Secretary of State for India

Last updated

Secretary of State for India
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (HM Government).svg
Royal Arms as used by His Majesty's Government
India Office
Member of British Cabinet
Privy Council
Seat Westminster, London
AppointerThe British Monarch
on advice of the Prime Minister
Term length No fixed term
Constituting instrument Government of India Act
Precursor President of the Board of Control
Formation2 August 1858
First holder Lord Stanley
Final holder The 5th Earl of Listowel
Abolished14 August 1947
Deputy Under-Secretary of State for India
The ceremonial seat of the Chairman of the Court of Directors of the East India Company, and subsequently that of the Secretary of State for India The seat of the chairman of the court of directors of the East India Company (c.1730) - BL Foster 905.jpg
The ceremonial seat of the Chairman of the Court of Directors of the East India Company, and subsequently that of the Secretary of State for India
The 1st Viscount Morley of Blackburn, Secretary of State for India from 1905 to 1910 and again briefly, as acting Secretary, in 1911 John Morley, 1st Viscount Morley of Blackburn - Project Gutenberg eText 17976.jpg
The 1st Viscount Morley of Blackburn, Secretary of State for India from 1905 to 1910 and again briefly, as acting Secretary, in 1911

His (or Her) Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for India, known for short as the India Secretary or the Indian Secretary, was the British Cabinet minister and the political head of the India Office responsible for the governance of the British Indian Empire (usually known simply as 'the Raj' or British India), Aden, and Burma. The post was created in 1858 when the East India Company's rule in Bengal ended and India, except for the Princely States, was brought under the direct administration of the government in Whitehall in London, beginning the official colonial period under the British Empire.

Cabinet of the United Kingdom Decision-making body of the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

The Cabinet of the United Kingdom is the collective decision-making body of Her Majesty's Government of the United Kingdom, composed of the Prime Minister and 22 cabinet ministers, the most senior of the government ministers.

India Office

The India Office was a British government department established in London in 1858 to oversee the administration, through a Viceroy and other officials, of the Provinces of British India. These territories comprised most of the modern-day nations of Bangladesh, Burma, India, and Pakistan, as well as Aden and other territories around the Indian Ocean. The department was headed by the Secretary of State for India, a member of the British cabinet, who was formally advised by the Council of India.

British Raj British rule on the Indian subcontinent, 1858–1947

The British Raj was the rule by the British Crown on the Indian subcontinent from 1858 to 1947. The rule is also called Crown rule in India, or direct rule in India. The region under British control was commonly called India in contemporaneous usage, and included areas directly administered by the United Kingdom, which were collectively called British India, and those ruled by indigenous rulers, but under British tutelage or paramountcy, and called the princely states. The whole was also more formally called the Indian Empire. As India, it was a founding member of the League of Nations, a participating nation in the Summer Olympics in 1900, 1920, 1928, 1932, and 1936, and a founding member of the United Nations in San Francisco in 1945.

Contents

In 1937, the India Office was reorganised which separated Burma and Aden under a new Burma Office, but the same Secretary of State headed both Departments and a new title was established as His Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for India and Burma. The India Office and its Secretary of State were abolished in August 1947, when the United Kingdom granted independence in the Indian Independence Act, which created two new independent dominions, the Dominion of India and the Dominion of Pakistan. Burma soon achieved independence separately in early 1948.

Colony of Aden 1937-1967 UK possession on the Arab Peninsula

The Colony of Aden or Aden Colony was a British Crown colony from 1937 to 1963 located in the south of contemporary Yemen. It consisted of the port of Aden and its immediate surroundings.

Burma Office

The Burma Office was a British government department created in 1937 to oversee the administration of Burma. The department was headed until 1947 by the Secretary of State for India and Burma, a member of the British cabinet, and then for a few months until January 1948 by the Secretary of State for Burma.

United Kingdom Country in Europe

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland. The United Kingdom's 242,500 square kilometres (93,600 sq mi) were home to an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017.

Secretaries of State for India, 1858–1937

Prior to the establishment of the British Empire on 2 August 1858, Lord Stanley had served as President of the Board of Control.

British Empire States and dominions ruled by the United Kingdom

The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. It originated with the overseas possessions and trading posts established by England between the late 16th and early 18th centuries. At its height, it was the largest empire in history and, for over a century, was the foremost global power. By 1913, the British Empire held sway over 412 million people, 23% of the world population at the time, and by 1920, it covered 35,500,000 km2 (13,700,000 sq mi), 24% of the Earth's total land area. As a result, its political, legal, linguistic and cultural legacy is widespread. At the peak of its power, the phrase "the empire on which the sun never sets" was often used to describe the British Empire, because its expanse around the globe meant that the sun was always shining on at least one of its territories.

Edward Stanley, 15th Earl of Derby British politician

Edward Henry Stanley, 15th Earl of Derby,, known as Lord Stanley from 1851 to 1869, was a British statesman. He served as Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs twice, from 1866 to 1868 and from 1874 to 1878, and also twice as Colonial Secretary in 1858 and from 1882 to 1885.

The President of the Board of Control was a British government official in the late 18th and early 19th century responsible for overseeing the British East India Company and generally serving as the chief official in London responsible for Indian affairs. The position was frequently a cabinet level one. The position was abolished in 1858 with the abolition of the East India Company. It was succeeded by the new position of Secretary of State for India.

PortraitNameTerm of officePolitical partyPrime Minister
Edward Stanley, 15th Earl of Derby 2.jpg The Right Honourable
Lord Stanley
MP for King's Lynn
2 August
1858
11 June
1859
Conservative The 14th Earl of Derby
1stViscountHalifax.jpg The Right Honourable
Sir Charles Wood
Bt GCB PC
MP for Halifax until 1865
MP for Ripon after 1865
18 June
1859
16 February
1866 [1]
Liberal  
Viscount Palmerston
 
The Earl Russell
George Robinson 1st Marquess of Ripon.jpg The Right Honourable
The Earl de Grey
VD PC
16 February
1866
26 June
1866
Liberal
Robert cecil.jpg The Right Honourable
Viscount Cranborne
MP for Stamford
6 July
1866
8 March
1867
Conservative  
The 14th Earl of Derby
 
Stafford Northcote, 1st Earl of Iddesleigh.jpg The Right Honourable
Sir Stafford Northcote
Bt CB
MP for North Devonshire
8 March
1867
1 December
1868
Conservative
 
Benjamin Disraeli
 
George Douglas Campbell, 8th Duke of Argyll by George Frederic Watts.jpg His Grace
The Duke of Argyll
KT PC
9 December
1868
17 February
1874
Liberal William Ewart Gladstone
Robert cecil.jpg The Most Honourable
The Marquess of Salisbury
PC FRS
21 February
1874
2 April
1878
Conservative Benjamin Disraeli
1st Earl of Cranbrook.jpg The Right Honourable
The Viscount Cranbrook
PC
2 April
1878
21 April
1880
Conservative
Picture of Spencer Cavendish, 8th Duke of Devonshire.jpg The Most Honourable
Marquess of Hartington
MP for North East Lancashire
28 April
1880
16 December
1882
Liberal William Ewart Gladstone
1st Earl of Kimberley 1897.jpg The Right Honourable
The Earl of Kimberley
PC
16 December
1882
9 June
1885
Liberal
Randolph churchill.jpg The Right Honourable
Lord Randolph Churchill
MP for Paddington South
24 June
1885
28 January
1886
Conservative The Marquess of Salisbury
1st Earl of Kimberley 1897.jpg The Right Honourable
The Earl of Kimberley
KG PC
6 February
1886
20 July
1886
Liberal William Ewart Gladstone
Portrait of Richard Assheton Cross, 1st Viscount Cross.jpg The Right Honourable
The Viscount Cross
GCB PC
3 August
1886
11 August
1892
Conservative The Marquess of Salisbury
1st Earl of Kimberley 1897.jpg The Right Honourable
The Earl of Kimberley
KG PC
18 August
1892
10 March
1894
Liberal William Ewart Gladstone
Henry Fowler.jpg The Right Honourable
Henry Fowler
MP for Wolverhampton East
10 March
1894
21 June
1895
Liberal The Earl of Rosebery
Lord George Hamilton.JPG The Right Honourable
Lord George Hamilton
MP for Ealing
4 July
1895
9 October
1903 [2]
Conservative  
The Marquess of Salisbury
(Unionist Coalition)
 
 
Arthur Balfour
(Unionist Coalition)
 
St John Brodrick, Earl of Midleton.jpg The Right Honourable
William St John Brodrick
MP for Guildford
9 October
1903
4 December
1905
Irish Unionist
John Morley, 1st Viscount Morley of Blackburn - Project Gutenberg eText 17976.jpg The Right Honourable
The Viscount Morley of Blackburn
OM PC
MP for Montrose Burghs until 1908
Viscount Morley of Blackburn after 1908
10 December
1905
3 November
1910
Liberal Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman
H. H. Asquith
Portrait of Robert Crewe-Milnes, 1st Marquess of Crewe.jpg The Right Honourable
The Earl of Crewe
KG PC FSA
3 November
1910
7 March
1911
Liberal
John Morley, 1st Viscount Morley of Blackburn - Project Gutenberg eText 17976.jpg The Right Honourable
The Viscount Morley of Blackburn
OM PC
7 March
1911
25 May
1911
Liberal
Portrait of Robert Crewe-Milnes, 1st Marquess of Crewe.jpg The Most Honourable
The Marquess of Crewe
KG PC FSA
25 May
1911
25 May
1915
Liberal
Austen Chamberlain nobel.jpg The Right Honourable
Austen Chamberlain
MP for Birmingham West
25 May
1915
17 July
1917 [3]
Conservative H. H. Asquith
(Coalition)

David Lloyd George
(Coalition)

Edwin Samuel Montagu.jpg The Right Honourable
Edwin Montagu
MP for Chesterton until 1918
MP for Cambridgeshire after 1918
17 July
1917
19 March
1922
Liberal
Earl Peel cropped.jpg The Right Honourable
The Viscount Peel
GBE PC
19 March
1922
22 January
1924
Conservative Bonar Law
Stanley Baldwin
Lord Olivier GGBain.jpg The Right Honourable
The Lord Olivier
KCMG CB PC
22 January
1924
3 November
1924
Labour Ramsay MacDonald
1stEarlOfBirkenhead.jpg The Right Honourable
The Earl of Birkenhead
KCMG PC KC
6 November
1924
18 October
1928
Conservative Stanley Baldwin
Earl Peel cropped.jpg The Right Honourable
The Viscount Peel
GBE PC
18 October
1928
4 June
1929
Conservative
William Wedgwood Benn cropped.jpg The Right Honourable
William Wedgwood Benn
DSO
MP for Aberdeen North
7 June
1929
24 August
1931
Labour Ramsay MacDonald
Sir Samuel Hoare GGBain.jpg The Right Honourable
Sir Samuel Hoare
Bt GCSI GBE CMG JP
MP for Chelsea
25 August
1931
7 June
1935
Conservative Ramsay MacDonald
(1st & 2nd National Min.)
Lord Zetland.jpg The Most Honourable
The Marquess of Zetland
GCSI GCIE PC
7 June
1935
28 May
1937
Conservative Stanley Baldwin
(3rd National Min.)

Secretaries of State for India and Burma, 1937–1947

PortraitNameTerm of officePolitical partyPrime Minister
Lord Zetland.jpg
The Marquess of Zetland
GCSI GCIE PC
28 May
1937
13 May
1940
Conservative Neville Chamberlain
(4th National Min.;
War Coalition)
File:Leo Amery 1917.jpg The Right Honourable
Leo Amery
MP for Birmingham Sparkbrook
13 May
1940
26 July
1945
Conservative Winston Churchill
(War Coalition; Caretaker Min.)
British Political Personalities 1936-1945 HU59768.jpg The Right Honourable
The Lord Pethick-Lawrence
PC
3 August
1945
17 April
1947
Labour Clement Attlee
No image.svg The Right Honourable
The Earl of Listowel
PC
14 August
1947
4 January
1948
Labour

Secretaries of State for Burma, 1947–1948

PortraitNameTerm of officePolitical partyPrime Minister
No image.svg The Right Honourable
The Earl of Listowel
PC
14 August
1947
4 January
1948
Labour Clement Attlee

See also

British rule in Burma Historical time period

British rule in Burma lasted from 1824 to 1948, from the Anglo-Burmese wars through the creation of Burma as a Province of British India to the establishment of an independently administered colony, and finally independence. The region under British control was known as British Burma. Various portions of Burmese territories, including Arakan, Tenasserim were annexed by the British after their victory in the First Anglo-Burmese War; Lower Burma was annexed in 1852 after the Second Anglo-Burmese War. The annexed territories were designated the minor province, British Burma, of British India in 1862.

Governor-General of India position

The Governor-General of India was the representative of the Monarch of the United Kingdom and after Indian independence in 1947, the representative of the Indian head of state. The office was created in 1773, with the title of Governor-General of the Presidency of Fort William. The officer had direct control only over Fort William, but supervised other East India Company officials in India. Complete authority over all of British India was granted in 1833, and the official came to be known as the "Governor-General of India".


Notes

  1. Resigned after being injured in a hunting accident.
  2. Resigned.
  3. Resigned.

Related Research Articles

State Emblem of India National emblem of the Republic of India

The State Emblem of India, as the national emblem of India is called, is an adaptation of the Lion Capital of Ashoka at Sarnath, preserved in the Sarnath Museum near Varanasi, India. A representation of Lion Capital of Ashoka was initially adopted as the emblem of the Dominion of India in December 1947. The current version of the emblem was officially adopted on 26 January 1950, the day that India became a republic.

Emperor of India title used by British monarchs from 1 May 1876 to 22 June 1948

Emperor/Empressof India, shortened to King-Emperor or Queen-Empress, was a title used by British monarchs from 1 May 1876 to 22 June 1948. The Emperor/Empress's image was used to signify British authority—his/her profile, for instance, appearing on currency, in government buildings, railway stations, courts, on statues etc. "God Save the King" was the former national anthem of British India. Oaths of allegiance were made to the Emperor/Empress and his/her lawful successors by the governors-general, princes, governors, commissioners in India in events such as Imperial Durbars.

Princely state Type of vassal state in British India

A princely state, also called native state, feudatory state or Indian state, was a vassal state under a local or regional ruler in a subsidiary alliance with the British Raj. Though the history of the princely states of the subcontinent dates from at least the classical period of Indian history, the predominant usage of the term princely state specifically refers to a semi-sovereign principality on the Indian subcontinent during the British Raj that was not directly governed by the British, but rather by a local ruler, subject to a form of indirect rule on some matters. In actual fact, the imprecise doctrine of paramountcy allowed the government of British India to interfere in the internal affairs of princely states individually or collectively and issue edicts that applied to all of India when it deemed it necessary.

Indian Independence Act 1947 United Kingdom legislation

The 1947 Indian Independence Act is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that partitioned British India into the two new independent dominions of India and Pakistan. The Act received the royal assent on 18 July 1947, and thus India and Pakistan, comprising of West and East regions, came into being on 15 August.

The Indian Civil Service (ICS), for part of the 19th century officially known as the Imperial Civil Service, was the elite higher civil service of the British Empire in British India during British rule in the period between 1858 and 1947.

Government of India Act 1858 United Kingdom legislation

The Government of India Act 1858 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed on August 2, 1858. Its provisions called for the liquidation of the British East India Company and the transference of its functions to the British Crown. Lord Palmerston, then-Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, introduced a bill for the transfer of control of the Government of India from the East India Company to the Crown, referring to the grave defects in the existing system of the government of India. However, before this bill was to be passed, Palmerston was forced to resign on another issue. Later Edward Henry Stanley, 15th Earl of Derby introduced another bill which was originally titled as "An Act for the Better Government of India" and it was passed on 2 August 1858. This act provided that India was to be governed directly and in the name of the Crown.

Secretary of State (United Kingdom) member of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom government

In the United Kingdom, a secretary of state (SofS) is a Cabinet minister in charge of a government department.

Dominion of India Period of Indian history

India was an independent dominion in the British Commonwealth of Nations with King George VI as the head of state between gaining independence from the United Kingdom on 15 August 1947 and the proclamation of a republic on 26 January 1950. It was created by the Indian Independence Act 1947 and was transformed into the Republic of India by the promulgation of the Constitution of India in 1950.

Presidencies and provinces of British India Administrative divisions of British governance in India

The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in India. Collectively, they were called British India. In one form or another, they existed between 1612 and 1947, conventionally divided into three historical periods:

The Colonial Service, also known as His/Her Majesty's Colonial Service and replaced in 1954 by Her Majesty's Overseas Civil Service (HMOCS), was the British government service which administered most of Britain's overseas possessions, under the authority of the Secretary of State for the Colonies and the Colonial Office in London. It did not operate in British India, where the same function was delivered by the Indian Civil Service, nor in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, which was administered by the Sudan Political Service, nor in the internally self-governing colony of Southern Rhodesia.

History of the British Raj

The past of the British Raj refers to the period of British rule on the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947. The system of governance was instituted in 1858 when the rule of the East India Company was transferred to the Crown in the person of Queen Victoria. It lasted until 1947, when the British provinces of India were partitioned into two sovereign dominion states: the Dominion of India and the Dominion of Pakistan, leaving the princely states to choose between them. The two new dominions later became the Republic of India and the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. The province of Burma in the eastern region of the Indian Empire had been made a separate colony in 1937 and became independent in 1948.

Colonial Office UK former government ministry

The Colonial Office was a government department of the Kingdom of Great Britain and later of the United Kingdom, first created to deal with the colonial affairs of British North America but needed also to oversee the increasing number of colonies of the British Empire. Despite its name, the Colonial Office was never responsible for all Britain's Imperial territories; for example protectorates fell under the purview of the Foreign Office, British India was ruled by the East India Company until 1858, whilst the Dominions were later carved out as the Empire matured.

The Dominions were the semi-independent polities under the British Crown that constituted the British Empire, beginning with Canadian Confederation in 1867. "Dominion status" was a constitutional term of art used to signify an independent Commonwealth realm; they included Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Newfoundland, South Africa, and the Irish Free State, and then from the late 1940s also India, Pakistan, and Ceylon. The Balfour Declaration of 1926 recognised the Dominions as "autonomous Communities within the British Empire", and the 1931 Statute of Westminster confirmed their full legislative independence.

Direct rule is when an imperial or central power takes direct control over the legislature, executive and civil administration of an otherwise largely self-governing territory.