Secretary of State for the Southern Department

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Great Britain
Secretary of State for the Southern Department

Coat of Arms of Great Britain (1714-1801).svg

Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Great Britain Government
The Southern Department
Style The Right Honourable
(Formal prefix)
Member of British Cabinet
Seat Westminster, London
Appointer The British Monarch
on advice of the Prime Minister
Term length No fixed term
Formation 1660-1782
First holder Edward Nicholas
Final holder Wills Hill, 1st Earl of Hillsborough

The Secretary of State for the Southern Department [1] was a position in the cabinet of the government of Kingdom of Great Britain up to 1782, when the Southern Department became the Foreign Office.

Cabinet (government) group of high ranking officials, usually representing the executive branch of government

A Cabinet is a body of high-ranking state officials, typically consisting of the top leaders of the executive branch. Members of a cabinet are usually called Cabinet ministers or secretaries. The function of a Cabinet varies: in some countries it is a collegiate decision-making body with collective responsibility, while in others it may function either as a purely advisory body or an assisting institution to a decision making head of state or head of government. Cabinets are typically the body responsible for the day-to-day management of the government and response to sudden events, whereas the legislative and judicial branches work in a measured pace, in sessions according to lengthy procedures.

Kingdom of Great Britain constitutional monarchy in Western Europe between 1707–1801

The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain, was a sovereign state in western Europe from 1 May 1707 to 31 December 1800. The state came into being following the Treaty of Union in 1706, ratified by the Acts of Union 1707, which united the kingdoms of England and Scotland to form a single kingdom encompassing the whole island of Great Britain and its outlying islands, with the exception of the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. The unitary state was governed by a single parliament and government that was based in Westminster. The former kingdoms had been in personal union since James VI of Scotland became King of England and King of Ireland in 1603 following the death of Elizabeth I, bringing about the "Union of the Crowns". After the accession of George I to the throne of Great Britain in 1714, the kingdom was in a personal union with the Electorate of Hanover.

Contents

History

Before 1782, the responsibilities of the two British Secretaries of State for the Northern and the Southern departments were divided not based on the principles of modern ministerial divisions, but geographically. The Secretary of State for the Southern Department, the more senior, was responsible for Southern England, Wales, Ireland, the American colonies (until 1768 when the charge was given to the Secretary of State for the Colonies), and relations with the Roman Catholic and Muslim states of Europe. The Secretary of State for the Northern Department, the more junior, was responsible for Northern England, Scotland, and relations with the Protestant states of northern Europe.

Secretary of State (United Kingdom) member of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom government

In the United Kingdom, a secretary of state (SofS) is a Cabinet minister in charge of a government department.

Southern England Place in England

Southern England, or the South of England, also known as the South, refers roughly to the southern counties of England. The extent of this area can take a number of different interpretations depending on the context, including geographical, cultural, political and economic.

Wales Country in northwest Europe, part of the United Kingdom

Wales is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, and the Bristol Channel to the south. It had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2 (8,023 sq mi). Wales has over 1,680 miles (2,700 km) of coastline and is largely mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon, its highest summit. The country lies within the north temperate zone and has a changeable, maritime climate.

In 1782, the two Secretaries of State were reformed as the Secretary of State for the Home Department and the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs.

Home Secretary United Kingdom government cabinet minister

Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for the Home Department, normally referred to as the Home Secretary, is a senior official as one of the Great Offices of State within Her Majesty's Government and head of the Home Office. It is a British Cabinet level position.

Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs United Kingdom government cabinet minister heading the Foreign and Commonwealth Office

Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, normally referred to as the Foreign Secretary, is a senior, high-ranking official within the Government of the United Kingdom and head of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office. The Foreign Secretary is a member of the Cabinet, and the post is considered one of the Great Offices of State. It is considered a position similar to that of Foreign Minister in other countries. The Foreign Secretary reports directly to the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.

List of Southern Secretaries

Secretary of State for the Southern Department [2] [3]
Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Monarch
(Reign)
Ref.
Sir Edward Nicholas by Sir Peter Lely.jpg Sir Edward Nicholas
(1593–1669)
1 June
1660
20 October
1662
Charles II
Coat of Arms of England (1660-1689).svg
(1660–1685)
[4]
Henry Bennet.jpg Henry Bennet
1st Earl of Arlington

(1618–1685) [lower-alpha 1]
20 October
1662
11 September
1674
[5]
No image.svg Henry Coventry
MP for Droitwich
(c. 1618–1686)
11 September
1674
26 April
1680
[6]
2nd Earl of Sunderland.jpg Robert Spencer
2nd Earl of Sunderland

(1641–1702)
26 April
1680
2 February
1681
Sir Leoline Jenkins by Herbert Tuer.jpg Sir Leoline Jenkins
MP for Oxford University
(c. 1625–1685)
2 February
1681
14 April
1684
[7]
2nd Earl of Sunderland.jpg Robert Spencer
2nd Earl of Sunderland

(1641–1702)
14 April
1684
28 October
1688
James II
Coat of Arms of England (1660-1689).svg
(1685–1688)
No image.svg Charles Middleton
2nd Earl of Middleton

(c. 1650–1719)
28 October
1688
2 December
1688
[8]
Charles Talbot, 1st Duke of Shrewsbury by Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt.jpg Charles Talbot
12th Earl of Shrewsbury

(1660–1718)
14 February
1689
2 June
1690
Mary II
Coat of Arms of England (1689-1694).svg
(1689–1694)
&
William III
Coat of Arms of England (1694-1702).svg
(1689–1702)
Daniel Finch, 2nd Earl of Nottingham and 7th Earl of Winchilsea by Jonathan Richardson.jpg Daniel Finch
2nd Earl of Nottingham

(1647–1730) [lower-alpha 2]
2 June
1690
November
1693
[9]
SirJohnTrenchard.jpg Sir John Trenchard
MP for Poole
(1649–1695)
[lower-alpha 3]
November
1693
27 April
1695
[10]
Charles Talbot, 1st Duke of Shrewsbury by Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt.jpg Charles Talbot
1st Duke of Shrewsbury

(1660–1718)
27 April
1695
12 December
1698
James Vernon by Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt (2).jpg James Vernon
MP for Westminster
(1646–1727)
[lower-alpha 4]
12 December
1698
14 May
1699
[11]
VilliersEdward CU SJ 215sm.jpg Edward Villiers
1st Earl of Jersey

(c. 1656–1711)
14 May
1699
27 June
1700
James Vernon by Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt (2).jpg James Vernon
MP for Westminster
(1646–1727)
[lower-alpha 5]
27 June
1700
4 January
1702
[11]
Charles Montagu, 1st Duke of Manchester by Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt.jpg Charles Montagu
4th Earl of Manchester

(c. 1662–1722)
4 January
1702
1 May
1702
Anne
Coat of Arms of England (1702-1707).svg
(1702–1714)
Daniel Finch, 2nd Earl of Nottingham and 7th Earl of Winchilsea by Jonathan Richardson.jpg Daniel Finch
2nd Earl of Nottingham

(1647–1730)
2 May
1702
22 April
1704
[9]
No image.svg Sir Charles Hedges
MP for West Looe
(1650–1714)
[lower-alpha 6]
18 May
1704
3 December
1706
[12]
Charles Spencer 3rd Earl of Sunderland.jpg Charles Spencer
3rd Earl of Sunderland

(1675–1722)
3 December
1706
13 June
1710
[13]
1stEarlOfDartmouth.jpg William Legge
1st Earl of Dartmouth

(1672–1750)
15 June
1710
6 August
1713
Henry St John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke (1678-1751).jpg Henry St John
1st Viscount Bolingbroke

(1678–1751)
17 August
1713
31 August
1714
[14]
George I
Coat of Arms of Great Britain (1714-1801).svg
(1714–1727)
James Stanhope, 1st Earl Stanhope by Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt.jpg James Stanhope
MP for Cockermouth
(1673–1721)
[lower-alpha 7]
27 September
1714
22 June
1716
[15]
SirPaulMethuen.JPG Paul Methuen
MP for Brackley
(c. 1672–1757)
[lower-alpha 8]
22 June
1716
10 April
1717
[16]
Joseph Addison by Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt.jpg Joseph Addison
MP for Malmesbury
(1672–1719)
12 April
1717
14 March
1718
[17]
James Craggs the Younger by Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt.jpg James Craggs 'the Younger'
MP for Tregony
(1686–1721)
16 March
1718
16 February
1721
[18]
John Carteret, 2nd Earl Granville by William Hoare.jpg John Carteret
2nd Baron Carteret

(1690–1763)
4 March
1721
31 March
1724
1stDukeOfNewcastleOld.jpg Thomas Pelham-Holles
1st Duke of Newcastle

(1693–1768) [lower-alpha 9]
6 April
1724
12 February
1748
George II
Coat of Arms of Great Britain (1714-1801).svg
(1727–1760)
4thDukeOfBedford.jpg John Russell
4th Duke of Bedford

(1710–1771)
12 February
1748
13 June
1751
Robert Darcy, 4th Earl of Holderness.jpg Robert Darcy
4th Earl of Holdernesse

(1718–1778)
18 June
1751
23 March
1754
Thomas Robinson, 1st Baron Grantham.jpg Sir Thomas Robinson
MP for Christchurch
(1695–1770)
24 March
1754
October
1755
[19]
Henry Fox, 1st Baron Holland by John Giles Eccardt.jpg Henry Fox
MP for Windsor
(1705–1774)
14 November
1755
13 November
1756
[20]
William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham by William Hoare.jpg William Pitt 'the Elder'
MP for Okehampton
(1708–1778)
4 December
1756
6 April
1757
[21]
Robert Darcy, 4th Earl of Holderness.jpg Robert Darcy
4th Earl of Holdernesse

(1718–1778) [lower-alpha 10]
6 April
1757
27 June
1757
William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham by William Hoare.jpg William Pitt 'the Elder'
MP for Bath
(1708–1778)
27 June
1757
5 October
1761
[21]
George III
Coat of Arms of Great Britain (1714-1801).svg
(1760–1820)
Charles Wyndham, 2nd Earl of Egremont by William Hoare lowres color.jpg Charles Wyndham
2nd Earl of Egremont

(1710–1763)
9 October
1761
21 August
1763
[22]
2ndEarlofHalifaxByJoshuaReynoldsNSArtGallery.jpg George Montague-Dunk
2nd Earl of Halifax

(1716–1771)
9 September
1763
10 July
1765
Field Marshal Conway.jpg Henry Seymour Conway
MP for Thetford
(1719–1795)
12 July
1765
23 May
1766
[23]
3rd Duke of Richmond.jpg Charles Lennox
3rd Duke of Richmond

(1735–1806)
23 May
1766
29 July
1766
William Petty, 2nd Earl of Shelburne by Jean Laurent Mosnier.jpg William Petty
2nd Earl of Shelburne

(1737–1805)
30 July
1766
20 October
1768
[24]
MarqBath.jpg Thomas Thynne
3rd Viscount Weymouth

(1734–1796)
21 October
1768
12 December
1770
William Nassau.jpg William de Zuylestein
4th Earl of Rochford

(1717–1781)
19 December
1770
9 November
1775
MarqBath.jpg Thomas Thynne
3rd Viscount Weymouth

(1734–1796) [lower-alpha 11]
9 November
1775
November
1779
Marquess of Downshire.jpg Wills Hill
1st Earl of Hillsborough

(1718–1793)
25 November
1779
27 March
1782
[25]

See also

Notes

  1. Returned as MP for Callington from 1661 to 1665; thereafter raised to the peerage of England as Baron Arlington, and created Earl of Arlington in 1672.
  2. Served as sole Secretary of State from June to December 1690; again from March 1692 to March 1693.
  3. Served as sole Secretary of State from November to March 1694.
  4. Acting Secretary of State for the Southern Department.
  5. Acting Secretary of State for the Southern Department from June to November 1700; official appointment from 5 November 1700.
  6. Returned as MP for Calne from 1702 to 1705; thereafter returned as MP for West Looe from 1705 to 1713.
  7. Returned as MP for Wendover from March 1715 to 1715; thereafter returned as MP for Cockermouth from 1715 to 1717.
  8. Acting Secretary of State for the Southern Department from May to December 1723; official appointment from 12 December 1716.
  9. In February 1746 John Carteret, 2nd Earl Granville held office for two days, however as the formalities of his appointment were not completed sources typically do not include him as a Southern Secretary.
  10. Served as sole Secretary of State.
  11. Served as sole Secretary of State from March to October 1799.

Citations

  1. Constantine, Stephen (2009). Community and Identity: The Making of Modern Gibraltar Since 1704. Oxford University Press. p. 69. ISBN   9780719080548.
  2. Sainty, ed: J.C. (1974). Office-Holders in Modern Britain: Volume 2, Officials of the Secretaries of State 1660-1782. University of London. pp. 22–58.
  3. 'Lists of appointments', in Office-Holders in Modern Britain: Volume 2, Officials of the Secretaries of State 1660-1782, ed. J C Sainty (London, 1973), pp. 22-58. British History Online http://www.british-history.ac.uk/office-holders/vol2/pp22-58 [accessed 18 July 2017].
  4. Baron, Sabrina Alcorn; Thrush, Andrew. "NICHOLAS, Edward (1593-1669), of Dover Castle, Kent and King Street, Westminster; later of West Horsley, Surr". History of Parliament Online. Retrieved 28 November 2017.
  5. Ferris, John. P. "BENNET, Sir Henry (1618-85)". History of Parliament Online. Retrieved 28 November 2017.
  6. Rowlands, Edward. "COVENTRY, Hon. Henry (c.1618-86), of Piccadilly Hall, The Haymarket, Westminster and West Bailey Lodge, Enfield, Mdx". History of Parliament Online. Retrieved 28 November 2017.
  7. Henning, Basil Duke. "JENKINS, Sir Leoline (c.1625-85), of Jesus College, Oxford and Hammersmith, Mdx". History of Parliament Online. Retrieved 28 November 2017.
  8. Henning, Basil Duke. "MIDDLETON, Charles, 2nd Earl of Middleton [S]. (c.1650-1719)". History of Parliament Online. Retrieved 28 November 2017.
  9. 1 2 Ferris, John. P. "FINCH, Daniel (1647-1730), of Kensington, Mdx and Milton Ernest, Beds". History of Parliament Online. Retrieved 28 November 2017.
  10. Ferris, John. P. "TRENCHARD, John (1649-95), of the Middle Temple". History of Parliament Online. Retrieved 28 November 2017.
  11. 1 2 Ferris, John. P. "VERNON, James (1646-1727), of Frith Street, Westminster". History of Parliament Online. Retrieved 28 November 2017.
  12. Handley, Stuart. "HEDGES, Sir Charles (1650-1714), of Richmond, Surr.; Compton Bassett, Wilts.; and St. James's Park, Westminster". History of Parliament Online. Retrieved 30 November 2017.
  13. Handley, Stuart. "SPENCER, Charles, Lord Spencer (1675-1722)". History of Parliament Online. Retrieved 3 December 2017.
  14. Handley, Stuart. "ST. JOHN, Henry II (1678-1752), of Bucklebury, Berks". History of Parliament Online. Retrieved 3 December 2017.
  15. Handley, Stuart. "STANHOPE, James (1673-1721), of London". History of Parliament Online. Retrieved 3 December 2017.
  16. Seghwick, Romney R. "METHUEN, Paul (c.1672-1757), of Bishops Cannings, Wilts". History of Parliament Online. Retrieved 30 November 2017.
  17. Lea, R. S. "ADDISON, Joseph (1672-1719), of Bilton, Warws. and Holland House, Kensington". History of Parliament Online. Retrieved 30 November 2017.
  18. Segwick, Romney R. "CRAGGS, James (1686-1721)". History of Parliament Online. Retrieved 30 November 2017.
  19. Sedgwick, Romney R. "ROBINSON, Thomas (1695-1770), of Newby, Yorks". History of Parliament Online. Retrieved 3 December 2017.
  20. Namier, Sir Lewis. "FOX, Henry (1705-74), of Holland House, Kensington". History of Parliament Online. Retrieved 3 December 2017.
  21. 1 2 Brooke, John. "PITT, William (1708-78), of Hayes, Kent". History of Parliament Online. Retrieved 3 December 2017.
  22. Cruickshanks, Eveline. "WYNDHAM, Charles (1710-63), of Orchard Wyndham, Som". History of Parliament Online. Retrieved 2 December 2017.
  23. Brooke, John. "CONWAY, Hon. Henry Seymour (1719-95), of Park Place, Berks". History of Parliament Online. Retrieved 1 December 2017.
  24. Namier, Sir Lewis. "PETTY, William, Visct. Fitzmaurice (1737-1805), of Bowood, Wilts". History of Parliament Online. Retrieved 2 December 2017.
  25. Brooke, John. "HILL, Wills, 1st Earl of Hillsborough [I] (1718-93), of North Aston, Oxon". History of Parliament Online. Retrieved 29 November 2017.

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