South Block, Central Secretariat
|Formed||1776(as Military Department)|
15 August 1947(as Ministry of Defence)
|Jurisdiction||Government of India|
|Headquarters|| Cabinet Secretariat |
Raisina Hill, New Delhi
|Employees||1,443,921 (active personnel) (2016)|
|Annual budget||₹ 478,195 crore (US$67 billion) (2021–22)|
|Deputy Minister responsible|
The Ministry of Defence (MoD) (IAST: Rakshā Maṃtrālaya) is charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government relating directly to national security and the Indian armed forces. The President of India is the ceremonial commander-in-chief of the armed forces of the country. The Ministry of Defence provides policy framework and resources to the armed forces to discharge their responsibility in the context of the defence of the country. The Indian Armed Forces (including Indian Army, Indian Air Force, Indian Navy) and Indian Coast Guard under the Ministry of Defence are primarily responsible for ensuring the territorial integrity of India.
At present, the undergoing new creation of National Defence University, for training of military officials and concerned civilian officials, will be administered and overseen by the Ministry. The Ministry organises and runs Republic Day celebrations and parade every year in January, hosting a chief guest. The Ministry has the largest budget among the federal departments of India and currently stands third in military expenditure in the world,among countries of the world.
created by the supreme government of the British East India Company at Kolkata in the year 1776.Its main function was to co-ordinate and record orders, relating to the army, issued by various departments of the government of the East India Company. The Military Department initially functioned as a branch of the Public Department and maintained a list of army personnel.
With the Charter Act 1833 the Secretariat of the Government of the East India Company was reorganised into four departments, each headed by a secretary to the Government.The armies in the presidencies of Bengal, Bombay and Madras functioned as the respective presidency armies until April 1895, when the presidency armies were unified into a single Indian Army. For administrative convenience, it was divided into four commands: Punjab (including the North West Frontier), Bengal (including Burma), Madras and Bombay (including Sindh, Quetta and Aden).
The supreme authority over the Indian Army was vested in the Governor General-in-Council, subject to the control of the Crown, which was exercised by the Secretary of State for India. Two members in the Council were responsible for military affairs. One was the Military Member, who supervised all administrative and financial matters. The other was the commander-in-chief who was responsible for all operational matters.The Military Department was abolished in March 1906 and was replaced by two separate departments; the Army Department and the Military Supply Department. In April 1909 the Military Supply Department was abolished and its functions were taken over by the Army Department. The Army Department was redesignated as the Defence Department in January 1938. The Department of Defence became the Ministry of Defence under a cabinet minister in August 1947.
The functions of MoD which in 1947 was mainly logistic support to the armed forces, has undergone far reaching changes. In November 1962, following the 1962 war, a Department of Defence Production was set-up to deal with research, development and production of defence equipment. In November 1965, the Department of Defence Supplies was created for planning and execution of schemes for import substitution of requirements for defence purposes. These two Departments were later merged to form the Department of Defence Production and Supplies.
In 1980, the Department of Defence Research and Development was created. In January 2004, the Department of Defence Production and Supplies was renamed the Department of Defence Production. A Scientific Adviser to the Defence Minister was appointed to advise on scientific aspects of military equipment and the research and design of defence forces equipment. The Department of Ex-Servicemen Welfare was created in 2004.
The Ministry of Defence consists of five Departments; Department of Defence (DoD), Department of Military Affairs (DMA), Department of Defence Production (DDP), Department of Defence Research and Development (DRDO), and Department of Ex-Servicemen Welfare (DESW). The Defence Secretary of India functions as head of the Department of Defence,and is additionally responsible for coordinating the activities of the Departments in the Ministry.
The principal functions of all the Departments are as follows:
Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses, Defence Institute of Advanced Technology, Defence Institute of Psychological Research and National Defence University come under administration and purview of the Ministry of Defence.
To ensure a high degree of synergy between the Armed forces, the Government has set up the Integrated Defence Staff, headed by the Chief of Integrated Defence Staff as the Chairman. It was created on 1 October 2001 based on the recommendations of the Group of Ministers which was set up in 2000 (post-Kargil) to review India's defence management.It acts as the point organisation for integration of policy, doctrine, war-fighting and procurement by employing best management practices. The chairman of Integrated Defences Staff is a 4-star General (or his equivalent in the Air Force or the Navy). The Chief of Integrated Defence Staff/Vice Chief of defence staff is a three-star General.
The current Chief of Defence Staff is General Bipin Rawat, who took over on 1 January 2020.
The current Vice Chief of Defence Staff is Vice Admiral R. Hari Kumar.
"Chiefs of Staff are the authority for advising the Defence Minister and normally through him the Cabinet Committee on Political Affairs on all military matters which require ministerial consideration". The Integrated Defence Staff is '"the principal arm and Secretariat to the Chiefs of Staff Committee".
The Chiefs of Staff Committee is composed of: (a) Chief of the Army Staff (COAS); (b) Chief of the Naval Staff (CNS); (c) Chief of the Air Staff (CAS); and (d) Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) (non-voting member). The Scientific Adviser to the Minister of Defence is invited to attend whenever needed.
The senior most member of the COSC is appointed its chairperson. General Bipin Rawat is the current head of COSC.
The position of COSC has ceased to exit with the creation of Chief of Defence Staff.
The responsibility for national defence "rests with the Cabinet, which is discharged through the Ministry of Defence, which provides the policy framework and wherewithal to the Armed Forces to discharge their responsibilities in the context of the defence of the country. The Raksha Mantri (Defence Minister) is the head of the Ministry of Defence."
The Defence Ministry is responsible for "obtaining policy directions of the Government on all defence and security related matters" and communicating these directions to "Services Headquarters, Inter-Services Organisations, Production Establishments and Research and Development Organisations".The MoD works closely with the National Security Council, Ministry of External Affairs and the Ministry of Home Affairs.
MoD is headed by the Minister of Defence, who is supported by one, or more than one, minister of state.
|Rajnath Singh||Minister of Defence||Overall responsibility.|
|Ajay Bhatt||Minister of State for Defence||Charter of duties includes secondary logistic and administrative functions.|
There are about 400,000 defence civilians, under the MOD including Ministry of Finance personnel attached to MOD. In 2015–16 Defence pension bill was ₹ 54,500 crore (equivalent to ₹630 billionorUS$8.8 billion in 2019) of which about 36 per cent was on account of defence civilians. 
The ministers are supported by a number of civilian, scientific and military advisers.
The Defence Secretary as head of the Department of Defence,is the senior most civil servant in the ministry and is responsible for coordinating the activities of the four departments in the ministry. His/her role is to ensure that the MoD operates effectively as a department of the government. Defence Secretary is assisted by additional secretaries and joint secretaries to Government of India posted in the ministry. The Defence Secretary, generally, is an officer from the Indian Administrative Service, apart from the Defence Secretary, there are three other secretary-level posts in the Ministry of Defence.
Scientific Adviser to Defence Minister plays a key role in formulation of research and development policies and promoting self-reliance in Indian defence industries.
|Ajay Kumar, IAS||Defence Secretary|
|Subhash Garg, IAS||Secretary (Defence Production)|
|Sanjeevanee Kutty, IAS||Secretary (Ex-servicemen Welfare)|
|Dr. G. Satheesh Reddy||Secretary (Defence Research and Development) and chairman, DRDO|
|SANJIV MITTAL, IDAS IDAS||Financial Adviser (Defence Services), Ministry of Defence|
|Apurva Chandra, IAS||Director General (Acquisition) and Additional Secretary|
|Subhash Chandra, IAS||Additional Secretary|
|Jiwesh Nandan, IAS||Additional Secretary (JN)|
|Barun Mitra, IAS||Additional Secretary (Defence Production)|
|Mala Dutt, IES||Additional Secretary and Financial Adviser (Acquisition)|
|Major General V. D. Vogra||Director General (Resettlement)|
|Major General Ashok Kumar||Managing Director, Ex-servicemen Contributory Health Scheme|
|Major General H. S. Shanbhag||Technical Manager (Land Systems)|
|Rear Admiral R. Sreenivas||Technical Manager (Maritime and Systems)|
|Air Vice Marshal Vishwas Gaur, VM||Technical Manager (Air)|
|Dr. G. Satheesh Reddy||Scientific Adviser to Defence Minister|
|S. No.||Name of service||Group|
|1||Indian Naval Material Management Service||A|
|2||Border Roads Engineering Service||A|
|3||Defence Aeronautical Quality Assurance Service||A|
|4||Defence Quality Assurance Service||A|
|5||Defence Research and Development Service||A|
|6||Indian Defence Accounts Service||A|
|7||Indian Defence Contract Management Service||A|
|8||Indian Defence Estates Service||A|
|9||Indian Defence Service of Engineers||A|
|10||Indian Naval Armament Service||A|
|11||Indian Ordnance Factories Service||A|
|12||Indian Ordnance Factories Health Service||A|
|13||Armed Forces Headquarters Civil Services||B|
The Finance Division of the Ministry of Defence is headed by the Financial Adviser (Defence Services). He or she exercises financial control over proposals involving expenditure from the Defence Budget and is responsible for the internal audit and accounting of defence expenditure. In the latter tasks, he or she is assisted by the Controller General of Defence Accounts.
In 1955, the title of Commander-in-Chief was abolished and the three service chiefs were designated as the Chief of the Army Staff, the Chief of the Naval Staff and the Chief of the Air Staff. The heads of the three services of Indian Armed Forces are:
The SRIJAN is a portal launched by MoD in order to take up the products imported for indigenization. According to Ministry; it displays defence products that have been imported recently and will tag with the Defence Public sector undertakings, Ordinance Factory Board and others in order to push for its domestic manufacturing for exports in future.
The Ministry of Defence is the British government department responsible for implementing the defence policy set by Her Majesty's Government, and is the headquarters of the British Armed Forces. It is the UK's ministry of defence.
The Arjun is a third generation main battle tank developed by the Combat Vehicles Research and Development Establishment (CVRDE) of the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), for the Indian Army. The tank is named after Arjuna, the archer prince who is the main protagonist of the Indian epic poem Mahabharata.
The Ministry of National Defence is one of the eighteen ministries of the Government of Romania.
The Indian Armed Forces are the military forces of the Republic of India. It consists of three professional uniformed services: the Indian Army, Indian Navy, and Indian Air Force. Additionally, the Indian Armed Forces are supported by the Indian Coast Guard and paramilitary organisations and various inter-service commands and institutions such as the Strategic Forces Command, the Andaman and Nicobar Command and the Integrated Defence Staff. The President of India is the Supreme Commander of the Indian Armed Forces. The Indian Armed Forces are under the management of the Ministry of Defence (MoD) of the Government of India. With strength of over 1.4 million active personnel, it is the world's second-largest military force and has the world's largest volunteer army. It also has the third-largest defence budget in the world. As per 2015 Credit Suisse report, the Indian Armed Forces is the world's fifth-most powerful military, whereas the 2020 GlobalFirepower report lists it as the fourth most-powerful military.
Ordnance Factory Board (OFB), consisting of the Indian Ordnance Factories, is an organisation, under the control of department of defence production (DDP), Ministry of Defence (MoD), Government of India. It is engaged in research, development, production, testing, marketing and logistics of a product range in the areas of air, land and sea systems. OFB comprises forty-one ordnance factories, nine training institutes, three regional marketing centres and four regional controllerates of safety, which are spread all across the country. Every year, 18 March is celebrated as the Ordnance Factory Day in India.
Defence Institute of Advanced Technology (DIAT) is the premier engineering training institute under the Department of Defence Research & Development, Ministry of Defence, Government of India. DIAT (DU) is specialized in the training of officers of Defence Research Organizations, IOFS, Defence PSUs, ship building agencies like Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineers, Cochin and Goa Shipyards, Mazagon Dock Shipbuilders and armed forces of friendly countries and other central and state government agencies.
The Ministry of Defence, is an executive ministry of the Government of Pakistan, tasked in defending Pakistan's national interests and values at home and abroad. It plays a major supporting role to the Pakistan Armed Forces and coordinates with a range of domestic, foreign and inter-governmental bodies.
Vehicle Factory Jabalpur, is a military motor vehicle manufacturing organisation, located in Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, India, functioning under the aegis of Ordnance Factory Board, controlled by the Ministry of Defence, Government of India. The organisation is headed by an IOFS officer, who is the Chief Executive Officer, responsible for the overall management of the company, and is the main judicial authority. VFJ is the sole supplier of B vehicles to the Indian Army.
The Indian Ordnance Factories Service (IOFS) is a civil service under Group A of the Central Civil Services of the executive branch of the Government of India. IOFS officers are Gazetted defence-civilian officers under the Ministry of Defence. They are responsible for the management of the Indian Ordnance Factories, which provide the defence production capabilities of India.
Indian Defence Accounts Service (IDAS) is a Central Group 'A' Civil Service was established to provide Financial Advice, Accounts and Audit services to the Defence Services and allied organisations viz. Ordnance Factories, Indian Armed Forces, Military Engineer Services, Border Roads Organisation, Defence Research and Development Organisation etc. IDAS officers are Group-AThe gazetted civilian officers under Government of India, Ministry of Defence. They are primarily recruited through the Civil Services Examination conducted by the Union Public Service Commisiion (UPSC) every year. The Defence Accounts Department has a history of more than two hundred years having been established to look after the Pay Accounts of Military Services of India. IDAS is one of the Group Á'Central Civil Services of Republic of India. The cadre controlling authority of IDAS is the Ministry of Defence. The selected candidates(IDAS officers) training academy is at Pune(Maharashtra). The National Academy for Defence Financial Management.
Department of Ex-servicemen Welfare is a department in the Ministry of Defence, India. It was set up in 2004. The head of Department of Ex-servicemen Welfare since its inception has been a bureaucrat from the IAS. Veteran have for long demanded that DEWS be headed by a serving officers or a retired officer, like in other countries, including the United States, in which the Department of Veterans, is invariably headed by veteran with active duty military experience, with a cabinet rank. For instance the current head of the department is graduate of West Point, and has served in the army.
The defence industry of India is a strategically important sector in India. India has one of the world's largest military forces with a strength of over 14.4 lakh active personnel. It has the world's largest volunteer military of over 51 lakh personnel. The total budget sanctioned for the Indian military for the financial year 2021 is ₹4.78 lakh crore (US$67 billion). It has the third largest annual defence budget behind USA and China. It is the second largest defence importer behind Saudi Arabia making up 9.2% of global arms import. India has a domestic defence industry of which 80% is government owned. The public sector includes DRDO and its 50 labs, 4 defence shipyards, 5 defence PSUs and 41 ordnance factories. India has a new defence procurement, acquisition and manufacturing policy to reduce imports and enhance domestic manufacturing.
Defence Research & Development Service (DRDS) is a Central Group 'A' Civil Service of the Government of India. DRDS scientists are Gazetted defence-civilian officers under the Ministry of Defence. They are responsible for developing new technologies and military hardware for the Indian defence and security forces.
The Military Engineer Services (MES) is an inter-service organisation with military and civilian components of its officers and subordinate staff. MES is one of the oldest and largest government defence infrastructure-development agencies in India. Construction work is done with contracts, but maintenance is conducted by departmentally-employed labour (DEL) and contracts. MES is primarily employed in engineering and construction for the Indian Armed Forces, including the Army, Navy, Air Force, the Ordnance Factory Board, and the DRDO. It is also involved in complex projects, including hospitals, airfields, buildings, workshops, roads, runways, hangars, dockyards, wharves, and other marine structures. MES has been entrusted with the construction of the Indian National War Memorial.
The Defence Secretary is the administrative head of the Ministry of Defence. This post is held by a senior Indian Administrative Service of the rank of secretary to the Government of India. The current Defence Secretary is Ajay Kumar.
The Defence Planning Committee is a senior decision-making organisation created on 19 April 2018 by the Government of India.
The Integrated Defence Staff (IDS) is an organisation responsible for fostering coordination and enabling prioritisation across the different branches of the Indian Armed Forces. It is composed of representatives from the Indian Army, Indian Navy, Indian Air Force, Ministry of External Affairs, Defence Research and Development Organisation, Ministry of Defence and Ministry of Finance. The IDS is headed by Chief of Integrated Defence Staff along with Deputy Chiefs of Integrated Defence Staff. On December 24, 2019 the Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS) established the post of Chief of Defence Staff, a four-star general, a tri-service Chief, that shall lead the defence forces as well as play the role of head of the Department of Military Affairs. The body advises and assists the Chief of Defence Staff
The Chairman of the Chiefs of Staff Committee, was the head of the Indian Armed Forces, roughly based on the British Chiefs of Staff Committee. The senior-most Chief of Staff was appointed to serve as a Chairman until he retired. The last Chairman was the Chief of the Army Staff General Bipin Rawat. After its creation, Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) is the permanent chairman of the Chiefs of Staff Committee (CoSC). Earlier, the chairmanship of the CoSC was held in rotation by the senior-most service chief for short periods and the arrangement was found to be unsatisfactory.
The Chief of Defence Staff of the Indian Armed Forces (CDS) is the head of the military staff of the Indian Armed Forces and the chief executive of the Department of Military Affairs. As the highest-ranking serving officer in the Indian Armed Forces, the CDS is the commanding officer and chairperson of the Joint Commanders and Staff Committee – making him the chief military adviser to the government of India and the Ministry of Defence. As the professional head of the armed forces, the Chief of Defence Staff is also aided by the newly formed office of Vice Chief of Defence Staff, the nation's second highest ranking military officer, and the three chiefs of staff of the army, navy and air force, who are the leaders of each respective branch. The first and current CDS is General Bipin Rawat, who took office on 1 January 2020.
Department of Military Affairs (DMA) is the department in charge of military matters within the Indian Ministry of Defence. Headed by the Chief of Defence Staff, as its ex-officio secretary, the DMA provides integration between the armed forces of the Union and the Ministry of Defence.
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