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Clock Tower Secunderabad.jpg
Secunderabad Clock Tower
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Location in Telangana, India
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Secunderabad (India)
Coordinates: 17°27′N78°30′E / 17.45°N 78.5°E / 17.45; 78.5 Coordinates: 17°27′N78°30′E / 17.45°N 78.5°E / 17.45; 78.5
State Telangana
District Hyderabad District
Metro Hyderabad Metropolitan Region
Founded by Sikandar Jah
Named for Sikandar Jah
  Body Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation
Secunderabad Cantonment Board [1]
   MP G. Kishan Reddy
   MLA Padma Rao Goud
   Twin city
Cantonment area
64.5 km2 (24.9 sq mi)
543 m (1,781 ft)
   Twin city
Cantonment area
  Density3,300/km2 (8,600/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+5:30 (IST)
500 xxx
Telephone code040
Vehicle registration TS-10 [2]

Secunderabad /sɪkəndərˈɑːbɑːd/ ( [sikŋdɾaːbaːd] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ), also spelled sometimes as Sikandarabad) is the twin city of Hyderabad in the Indian state of Telangana. Named after Sikandar Jah, the third Nizam of the Asaf Jahi dynasty, Secunderabad was established in 1806 as a British cantonment. Although both the cities are together referred to as the twin cities, Hyderabad and Secunderabad have different histories and cultures, with Secunderabad having developed directly under British rule until 1948, and Hyderabad as the capital of the Nizams' princely state of Hyderabad. [3]


Geographically divided from Hyderabad by the Hussain Sagar lake, Secunderabad is no longer a separate municipal unit and has become part of Hyderabad's Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation (GHMC). Both cities are collectively known as Hyderabad and together form the fifth-largest metropolis in India. Being one of the largest cantonments in India, Secunderabad has a large presence of army and air force personnel. [4] [5]


James street circa 1880, an important shopping district in Secunderabad JamesStreet Secunderabad 1880.jpg
James street circa 1880, an important shopping district in Secunderabad

Following the dissolution of the Chalukya empire into four parts in the 11th century, the areas around the present day Hyderabad and Secunderabad came under the control of the Kakatiya dynasty (1158–1310), whose seat of power was at Warangal, 148 km (92 mi) northeast of modern Hyderabad. [7]

Secunderabad is also the site where the then Mughal emperor Ahmad Shah Bahadur was defeated in the year 1754 by the Maratha Confederacy; the emperor arrived after the death of Nawab Anwaruddin Khan nearby at the Battle of Ambur in 1749.

The area around Secunderbad changed hands between various rulers, and the area was part of Nizam's Hyderabad by the 18th century. [8] [9]

Banner celebrating 200 years of Secunderabad Secunderabad 200yrs Celebration.jpg
Banner celebrating 200 years of Secunderabad

Modern Secunderabad was founded as a British cantonment after Nizam Asaf Jah II was defeated by the British East India Company. He was then forced to sign the 1798 Treaty of Subsidiary Alliance [10] [11] to get the favor of British troops camped in the village of Ulwul, north-east of Hussain Sagar, the lake that separates Secunderabad from its twin city Hyderabad. In 1803, Nizam Sikandar Jah, the third Nizam of Hyderabad, changed Ulwul's name to Secunderabad after himself. [10] The city was formed in 1806, after the order was signed by the Nizam allotting the land north of Hussain Sagar to set up the British Cantonment. [12]

The twin cities are separated by the man-made Hussain Sagar lake, which was built during the reign of the Qutb Shahi dynasty in the 16th century. Unlike Hyderabad, the official language of Secunderabad was English. [13] Secunderabad was exempted from customs duty on imported goods, thus making trade very profitable. Various new markets such as Regimental Bazaar and General Bazaar were created. After the First War of Indian Independence of 1857, the construction of a 7-metre-high (23 ft) wall was started at Trimulgherry and completed in 1867. [13]

Secunderabad Junction railway station, one of the largest in India and the zonal headquarters of South Central Railway, was established in 1874. The King Edward Memorial Hospital, now known as Gandhi Hospital, was established in 1851. A civil jail (now a heritage building known as Old Jail complex near Monda Market) was also established. [14] Originally constructed in 1860 as the country house of the British Resident at Hyderabad, the Residency House is now known as the Rashtrapati Nilayam, the official retreat of the President of India. [15]

Trimulgherry Entrenchment where British troops were stationed Trimulgherry Entrenchment.jpg
Trimulgherry Entrenchment where British troops were stationed

Sir Winston Churchill, the prime minister of the United Kingdom during World War II, was posted in Secunderabad during the 1890s as a subaltern in the British Army. [16] Sir Ronald Ross conducted his initial research on the cause of malaria in the city of Secunderabad. [17] The original building is today called the Sir Ronald Ross Institute and is located on Minister Road.

Secunderabad Municipality was first formed in 1945. Later in 1950, along with Hyderabad Municipality, it was upgraded to Secunderabad Municipal Corporation under the Hyderabad Corporation Act, 1950. In 1960, by the Hyderabad Municipal Corporation Act of 1955, Secunderabad Municipal Corporation was merged with Hyderabad Corporation to form a single municipal corporation. [18] Today Secunderabad is part of the Hyderabad district.

Post-Independence, the Secunderabad Cantonment Board came under the jurisdiction of the Indian Armed forces. Consequently, large military units were established. The popular neighbourhoods in Secunderabad are Paradise Circle, Trimulgherry, Jawaharnagar colony, Marredpally, Jeera, General Bazar, Sitaphalmandi, Kharkhana, Ranigunj, and New Bhoiguda.[ according to whom? ] Begumpet Airport is close to Secunderabad and served the twin city until early 2008.


Road sign by MCH Secunderabad Welcome Sign.jpg
Road sign by MCH

Situated in the North of Hyderabad at 17°27′N78°30′E / 17.45°N 78.5°E / 17.45; 78.5 ., [19] Secunderabad lies on the northern part of the Deccan Plateau. [18] [20] Secunderabad has an average elevation of 543 metres (1781 ft). Most of the area has a rocky terrain and some areas are hilly.

Secunderabad is 1,566 kilometres (973 mi) south of Delhi, 699 kilometres (434 mi) southeast of Mumbai, and 570 kilometres (350 mi) north of Bangalore by road. [21] It is connected to Hyderabad by Rastrapathi Road (formerly known as King's Way) and MG Road (formerly known as James' Street) via Tank Bund. As a constituent of Greater Hyderabad, Secunderabad is one of the largest metropolitan areas in India. Lot of residential areas are located nearby like West Marredpally, East Marredpally, Kharkhana, Bowenpally as it is calm and serene.


Secunderabad has a tropical savanna climate (Köppen: Aw) bordering on a hot semi-arid climate (Köppen: BSh), with hot summers from late March to early May, the monsoon season from late June to early October, and a pleasant winter from late November to early February. In the evenings and mornings, the climate is relatively cool. Most of the rainfall is concentrated in the monsoon months from June to September.

Winter lasts for only about 2 12 months, during which the lowest temperature occasionally dips to 10 °C (50 °F) in December and January. [22] May is the hottest month, with average daily lows of 26 °C (79 °F) and highs of 38.8 °C (102 °F). January is the coldest month with average lows of 14.7 °C (58 °F) and highs of 28.6 °C (83 °F). [23]

Climate data for Secunderabad India (1951–1980)
Average high °C (°F)28.6
Average low °C (°F)14.7
Average precipitation mm (inches)3.2
Source: [24]


Secunderabad had a population of 204,182.[ when? ] Males constituted 51% of the population and females 49%. Secunderabad had an average literacy rate of 73%, higher than the national average of 59.5%; male literacy was 78%, and female literacy was 68%. 11% of the population was under 6 years of age. The city has a sizable population of Anglo-Indians, who mainly resided in the South Lallaguda area of Secunderabad which was popularly known as Little England. [25] Many Anglo-Indians have emigrated to other countries in the English-speaking world over the last few decades. [26]


Secunderabad Club c.1902 Secunderabad Club.jpg
Secunderabad Club c.1902
Garden Restaurant established 1952, opposite to the Clock Tower Gardenrestaurantsecunderabadchristmaseve.png
Garden Restaurant established 1952, opposite to the Clock Tower

Due to the presence of communities such as Parsis and Anglo-Indians alongside British and native inhabitants, Secunderabad was historically a cosmopolitan city. [13] [28] Secunderabad used to be referred to by the locals as Lashkar, meaning the army and the city's culture reflected the same. Secunderabad was a liberal city compared to Hyderabad due to the presence of the British. Plaza cinema was the only theatre in India where viewers could sip a beer while watching a movie. Sangeet was a popular cinema theatre that screened only Western movies.[ clarification needed ] [29]

The popular Secunderabad Club was established in 1878, at a country house gifted by Salar Jung I. Secunderabad has a more laid-back atmosphere because it is mainly a residential area with fewer government offices and corporate establishments.

Many outdoor events such as the Republic Day parade and fairs are held in the Gymkhana or Parade grounds. [30] Christmas is celebrated by the Christian residents. An annual festival known as the Bonalu is celebrated by the Hindus of the Telangana state. It is usually held during the Ashadha, which is at the start of the monsoon season. [31] Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting, is observed by the local Muslims. There are old temples like Laxminarayana Swami Temple and Mahakali Temple. Local churches like Wesely church and St. Mary's church add to cosmopolitan culture of the city. The culture of Secunderabad is distinctly different from that of Hyderabad's Nawabi culture. [26] [28] [32]


The first car showroom that was opened in Secunderabad in 1912 at James Street, c. 1950 First Car Showroon secunderabd.jpeg
The first car showroom that was opened in Secunderabad in 1912 at James Street, c.1950

ITC, Infosys, Intergraph, and Coromandel International are some of the major private companies which have their offices in Secunderabad. Being the headquarters of South Central Railway, Secunderabad is a major centre for railway activity. Industrial areas such as Bolarum, Moula-Ali, Nacharam, Ghatkesar, Uppal, etc. are in Secunderabad. Secunderabad Cantonment Board houses a large number of defence units. Units of the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), such as Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research (AMD), Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC), and ECIL are close to Secunderabad. [33]


Regional passport office in Secunderabad Passport Office Secunderabad.jpg
Regional passport office in Secunderabad

The Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation (GHMC), established in 2007, is responsible for the administration and infrastructure of Secunderabad. Secunderabad Municipality was first formed in 1945. Later in 1950, along with Hyderabad Municipality, it was upgraded to Secunderabad Municipal Corporation under the Hyderabad Corporation Act of 1950. In 1960, by the Hyderabad Municipal Corporation Act of 1955, Secunderabad Municipal Corporation was merged with Hyderabad Corporation to form a single Municipal Corporation. [18] During Nizam's period, Secunderabad Cantonment was under the control of the British Raj. Today those areas, and most parts of Secunderabad where defence installations are located, is under the purview of Secunderabad Cantonment Board. There are eight civilian wards in Secunderbad Cantonment Board, with a population of four lakh. [34]

Secunderabad Municipality office which was located on Sardar Patel Road is to be demolished for the metro rail project. The new office is located at West Marredpally. [35] [ needs update ]

Secunderabad forms a part of Secunderabad Lok Sabha constituency and is represented with seven legislative assembly seats. The present Member of Parliament is G. Kishan Reddy, [36] [37] [38] who is also a Minister of State in the Union Cabinet. [39] [40] The incumbent Member of Legislative Assembly is a candidate from Telangana Rasthra Samiti (TRS), who is also a Minister under the Telangana government. [41] [ needs update ]


Major English dailies Deccan Chronicle and Financial Chronicle and the Telugu daily Andhra Bhoomi are published from Secunderabad. FM radio Radio Mirchi is located at SP Road in Secunderabad.


The most-popular sport played in Secunderabad is cricket. [42] During pre-independence era Secunderabad had various sports facilities built for serving Englishmen. [43] [44] Presently, no major stadiums are located in Secunderabad. However some open grounds belonging to railways and military establishments are used for various sporting activities. These are Gymkhana Ground, Parade Ground, Polo Ground, Bollarum Golf Course, and Railway Golf Course. The erstwhile Indian Premiere League cricket franchise, Deccan Chargers was based in Secunderabad.

Various state sports associations such as Amateur Boxing Association, Basketball Association, Women's Cricket Association, Sculling and Rowing Association, and Hyderabad Hockey Association are located in Secunderabad [45]


Secunderabad Railway Station, the busiest rail and bus junction in the city Secunderabad pano 18082017.jpg
Secunderabad Railway Station, the busiest rail and bus junction in the city
Tank Bund road, an important road which connects the cities of Secunderabad and Hyderabad Tankbund road.jpg
Tank Bund road, an important road which connects the cities of Secunderabad and Hyderabad

The most commonly used forms of medium-distance transport in Secunderabad include government-owned services such as light railways and Telangana State Road Transport Corporation (TSRTC) buses, [46] as well as privately operated auto rickshaws. [47] It is connected by Secunderabad East metro station of Hyderabad Metro.

The city is the headquarters of the South Central Railway Zone of the Indian Railways. It is served by Secunderabad Railway Station, one of the oldest and largest railway stations in the twin cities. Secunderabad is also a major railway junction in the Wadi–Vijayawada railway route.

Secunderabad is the hub for the city bus transport run by the TSRTC, and is connected to major destinations of both Hyderabad and Secunderabad. Major bus stations are the Jubilee Bus Station and the Rathifile Bus station.

The Tank Bund road is connects Hyderabad and Secunderabad. Abutting the Hussain Sagar lake, the Tank Bund road is an arterial road and the main thoroughfare connecting Secunderabad with Hyderabad. Maximum speed limits within the city are 50 km/h (31 mph) for two-wheelers and cars, 35 km/h (22 mph) for auto rickshaws and 40 km/h (25 mph) for light commercial vehicles and buses. [48]

The nearest airport is Rajiv Gandhi International Airport in Hyderabad, Begumpet Airport having closed in 2008.


Schools in Secunderabad, similar to other schools in Hyderabad and other parts of Telangana follow a 10+2+3 plan. Schools are a mix of publicly and privately run institutions, with two-thirds of students in private schools. [49] Languages of instruction include English, Hindi, Urdu, [50] and Telugu. Depending on the institution students are studying in, they are required to sit in the Secondary School Certificate [51] or the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education. After completing secondary education, students enroll in schools or junior colleges with a higher secondary facility. Due to the prolonged presence of the British, Secunderabad has convent schools established by Christian missionaries.

Research institutes such as National Institute of Nutrition, Center for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, The English and Foreign Languages University, Osmania University, Hamstech College of Creative Education and National Geophysical Research Institute are in Tarnaka, which is close to Secunderabad.

Notable people

See also

Related Research Articles

Hyderabad Capital of Telangana, India

Hyderabad is the capital and largest city of the Indian state of Telangana and the de jure capital of Andhra Pradesh. It occupies 625 square kilometres (241 sq mi) on the Deccan Plateau along the banks of the Musi River, in the northern part of South India. With an average altitude of 542 metres (1,778 ft), much of Hyderabad is situated on hilly terrain around artificial lakes, including the Hussain Sagar lake, predating the city's founding, in the north of the city centre. According to the 2011 Census of India, Hyderabad is the fourth-most populous city in India with a population of 6.9 million residents within the city limits, and has a population of 9.7 million residents in the metropolitan region, making it the sixth-most populous metropolitan area in India. With an output of US$74 billion, Hyderabad has the fifth-largest urban economy in India.

Nizam of Hyderabad Historic monarch of the Hyderabad State

The Nizams were the 18th-through-20th-century rulers of Hyderabad. Nizam of Hyderabad was the title of the monarch of the Hyderabad State. Nizam, shortened from Nizam-ul-Mulk, meaning Administrator of the Realm, was the title inherited by Asaf Jah I. He was the viceroy of the Great Mughal in the Deccan, the premier courtier in Mughal India in 1724, and the founding "Nizam of Hyderabad".

Telangana State in southern India

Telangana is a state in India situated on the south-central stretch of the Indian peninsula on the high Deccan Plateau. It is the eleventh-largest state and the twelfth-most populated state in India with a geographical area of 112,077 km2 (43,273 sq mi) and 35,193,978 residents as per 2011 census. On 2 June 2014, the area was separated from the northwestern part of Andhra Pradesh as the newly formed state with Hyderabad as its capital. Its other major cities include Warangal, Nizamabad, Khammam and Karimnagar. Telangana is bordered by the states of Maharashtra to the north, Chhattisgarh to the east, Karnataka to the west, and Andhra Pradesh to the east and south. The terrain of Telangana region consists mostly of hills, mountain ranges, and thick dense forests covering an area of 27,292 km2 (10,538 sq mi). As of 2019, the state of Telangana is divided into 33 districts.

Nizamabad, Telangana City in Telangana, India

For other uses and disambiguation, see Nizamabad.

Ranga Reddy district District of Telangana in India

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Malkajgiri Suburb in Medchal–Malkajgiri, Telangana, India

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Hyderabad district, India District of Telangana in India

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The Tank Bund Road runs between Hyderabad and Secunderabad, Telangana, India. The Tank Bund dams Hussain Sagar Lake on the eastern side and connects the twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad. It has become an attraction with 33 statues of famous Telugu people.

Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation City governing body in India

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Miyapur Neighbourhood in Ranga Reddy, Telangana, India

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Geography of Hyderabad

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Secunderabad Cantonment Board

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Ramakistapuram Gate railway station

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In Hyderabad, India, the Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation (GHMC) is in charge of the civic administration and infrastructure of the city. It was formed in April 2007 by merging 100 wards of the erstwhile Municipal Corporation of Hyderabad (MCH) with twelve municipalities of neighbouring two districts. GHMC covers an area of 650 km2 (250 sq mi), spread over the four districts—Hyderabad, Ranga Reddy, Medchal–Malkajgiri and Sangareddy. The GHMC is divided into five zones and eighteen circles that contain 150 municipal wards. Each ward is headed by a corporator, elected by popular vote. The corporators elect The City Mayor who is the titular head of GHMC. The executive powers of the GHMC lie with the Municipal Commissioner appointed by the Government of Telangana. The State Election Commission (SEC) monitors the municipal elections that are held in the city once in every five years. The first election of the GHMC were held in December 2009. The Indian National Congress alliance with Majlis Ittehadul Muslimeen formed the majority, with the agreement of sharing the mayor post equally between the two parties.

History of Hyderabad

Hyderabad is the capital of the Indian state of Telangana. It is a historic city noted for its many monuments, temples, mosques and bazaars. A multitude of influences has shaped the character of the city in the last 400 years.

Architecture of Hyderabad

A distinct Indo-Islamic architecture style with local contribution is reflected in the historical buildings of Hyderabad, making it the first and "Best Heritage City of India" as of March 2012. The city houses many famous historical sites constructed during Qutb Shahi and Asaf Jahi period, including various mosques and palaces.


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