch of the United States Armed Forces and in the air forces and navies of many other nations.

IJT prototype in its hangar IJT Prototype in hanger.JPG
IJT prototype in its hangar

After India gained independence in 1947, the management of the company was passed over to the Government of India.

Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) was formed on 1 October 1964 when Hindustan Aircraft Limited joined the consortium formed in June by the IAF Aircraft Manufacturing Depot, Kanpur (at the time manufacturing HS748 under licence) and the group recently set up to manufacture MiG-21 under licence, with its new factories planned in Koraput, Nasik and Hyderabad. [5] Though HAL was not used actively for developing newer models of fighter jets, except for the HF-24 Marut, the company has played a crucial role in modernisation of the Indian Air Force. In 1957 company started manufacturing Bristol Siddeley Orpheus jet engines under licence at new factory located in Bangalore.

During the 1980s, HAL's operations saw a rapid increase which resulted in the development of new indigenous aircraft such as the HAL Tejas and HAL Dhruv. HAL also developed an advanced version of the Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21, known as MiG-21 Bison, which increased its life-span by more than 20 years. HAL has also obtained several multimillion-dollar contracts from leading international aerospace firms such as Airbus, Boeing and Honeywell to manufacture aircraft spare parts and engines.

By 2012, HAL was reportedly bogged down in the details of production and has been slipping on its schedules. [6] On 1 April 2015, HAL reconstituted its Board with Mr. TS Raju as CMD, Mr. S Subrahmanyan as Director (Operations), Mr. VM Chamola as Director (HR), CA Ramana Rao as Director (Finance) and Mr. D K Venkatesh as Director (Engineering & R&D). There are two Govt. nominees in the Board and six independent Directors.

In March 2017, HAL Chairman and Managing Director T Suvarna Raju announced that the company had finalised plans for an indigenisation drive. The company plans to produce nearly 1,000 military helicopters, including Kamov 226, LCH (Light Combat Helicopter) ALH (Advanced Light Helicopter), and over 100 planes over the next 10 years. HAL will manufacture the Kamov 226T helicopter under a joint venture agreement with Russian defence manufacturers. The Kamov 226T will replace the country's fleet of Cheetah and Chetak helicopters. Over the next 5 years, HAL will carry out major upgrade of almost the entire fighter fleet of Indian Air Force including Su-30MKI, Jaguars, Mirage and Hawk jets to make them "more lethal". The company will also deliver 123 Tejas Light Combat Aircraft to the IAF from 2018–19, at a rate of 16 jets per year. [7]


One of the largest aerospace companies in Asia, HAL has annual turnover of over US$2 billion. More than 40% of HAL's revenues come from international deals to manufacture aircraft engines, spare parts, and other aircraft materials. A partial list of major operations undertaken by HAL includes the following:

International agreements

HAL Dhruv helicopters of the Ecuadorian Air Force in 2009 Aero India Dhruv Ecuador.jpg
HAL Dhruv helicopters of the Ecuadorian Air Force in 2009 Aero India
An IAF BAe Hawk being licence-produced at the HAL Hawk production facility in Bangalore Hawk production at HAL.JPG
An IAF BAe Hawk being licence-produced at the HAL Hawk production facility in Bangalore

Domestic agreements

Indigenous products

HAL manufactures indigenous products with technology transferred from the DRDO, in association with Bharat Electronics for its avionics and Indian Ordnance Factories for the on-board weapons systems and ammunition.

Agricultural aircraft

Fighter aircraft


HAL Dhruv of the Indian Army Dhruv Indian Army Farnborough 08.jpg
HAL Dhruv of the Indian Army


Trainer aircraft

Closeup of a HAL Kiran aircraft HAL Kiran Aero India-2007.jpg
Closeup of a HAL Kiran aircraft

Observation and reconnaissance aircraft

Transport and passenger aircraft

Saras, developed by HAL and National Aerospace Laboratories HAL Saras.jpg
Saras, developed by HAL and National Aerospace Laboratories
RUAG Dornier Do 228 at the 2018 RIAT, England. Most of the structure is made by HAL. RUAG Dornier Do 228NG (code 302, reg D-CNEU) at RIAT Fairford 16July2018 arp.jpg
RUAG Dornier Do 228 at the 2018 RIAT, England. Most of the structure is made by HAL.

Utility aircraft


Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Licensed production

HAL licensed-built Su-30 MKI SU-30 MKI Lajes.JPG
HAL licensed-built Su-30 MKI

Notable people

See also

Related Research Articles

HAL Tejas Indian multirole light fighter

The HAL Tejas is an Indian single-engine, delta wing, multirole light fighter designed by the Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA) and Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) for the Indian Air Force and Indian Navy. It came from the Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) programme, which began in the 1980s to replace India's ageing MiG-21 fighters. In 2003, the LCA was officially named "Tejas".

HAL Dhruv utility helicopter family

The HAL Dhruv is a utility helicopter developed and manufactured by India's Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL). The development of the Dhruv was first announced in November 1984, and it was subsequently designed with assistance from MBB in Germany. The helicopter first flew in 1992; however, its development was prolonged due to multiple factors including the Indian Army's requirement for design changes, budget restrictions, and sanctions placed on India following the 1998 Pokhran-II nuclear tests.

HAL HF-24 Marut HAL designed fighter jet

The HAL HF-24 Marut is an Indian fighter-bomber aircraft of the 1960s. Developed by Hindustan Aircraft Limited (HAL), with Kurt Tank as lead designer. It is the first Indian-developed jet aircraft, and the first Asian jet fighter to go beyond the test phase and into successful production and active service. On 17 June 1961, the type conducted its maiden flight; on 1 April 1967, the first production Marut was officially delivered to the IAF.

HAL HJT-36 Sitara

The HAL HJT-36 Sitara is a subsonic intermediate jet trainer aircraft developed by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) for the Indian Air Force and the Indian Navy. The HJT-36 will replace the HAL HJT-16 Kiran as the Stage-2 trainer for the two forces.

HAL Airport former airport in Bangalore, India

HAL Airport, also known as Hindustan Airport, is an airport located in Bangalore, Karnataka, India. Due to its location in the heart of the city, it serves as a hub for general, business and VIP aviation. The airport is also used by the Indian Air Force as a cargo and logistics base, and as a testing facility by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited. It served as the city's main domestic and international airport until 24 May 2008, when it was replaced by the new, much larger Kempegowda International Airport in Devanahalli. There have since been repeated attempts to restart commercial service at the airport.

Aero India

Aero India is a biennial air show and aviation exhibition held in Bengaluru, India at the Yelahanka Air Force Station. It is organised by the Defence Exhibition Organisation, Ministry of Defence.

Aérospatiale SA 315B Lama

The Aérospatiale SA 315B Lama is a French single-engined helicopter developed to meet hot and high operational requirements of the Indian Armed Forces. It combines the lighter Aérospatiale Alouette II airframe with Alouette III components and powerplant. The Lama possesses exceptional high altitude performance; on 21 June 1972, the type established a helicopter absolute altitude record of 12,442 m (40,814 ft), a record which remained unbroken as of September 2017.

Sukhoi Su-30MKI Indian variant of the Su-30MK multirole fighter aircraft

The Sukhoi Su-30MKI is a twinjet multirole air superiority fighter developed by Russia's Sukhoi and built under licence by India's Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) for the Indian Air Force (IAF). A variant of the Sukhoi Su-30, it is a heavy, all-weather, long-range fighter.

Economy of Bangalore

The Economy of Bangalore is an important part of the economy of India as a whole and contributes over 87% to the Economy of the State of Karnataka, accounting for 98% of the Software Exports of the State.

The PJSC United Aircraft Corporation (UAC) is a Russian aerospace and defense corporation. With a majority stake belonging to the Russian Government, it consolidates Russian private and state-owned aircraft manufacturing companies and assets engaged in the manufacture, design and sale of military, civilian, transport, and unmanned aircraft. Its headquarters are in Krasnoselsky District, Central Administrative Okrug, Moscow.

The Indian Naval Air Arm is a naval aviation branch of the Indian Navy which is tasked to provide an aircraft carrier based strike capability, fleet air defence, maritime reconnaissance, and anti-submarine warfare.

HAL Light Combat Helicopter Indian combat helicopter

The HAL Light Combat Helicopter (LCH) is an Indian multirole combat helicopter developed and manufactured by Indian aerospace manufacturer Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL). It has been ordered for both the Indian Air Force and the Indian Army. The type is also intended to be sold upon the export market, since 2015, HAL has been seeking other customers for the LCH.

Defence Avionics Research Establishment (DARE) is a laboratory of the Indian Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO). Located in Bangalore, Karnataka, India, It is one of the two DRDO laboratories involved in the research and development of airborne electronic warfare and mission avionics systems.

Safran Ardiden Turboshaft engine

The Safran Ardiden is a 1,400–2,000 hp (1,000–1,500 kW) turboshaft designed and produced by Safran Helicopter Engines for 5–8 t (11,000–18,000 lb) single and twin-engine helicopters. Launched in 2003 as a more powerful TM 333, it first ran in 2005 and was introduced in 2007. The Ardiden 1 Shakti powers the Indian HAL Dhruv, Light Combat Helicopter and Light Utility Helicopter while the more powerful Ardiden 3 powers the Avicopter AC352 and Kamov Ka-62.

Hindustan is a term currently used as an endonym for the modern day Republic of India, and historically used for parts of the subcontinent.

HAL Light Utility Helicopter

The HAL Light Utility Helicopter (LUH) is a single-engine light helicopter designed and under development by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) of India. Along with a derivative, known as the Light Observation Helicopter (LOH), the type is set to replace the HAL Cheetah and HAL Chetak helicopters in service with the Indian Army and the Indian Air Force.

HAL Aerospace Museum Aviation museum in Airport-Varthur road, Bangalore

HAL Aerospace Museum is India's first aerospace museum located at Hindustan Aeronautics Limited premises, in Bangalore. Established in 2001, the Museum is part of the HAL Heritage Centre and Aero Space Museum, and showcases the growth of the Indian aviation industry and HAL for six decades. The museum houses displays of various aircraft and helicopters, Aircraft engine models, Flight simulators, a mock Air Traffic Control Tower and exhibit of Indian aviation history. The Museum is maintained by HAL.

Future of the Indian Air Force Indian military modernization program

The Indian Air Force has been undergoing a modernization program to replace and upgrade its aging and outdated equipment since the late 90s to advanced standards. For that reason it has started procuring and developing aircraft, weapons, associated technologies, and infrastructures. Some of these programs date back to the late 80s. The primary focus of current modernization and upgrades is to replace aircraft purchased from the Soviet Union that currently form the backbone of the Air Force.

HAL Rudra attack variant of the HAL Dhruv helicopter

The HAL Rudra, also known as ALH-WSI, is an armed version of HAL Dhruv. Rudra is equipped with Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) and Thermal Imaging Sights Interface, a 20 mm turret gun, 70 mm rocket pods, anti-tank guided missiles and air-to-air missiles.


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