De Havilland Vampire

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Vampire
Sea Vampire
Vampire 3 (cropped) copy.jpg
Vampire T.11 of the UK Vampire Preservation Group displays at the Cotswold Air Show
Role Fighter aircraft
National originUnited Kingdom
Manufacturer de Havilland
English Electric
First flight20 September 1943
Introduction1946
Retired1979 Rhodesian Air Force
StatusRetired
Primary users Royal Air Force
Royal Navy
Number built3,268 [1] [2]
Developed into de Havilland Venom

The de Havilland Vampire is a British jet fighter developed and manufactured by the de Havilland Aircraft Company. It was the second jet fighter to be operated by the RAF, after the Gloster Meteor, and the first to be powered by a single jet engine.

De Havilland 1920-1963 aircraft manufacturer

The de Havilland Aircraft Company Limited was a British aviation manufacturer established in late 1920 by Geoffrey de Havilland at Stag Lane Aerodrome Edgware on the outskirts of north London. Operations were later moved to Hatfield in Hertfordshire.

Gloster Meteor fighter aircraft family; Britains first jet fighter

The Gloster Meteor was the first British jet fighter and the Allies' only jet aircraft to achieve combat operations during the Second World War. The Meteor's development was heavily reliant on its ground-breaking turbojet engines, pioneered by Sir Frank Whittle and his company, Power Jets Ltd. Development of the aircraft began in 1940, although work on the engines had been under way since 1936. The Meteor first flew in 1943 and commenced operations on 27 July 1944 with No. 616 Squadron RAF. The Meteor was not a sophisticated aircraft in its aerodynamics, but proved to be a successful combat fighter. Gloster's 1946 civil Meteor F.4 demonstrator G-AIDC was the first civilian-registered jet aircraft in the world.

Jet propulsion is the propulsion of an object in one direction, produced by ejecting a jet of fluid in the opposite direction. By Newton's third law, the moving body is propelled in the opposite direction to the jet. Reaction engines operating on the principle of jet propulsion include the jet engine used for aircraft propulsion, the pump-jet used for marine propulsion, and the rocket engine and plasma thruster used for spacecraft propulsion. Biological systems include the propulsion mechanisms of certain marine animals such as cephalopods, sea hares, arthropods, and fish.

Contents

Work on the Vampire commenced during 1941 in the midst of the Second World War; it was initially intended as an experimental aircraft, albeit one that was suitable for combat, that harnessed the groundbreaking innovation of jet propulsion. Out of the company's design studies, it was quickly decided to settle on a single-engine, twin-boom aircraft, powered by the Halford H.1 turbojet engine (later produced as the "Goblin"). Aside from its propulsion system and twin-boom configuration, it was a relatively conventional aircraft. Despite being originally ordered as an experimental aircraft only, during May 1944, it was decided to mass-produce the aircraft as an interceptor for the Royal Air Force (RAF). During 1946, the first production Vampire entered operational service with the RAF, only months after the conflict had come to an end.

World War II 1939–1945 global war

World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.

Twin-boom aircraft aircraft configuration utilizing two longitudinal booms for support of ancillary items

A twin-boom aircraft is characterised by two longitudinal booms fixed to its main wing on either side of its centre line. The booms may contain ancillary items such as fuel tanks and/or provide a supporting structure for external ancillary items. Typically, twin tailbooms provide mounting points for one or more tail surfaces, although on some types such as the Rutan Model 72 Grizzly the booms run forward of the main wing. The twin-boom configuration is distinct from twin-fuselage designs.

de Havilland Goblin family of turbojet aircraft engines

The de Havilland Goblin, originally designated as the Halford H-1, is an early turbojet engine designed by Frank Halford and built by de Havilland. The Goblin was the second British jet engine to fly, after the Power Jets W.1, and the first to pass a type test and receive a type certificate issued for an aircraft propulsion turbine.

The Vampire quickly proved to be an effective aircraft and was adopted as a replacement for many wartime piston-engined fighter aircraft. During its early service, it was recognised for accomplishing several aviation firsts and various records, such as being the first jet aircraft to traverse the Atlantic Ocean. The Vampire remained in front-line service with the RAF up until 1953; after this date, it was progressively reassigned to various secondary roles, such as ground attack missions and pilot training operations, for which specialist variants of the type were produced. During 1966, the Vampire was officially retired by the RAF, having been withdrawn from its final role as an advanced trainer after having been replaced by the Folland Gnat. The Royal Navy had also adopted the type as the Sea Vampire, a navalised variant suitable for operations from its aircraft carriers. It was the service's first jet fighter.

Atlantic Ocean Ocean between Europe, Africa and the Americas

The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans, with an area of about 106,460,000 square kilometers. It covers approximately 20 percent of the Earth's surface and about 29 percent of its water surface area. It separates the "Old World" from the "New World".

Folland Gnat aircraft

The Folland Gnat is a British compact swept-wing subsonic fighter aircraft that was developed and produced by Folland Aircraft. Envisioned as an affordable light fighter in contrast to the rising cost and size of typical combat aircraft, it was procured as a trainer aircraft for the Royal Air Force (RAF) as well as by export customers, who used the Gnat in both combat and training capacities.

Royal Navy Maritime warfare branch of the United Kingdoms military

The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by the English kings from the early medieval period, the first major maritime engagements were fought in the Hundred Years War against the Kingdom of France. The modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the early 16th century; the oldest of the UK's armed services, it is known as the Senior Service.

The Vampire had been exported to a wide variety of nations and was operated across a plethora of theatres and climates across the world. Several countries deployed the type in combat during several conflicts, including the Suez Crisis, the Malayan Emergency, and the Rhodesian Bush War. By the end of production, almost 3,300 Vampires had been manufactured, a quarter of these having been manufactured under licence in several other countries. In addition, de Havilland pursued the further development of the type; major derivatives produced include the DH.115, a dedicated dual-seat trainer, and the more advanced DH.112 Venom, a refined variant furnished with a swept wing (instead of the straight wing of the Vampire) and orientated towards conducting ground attack and night fighter operations.

Suez Crisis diplomatic and military confrontation in late 1956 involving Egypt, Britain, France and Israel

The Suez Crisis, or the Second Arab–Israeli War, also named the Tripartite Aggression in the Arab world and Operation Kadesh or Sinai War in Israel, was an invasion of Egypt in late 1956 by Israel, followed by the United Kingdom and France. The aims were to regain Western control of the Suez Canal and to remove Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser, who had just nationalized the canal. After the fighting had started, political pressure from the United States, the Soviet Union and the United Nations led to a withdrawal by the three invaders. The episode humiliated the United Kingdom and France and strengthened Nasser.

Malayan Emergency guerrilla war from 1948 to 1960

The Malayan Emergency was a guerrilla war fought in pre- and post-independence Federation of Malaya, from 1948 until 1960. The belligerents were the Commonwealth armed forces against the Malayan National Liberation Army (MNLA), the military arm of the Malayan Communist Party (MCP).

Rhodesian Bush War civil conflict in Southern Africa from 1964 to 1979

The Rhodesian Bush War—also called the Second Chimurenga and the Zimbabwe War of Liberation—was a civil conflict from July 1964 to December 1979 in the unrecognised country of Rhodesia . The conflict pitted three forces against one another: the Rhodesian government, led by Ian Smith ; the Zimbabwe African National Liberation Army, the military wing of Robert Mugabe's Zimbabwe African National Union; and the Zimbabwe People's Revolutionary Army of Joshua Nkomo's Zimbabwe African People's Union.

Development

Origins

In January 1941, Sir Henry Tizard made an informal approach to the de Havilland Aircraft Company, suggesting that the company proceed to design a fighter aircraft that would harness the revolutionary new jet propulsion technology under development, along with an appropriate engine to go with it. While no official specification had then been issued, de Havilland decided to proceed with an exploration of the concept; the company quickly conceived of a single-engined aircraft that had air-intakes set into the wing roots to feed a centrally mounted engine, which made use of centrifugal design. The aero-engine designer Major Frank Halford had been given access to Frank Whittle's pioneering work on gas turbines; for the projected jet-powered fighter, Halford decided to proceed with the design of a "straight through" centrifugal engine capable of generating 3,000 lb of thrust, which was considered to be high at the time. Halford's engine was developed, and emerged as the Halford H.1. By April 1941, design work on the engine had been completed; a prototype H.1 engine performed its first test run one year later. [3]

Sir Henry Thomas Tizard was an English chemist, inventor and Rector of Imperial College, who developed the modern "octane rating" used to classify petrol, helped develop radar in World War II, and led the first serious studies of UFOs.

Centrifugal compressor

Centrifugal compressors, sometimes called radial compressors, are a sub-class of dynamic axisymmetric work-absorbing turbomachinery.

Major Frank Bernard Halford CBE FRAeS was an English aircraft engine designer. He is best known for the series of de Havilland Gipsy engines, widely used by light aircraft in the 1920s and 30s.

The low power output of the early jet engines had meant that only twin-engined aircraft designs were considered to be practical during the early stages of development; however, as more powerful jet engines were quickly developed, particularly Halford's H.1 (later known as the de Havilland Goblin), the practicalities of single-engined jet fighter were soon realised. [4] de Havilland was approached to produce an airframe for the H.1 as insurance against Germany using jet bombers against Britain; this was considered more important than de Havilland's own suggestion of a high-speed jet bomber. [5] [6] Its first design, designated as the DH.99, was an all-metal, twin-boom, tricycle undercarriage aircraft armed with four cannon. The use of a twin boom enabled the jet pipe to be kept relatively short, which avoided the power loss that would have occurred if a long pipe was used, as would have been necessary by a conventional fuselage. It also put the rudder empennage clear of interference from the exhaust. Performance was estimated at 455 mph (732 km/h) at sea level and initial climb of 4,590 ft/min (1,400 m/min) on 2,700 lb thrust. The Ministry of Aircraft Production (MAP) expressed doubts regarding the estimations for the aircraft's performance and weight; however, the project received permission to proceed in July 1941. [5]

The Minister of Aircraft Production was the British government position in charge of the Ministry of Aircraft Production, one of the specialised supply ministries set up by the British Government during World War II. As the name suggests, it was responsible for aircraft production for the British forces; primarily the Royal Air Force, but also the Fleet Air Arm.

The DH.99 design was soon modified to incorporate a combined wood-and-metal construction in light of recommendations from the MAP; the design was thus renumbered to DH.100 by November 1941. The aircraft was considered to be a largely experimental design due to its use of a single engine and some unorthodox features, unlike the Gloster Meteor which had been specified for production early on. [4] [6] In February 1942, the MAP suggested dropping the project for a bomber but de Havilland stated that the twin-boom was, despite Ministry doubts, only an engineering problem to be overcome. On 22 April 1942, the construction of two prototypes (serials LZ548 and LZ551) was authorised by the Ministry while Specification E.6/41 was produced and issued to cover the work. [7] Accordingly, the company proceeded with the detailed design work phase of the DH.100 in early 1942.

The first Vampire F.1, in 1945. Note the early squared fin and rudders and high tailplane position First RAF Vampire F1 at Boscombe Down 1945.jpg
The first Vampire F.1, in 1945. Note the early squared fin and rudders and high tailplane position

Internally designated as the DH.100 and originally named the "Spider Crab", the aircraft was entirely a de Havilland project, being principally worked upon at the company's facility at Hatfield, Hertfordshire. [8] [6] The construction of the aircraft exploited de Havilland's extensive experience in the use of moulded plywood for aircraft construction; many design features that were used upon the DH.100, such as the fuselage nacelle and tall triangular vertical surfaces, had been present on the company's preceding Mosquito, a widely produced fast bomber of the war. [9]

The layout of the DH.100 used a single jet engine installed in an egg-shaped fuselage which was primarily composed of plywood for the forward section and aluminium throughout the aft section. It was furnished with conventional mid-mounted straight wings; air brakes were installed on the wings to slow the aircraft, better enabling it to manoeuvre into a firing position behind slower aircraft, a feature that had also been incorporated in the Meteor. Armament comprised four 20mm Hispano Mk V cannon located underneath the nose; from the onset of the design phase, even when the aircraft was officially intended to serve only as an experimental aircraft, the provision for the cannon armament had been included. [9]

On 20 September 1943, the first DH.100 prototype, serial number LZ548/G, conducted its maiden flight from Hatfield Aerodrome; it was piloted by Geoffrey de Havilland Jr., the company's chief test pilot and son of the company's founder. [10] [6] This flight took place only six months after the Meteor had performed its own maiden flight; the first flight had been delayed due to the need to dispatch the only available engine suitable for flight to America to replace one destroyed in ground engine runs in Lockheed's prototype XP-80 jet fighter. [6] A total of three prototypes, LZ548/G, LZ551/G, and MP838/G were produced in order to support the type's development. [9]

Production and further development

On 13 May 1944, an initial production order for 120 Vampire Mk I aircraft was received; it was quickly increased to 300 aircraft soon thereafter. [9] The production Vampire Mk I did not fly until April 1945. Due to the extensive wartime pressures upon de Havilland's production facilities for existing aircraft type, English Electric Aircraft undertook production of the Vampire at their Preston, Lancashire factories instead; the company would go on to produce the majority of the aircraft. Only about half a dozen production aircraft had been built by the end of the Second World War, although it did not result in the type becoming a victim of the extensive post-war cutbacks that were soon implemented, which had terminated the production of many existing aircraft along with development work upon several more. [9]

Comparison of the FB.5 single seat (left) and T.11 dual seat Vampire Vampire ag1.jpg
Comparison of the FB.5 single seat (left) and T.11 dual seat Vampire

De Havilland initiated a private venture night fighter, the DH.113 intended for export, fitting a two-seat cockpit closely based on that of the Mosquito night fighter, and a lengthened nose that accommodated an AI Mk X radar. An order to supply the Egyptian Air Force was received, but this was blocked by the British government as part of a general ban on supplying arms to Egypt. Instead, the RAF took over the order and put them into service as an interim measure between the retirement of the de Havilland Mosquito night fighter and the full introduction of the Meteor night fighter. [11] Removal of the radar from the night fighter and fitting of dual controls resulted in a jet trainer model of the aircraft, the DH.115 Vampire which entered British service as the Vampire T.11. This trainer variant was built in large numbers, both for the RAF and for export. [12]

An alternative powerplant to the de Havilland Goblin soon became available in the form of the Rolls-Royce Nene, which was likewise a turbojet engine capable of generating similar levels of thrust. The Vampire II designation was applied to three experimental Nene-powered Vampires, which were used to assess their performance. One of these was evaluated by the RAF before it was decided that the rival Goblin would be adopted for the RAF Vampires instead; another contributed to development work for the Vampires of the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF). [9]

Although the un-installed Nene had a higher thrust than the Goblin, the level flight speed was no greater. To reduce the installed-engine intake losses caused by having to feed air to the rear face of the impeller, two additional intakes were added behind the cockpit; these had the negative side-effect of causing elevator reversal [13] and buffeting tendencies, which in turn reduced the Vampire's Mach limitation. [14] The Vampires of the RAAF were powered by the Nene engine; these were initially outfitted with dorsal intakes, but the intakes were subsequently repositioned underneath the fuselage instead. [15] In 1949, Boulton Paul Aircraft (BPA) redesigned the wing-root intakes and internal ducting based on the installation of the Nene in the prototype Hawker Sea Hawk. The Mistral, the French name for their models of the Vampire, also used the Nene engine with BPA intakes. [15]

The Vampire III, was the first of several models that sought to address the demands for greater range from the type. [9] Accordingly, underwing fuel tanks of both 100 and 200 gallon capacities; other modifications included the lowering of the tailplane and the reshaping of the vertical surfaces of the tail. The design changes to accommodate hardpoint-mounted drop tanks had the additional benefit of enabling the carriage of various stores and had effectively readied the type for performing ground-attack duties. [9] The wing was considerably modified to improve low altitude performance, the span having been reduced by 2 ft, the adoption of square-cut wingtips, the thickening of the skin, greater structural strength, and undercarriage modifications to withstand the overall increased weight. [9]

3,268 Vampires were built in 15 versions, including a twin-seat night fighter, a trainer and a carrier-based aircraft designated Sea Vampire. The Vampire was used by 31 air forces. Germany, the Netherlands, Spain and the U.S. were the only major Western powers not to use the aircraft.

Records and achievements

The first carrier landing and takeoff of a jet aircraft in 1945 - Eric "Winkle" Brown taking off from HMS Ocean DeHavilland Vampire HMS Ocean Dec1945 NAN1 47.jpg
The first carrier landing and takeoff of a jet aircraft in 1945 – Eric "Winkle" Brown taking off from HMS Ocean

On 8 June 1946, the Vampire was introduced to the British public when Fighter Command's 247 Squadron was given the honour of leading the flypast over London at the Victory Day Celebrations. [16] The Vampire was a versatile aircraft, setting many aviation firsts and records, being the first RAF fighter with a top speed in excess of 500 mph (800 km/h).[ citation needed ] On 3 December 1945, a Sea Vampire piloted by Captain Eric "Winkle" Brown became the first pure-jet aircraft to land on and take off from an aircraft carrier. [17] [N 1]

Vampires and Sea Vampires were used in trials from 1947 to 1955 to develop recovery and deck-handling procedures and equipment [19] for the operation of aircraft without an undercarriage from flexible rubber decks on aircraft carriers. Deletion of the undercarriage would reduce the aircraft weight, allow extra fuel to be carried, and ease deck handling. [20] [21] Despite demonstrating that the technique was feasible, with many landings being made with undercarriage retracted on flexible decks both at RAE Farnborough and on board the carrier HMS Warrior, the proposal was not taken further. [22] Aviation author Geoffrey Cooper quotes author Marriott stating that the rubber deck system "..would have required extensive facilities both aboard ship and at naval air stations to support it. Any gains in aircraft performance were more than cancelled by the complexity and cost of implementation.". [19] :p199" [23] [ check quotation syntax ]

On 23 March 1948, John Cunningham, flying a modified Vampire Mk I, which had been furnished with extended wing tips, powered by the Ghost engine, achieved a new world altitude record, having attained a maximum altitude of 59,446 ft (18,119 m). [24]

On 14 July 1948, six Vampire F.3s of No. 54 Squadron RAF became the first jet aircraft to fly across the Atlantic Ocean when they arrived in Goose Bay, Labrador. [9] They went via Stornoway in the Outer Hebrides of Scotland, Keflavík in Iceland and Bluie West 1, Greenland. From Goose Bay airfield they went on to Montreal (c. 3,000 mi/4,830 km) to start the RAF's annual goodwill tour of Canada and the US, where they gave formation aerobatic displays. [25] At the same time USAF Colonel David C. Schilling led a group of F-80 Shooting Stars flying to Fürstenfeldbruck Air Base in Germany to relieve a unit based there. There were conflicting reports later regarding competition between the RAF and USAF to be the first to fly the Atlantic. One report said the USAF squadron delayed completion of its movement to allow the Vampires to be "the first jets across the Atlantic". [26] Another said that the Vampire pilots celebrated "winning the race against the rival F-80s." [27]

Design

Overview

Cockpit layout of the Vampire FB Mk2 Cockpit of de Havilland Vampire FB Mk 2 PNG.PNG
Cockpit layout of the Vampire FB Mk2

The de Havilland Vampire was a jet-powered twin-boom aircraft, typically employed in the fighter and fighter bomber roles. [9] Aviation author Francis K Mason referred to it as being "the last unsophisticated single-engine front line aircraft to serve with Britain's Fighter Command"; the Vampire was a relatively straightforward aircraft, employing only manually operated flight controls, no radar, a simple airframe, and, aside from the propulsion system, made use of mostly conventional practices and technologies. [9] The distinctive twin-boom tail configuration of the Vampire was one of the only non-traditional airframe features when compared to its contemporaries. [9]

In comparison to later aircraft, the Vampire had a relatively disorganised cockpit that in some aspects lacked ergonomic measures; such as the fuel gauges being difficult for the pilot to observe without pulling the control column back. [28] A few controls, such as the low-pressure fuel cock, were known for being difficult to move or were otherwise obstructed by other controls. The pilot was provided with a fairly favourable external view, in part aided by the relatively small size of the Vampire. [28]

Engine

A preserved de Havilland Goblin (also known as the Halford H1) turbojet engine. Note the cutaway section exposing elements of the interior Rolls Royce Goblin II cutaway.jpg
A preserved de Havilland Goblin (also known as the Halford H1) turbojet engine. Note the cutaway section exposing elements of the interior

The Vampire was first powered by a single Halford H1 (later and more widely known as the de Havilland Goblin) turbojet engine, initially capable of producing 2,100 lbf (9.3 kN) of thrust, designed by Frank B Halford and manufactured by de Havilland. This engine was a centrifugal-flow type, a configuration later superseded after 1949 by the slimmer axial-flow units. In 1947, Wing Commander Maurice Smith, assistant editor of Flight magazine, stated upon piloting his first jet-powered aircraft, a Vampire Mk III: "Piloting a jet aircraft has confirmed one opinion I had formed after flying as a passenger in the Lancastrian jet test beds, that few, if any, having flown in a jet-propelled transport, will wish to revert to the noise, vibration and attendant fatigue of an airscrew-propelled piston-engined aircraft". [29]

Initially, the relatively high fuel consumption of the Goblin engine had provided early models of the Vampire with a limited range; this had been a common problem with all early jet aircraft. Later marks featured considerably increased internal fuel capacity as a result. The H.1 Goblin engine, conceived in 1941, remained unchanged in basic form for 13 years; according to aerospace publication Flight: "The Goblin...can fairly claim to be the world's most reliable turbojet". [30] Over successive models, it gained increased turbine temperature and thrust. [30] Later-built Vampire Mk Is were powered by the Goblin II; the F.3 onwards used the improved Goblin III; by the mid-1950s, the Goblin Mk. 35 export engine, capable of 3,500 lbf, had become available as well. [30]

Certain marks of the Vampire were also operated as flying test-beds for the Rolls-Royce Nene engine, leading to the FB30 and 31 variants that were built in, and operated by, Australia. Due to the low positioning of the engine, a Vampire could not remain on idle for long as the heat from the jet exhaust would melt the tarmac behind the aircraft.[ citation needed ] If the engine did stall in flight, there was no onboard means to re-light the engine, meaning that a forced landing would be necessary. [28]

Handling

According to Mason, the controls of the Vampire were considered to be relatively light and sensitive, employing an effective elevator arrangement that enabled generous acceleration from relatively little control inputs along with highly balanced ailerons that could achieve high rates of roll. [31] In comparison to the elevator and ailerons, the rudder required more vigorous actuation in order to achieve meaningful effect. [31] Pilots converting from piston-engined types would find themselves having to adapt to the slower acceleration of turbojet engines and the corresponding need to moderate rapid throttle movements to avoid instigating a compressor stall. [28]

The Vampire had a relatively good power/weight ratio and was reputedly quite maneuverable within the 400-500MPH range. [28] Heavy use of the rudder was required at slower speeds, during which pilots had to be cautious during shallow turns to avoid stalls; this would be typically embarrassing rather than dangerous due to the relative ease of recovery, which was principally achieved via positive elevator application. At speeds in excess Mach 0.71, increasing levels of buffeting were encountered. [28] The Vampire was compatible with a wide range of aerobatic manoeuvers, Mason comparing its capabilities in this respect to purpose-built sporting aircraft. It has been claimed that the type was the last British jet-powered fighter capable of accurately precipitating conditions such as hammer stalls, stall turns, and wingovers. [28]

Preparing the Vampire for take-off required pilots to perform only six vital actions: setting the trim to neutral, opening the high and low-pressure fuel cocks, activating the booster pump, setting the flaps, and retracting the air brakes. [31] If laden with external fuel tanks or bombs, pilots would have to retract the undercarriage quite quickly upon leaving the ground, else increasing airflow as the aircraft picked up speed would prevent the undercarriage doors from closing. [32] Landing procedure was similarly free of complexity: disengaging the wheel brakes, lowering the undercarriage, setting the flaps to fully down, and activating the air brakes. Typically, power-on landings were conducted due to the slow response of the engine to throttle changes, and wheel brakes had to be applied carefully to avoid locking the wheels because there was no anti-lock braking system on the fighters. [28] Training variants had the Dunlop Maxaret anti-skid system fitted.[ citation needed ]

Operational history

United Kingdom

Royal Air Force
A formation of Vampire FB9s belonging to No. 213 Squadron flying over Egypt, 1952 Vampire FB9s 213 Sqn RAF over Egypt 1952.jpg
A formation of Vampire FB9s belonging to No. 213 Squadron flying over Egypt, 1952

In 1946, the first Vampire Mk I fighters entered RAF service in the interceptor role. [9] [N 2] Soon thereafter, considerable numbers of Mk I aircraft began equipping RAF squadrons of the Second Tactical Air Force stationed in Germany, often to replace wartime fighters such as the Hawker Typhoon, Hawker Tempest, and North American Mustang. On 3 July 1948, the Vampire became the first jet aircraft to equip peacetime units of the Royal Auxiliary Air Force, gradually replacing the de Havilland Mosquito in this capacity. [9]

On 23 June 1948, the first production Vampire Fighter-Bomber Mk 5 (otherwise commonly designated as the FB.5), which had been modified from a Vampire F.3, carried out its maiden flight. [9] The FB.5 retained the Goblin III engine of the F.3, but featured armour protection around engine systems, wings clipped back by 1 ft (30 cm), and longer-stroke main landing gear to handle greater takeoff weights and provide clearance for stores/weapons load. An external tank or 500 lb (227 kg) bomb could be carried under each wing, and eight "3-inch" rocket projectiles ("RPs") could be stacked in pairs on four attachments inboard of the booms. [34] Although the adoption of an ejection seat was being considered at one stage, it was ultimately not fitted.[ citation needed ]

At its peak, a total of 19 RAF squadrons flew the Vampire FB.5 in Europe, the Middle East and the Far East. By far, the theatre in which the largest number of Vampires were stationed was Germany; this extensive deployment by the RAF has been viewed as one measure of the emerging Cold War climate between West and East Europe, as well as being a reaction to events such as the Korean War and the Berlin Blockade. [35] Vampires were also operated by a number of active and reserve squadrons stationed in the UK. [36]

A number of RAF Vampires were used in active combat within the Far East during the Malayan Emergency, fought in the late 1940s and early 1950s. [36] Specifically, the Vampire FB.5 typically undertook attack missions using a combination of rockets and bombs against insurgent targets often located in remote jungle areas throughout in Malaysia. [36] The Vampire FB.5 became the most numerous single-seat variant of the type, 473 aircraft having been produced.

Experience of Vampire operation in tropical climates led to the development of new models featuring refrigeration equipment for pilot comfort and increasingly powerful models of the Goblin engine, to counter the degradation of performance in hot conditions. [37] The RAF decided to adopt a new model of the Vampire featuring the Goblin 3 engine. Accordingly, in January 1952, the first Vampire FB.9 was introduced to service and were first used by the Far East Air Force, soon replacing its older FB.5 aircraft. [37] The FB.9 was deployed to various parts of the Middle East and Africa. In use against Mau Mau insurgents in Kenya, from 1954, it was gradually replaced by the de Havilland Venom, a swept wing development of the Vampire. [37]

An RAF Vampire NF.10 of No. 25 Squadron, circa 1954 DH.113 Vampire NF.10 WM713 25 Sqn Speke 04.04.54 edited-2.jpg
An RAF Vampire NF.10 of No. 25 Squadron, circa 1954

The Vampire NF.10 served from 1951 to 1954 with three squadrons (23, 25 and 151) but was often flown in daytime as well as night time. After its replacement by the De Havilland Venom, these aircraft underwent conversion to the NF(T).10 standard, after which they were operated by the Central Navigation and Control School at RAF Shawbury. Other aircraft were sold on to the Indian Air Force for further use.

By 1953, the Vampire FB.5 was being increasingly considered to be obsolete, having not kept up with the advancements made on the Meteor 8. [36] The RAF eventually relegated the single-seat Vampire to advanced training roles in the mid-1950s, and the type had been generally phased out of RAF service by the end of the decade. [6]

The final variants of the Vampire was the T (trainer) aircraft. Being first flown from the old Airspeed Ltd factory at Christchurch, Hampshire on 15 November 1950, production deliveries of the Vampire trainer began in January 1952. Over 600 examples of the T.11 were produced at Hatfield and Chester and by Fairey Aviation at Manchester Airport. By 1965, the Vampire trainer had been mostly withdrawn, its replacement in the advanced training role being the Folland Gnat; only a small number of Vampire T.11s remained in service, typically for the training of foreign students until these were too were retired in 1967. [38]

A small number of aircraft that were used in secondary roles carried on in these capacities until the withdrawal of the last operational aircraft from service with No. 3 Civilian Anti-Aircraft Co-operation Unit at Exeter at the end of 1971. [38] A single aircraft continued to be flown and remained in official service with the RAF as part of the "Vintage Pair" display team (along with a Gloster Meteor); however, this aircraft was lost as a result of a crash in 1986. [38]

Royal Navy
A Royal Navy Sea Vampire making a touch-and-go landing on the U.S. aircraft carrier USS Antietam (CVA-36) CV-36 SeaVampire NAN9-53.jpg
A Royal Navy Sea Vampire making a touch-and-go landing on the U.S. aircraft carrier USS Antietam (CVA-36)

The Admiralty had immediately taken great interest in the Vampire following a series of carrier-landing trials which had been conducted on the aircraft carrier HMS Ocean using the modified third prototype of the Vampire in December 1945. [39] At one point, the service had been allegedly considering the adoption of the type as the standard naval fighter to equip the Fleet Air Arm with; however, according to Mason, there had been a prevailing attitude that carrier operations lacked the flexibility to enable combat operations to be conducted with jet aircraft while at sea due to factors such as jet blast and the limited range of the early jets. In 1947, the Royal Navy decided to place an order for a navalised variant of the Vampire FB.5, which had been separately ordered by Air Ministry; the navalised model was quickly given the name Sea Vampire. [40]

The Sea Vampire has several key differences from their land-based counterparts. [21] It could be easily distinguished be the presence of a V-shaped Tailhookarrestor hook that retracted to a high-mounted position above the jet pipe. The Sea Vampire was fitted with enlarged air brakes and landing flaps for superior low speed control during landing approaches, along with construction to higher load factors to account for the greater stresses involved in carrier landings. [21]

On 15 October 1948, the first Sea Vampire performed its maiden flight. [21] A pair of prototypes were followed by 18 production aircraft which were used to gain experience in carrier jet operations before the arrival of the two-seat Sea Vampire T.22 trainers. [41] The Sea Vampire was initially delivered to 700 Naval Air Squadron and 702 Naval Air Squadron, soon replacing their piston-engine powered de Havilland Sea Hornets. [21]

Australia

During 1946, government approval was given for the purchase of an initial 50 Vampire fighter aircraft for the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF). [9] The first three machines of this batch were British-built aircraft, an F1, F2 and FB.5, and were given serial numbers A78-1 to A78-3. The second aircraft, the F2 (A78-2), was significant in that it was powered by the more powerful Rolls-Royce Nene jet engine, rather than the standard Goblin unit. [9]

The Vampire F1 A78-1 after crash landing at RAAF Pt Cook in 1947 VampireF1.A78-1.jpg
The Vampire F1 A78-1 after crash landing at RAAF Pt Cook in 1947

All of the 80 F.30 fighters and FB.31 fighter-bomber Vampires that were subsequently built by de Havilland Australia were powered by Commonwealth Aircraft Corporation (CAC) versions of the Nene engine manufactured under licence at their facility in Melbourne. The Nene required a greater intake cross-section than the Goblin, and the initial solution was to mount auxiliary intakes on top of the fuselage behind the canopy. [15] Unfortunately these intakes led to elevator blanking on formation of shock waves, and three aircraft and pilots were lost in unrecoverable dives. All of the Nene-engined aircraft were later modified to move the auxiliary intakes beneath the fuselage, thus entirely avoiding the problem. [15]

In June 1949, the first Vampire F.30 fighter (A79-1) made its first flight; it was followed by 56 more F.30 variants before the final 23 [42] aircraft were completed as FB.31s, being fitted with strengthened and clipped wings along with underwing hardpoints. [43] A single F.30 was also converted to the F.32 standard, which was mostly identical to the Vampire FB.9 save for the addition of climate control conditioning. [31] In 1954, all single seat Vampires were retired by the RAAF, but remained in service in Citizen Air Force squadrons until the early 1960s. [44]

In addition, the Vampire T.33,[Two-seat training version, powered by the Goblin turbojet. Built in Australia.] T.34 and T.35 were used by the RAAF and the Royal Australian Navy (RAN) (known as Mk33 through to Mk35W in RAAF service) and many were manufactured or assembled at de Havilland Australia's facilities in Sydney. The Mk35W was a Mk35 fitted with spare Mk33 wings following overstress or achievement of fatigue life. Vampire trainer production in Australia amounted to 110 aircraft, and the initial order was filled by 35 T.33s for the RAAF, deliveries being made in 1952 with five T.34s for the RAN delivered in 1954. The trainers remained in service in the RAAF until 1970 while RAN Vampires were retired in 1971. [45]

Canada

Royal Canadian Air Force Vampire De Havilland DH-100 Vampire 2 ExCC.jpg
Royal Canadian Air Force Vampire

In 1946, a single Vampire F.1 began operating on an evaluation basis in Canada at the Winter Experimental Establishment in Edmonton. The Vampire F.3 was selected as one of two types of operational fighters for the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) and was first flown in Canada on 17 January 1948 where it went into service as a Central Flying School training aircraft at RCAF Station Trenton. Operating a total of 86 aircraft, the Vampire F.3 became the first jet fighter to enter RCAF service in any significant numbers.

The Vampire had the function of introducing Canadian fighter pilots not only to jet propulsion, but also to other amenities such as cockpit pressurisation and the tricycle landing gear arrangement. It proved to be a popular aircraft, being easy to fly and often considered a "hot rod." [46] In Canadian service, the Vampire served in both operational and air reserve units (400, 401, 402, 411, 438 and 442 squadrons). During the late 1950s, the type was retired and was replaced in RCAF service by the Canadair Sabre. [47]

Egypt

The Egyptian Air Force received its first of a planned 66 Vampire FB52s in December 1950, [48] eventually receiving 50 from de Havilland production. [49] An order for 12 Vampire NF.10 night fighters was cancelled owing to an arms embargo and the aircraft were acquired by the RAF. [50] [11] A factory was built at Helwan to build the Vampire under licence, but political disputes between Egypt and the United Kingdom over the presence of British troops in Egypt led to the project being delayed, before being abandoned following the Egyptian revolution of 1952. [51] Instead, Egypt turned to Italy, and purchased 58 ex-Italian Air Force FB52As, using Syria as an intermediary, with deliveries from 1955 to 1956. [52]

By 1954, Egypt was operating a fleet of 49 Vampires, which had been acquired from both Italy and Britain, in the fighter-bomber role. [53] In 1955, a further 12 Vampire trainers were ordered, deliveries of which started in July that year. [54] On 1 September 1955, in a response to an Israeli commando raid on an Egyptian-held fort at Khan Yunis, four Egyptian Vampires crossed into Israeli airspace, but were intercepted by Israeli Meteor jets, with two Vampires being shot down. [55] By 1956, Egyptian Vampires were in the process of being replaced in the front-line fighter role by the much more capable Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15 and MiG-17 swept-wing fighters, and several Vampires were given to Saudi Arabia and Jordan. [56] During the Suez Crisis, the Egyptians mainly used their Vampires for ground-attack missions against the advancing Israeli forces, particularly at the Mitla Pass, [57] and are recorded as having lost a total of four Vampires in combat with Israeli jet aircraft. [58] Several more were destroyed on the ground by Anglo-French air raids. [59]

Finland

Finnish Air Force De Havilland Vampire Mk.52 De Havilland Vampire VA-2 Ilmailumuseo 2.JPG
Finnish Air Force De Havilland Vampire Mk.52

The Finnish Air Force received six FB.52 Vampires in 1953. The model was nicknamed "Vamppi" in Finnish service. An additional nine twin-seat T.55s were purchased in 1955. The aircraft were assigned to 2nd Wing at Pori, but were transferred to 1st Wing at Tikkakoski at the end of the 1950s. The last Finnish Vampire was decommissioned in 1965.

France

As part of a larger effort to build up the post-war French Air Force, a number of Goblin-powered Vampire FB.5s were delivered to France from 1949 onwards. This variant of the Vampire was subsequently manufactured under licence by Sud-Est at Marignane, the first 67 aircraft were assembled from British-produced components and were standard aircraft for the most part; [31] these were followed by a further 183 Vampires, which incorporated a greater proportion of French-produced elements. [60] [61] The French developed the FB.53 model, a Nene-powered variant, which was named in French service as the Mistral after the wind of the same name. A total of 250 Mistrals were built, equipped with Hispano-Suiza built engines, French ejector seats and enlarged wing root ducts. On 2 April 1951, the first Mistral made its maiden flight. [61]

India

No. 7 Squadron, Indian Air Force (IAF) received Vampires in January 1949. No. 17 Squadron IAF also operated the type. No. 37 Squadron IAF flew a number of Vampire NF54 night reconnaissance missions over Goa during the 1961 Annexation of Goa from Portuguese rule, sometimes coming under anti-aircraft fire. [62]

On 1 September 1965, during the Indo-Pakistani War, No. 45 Squadron IAF responded to a request for strikes against a counter-attack by the Pakistani Army (Operation Grand Slam), and twelve Vampire Mk 52 fighter-bombers were successful in slowing the Pakistani advance. However, the Vampires encountered two Pakistan Air Force (PAF) F-86 Sabres, armed with air-to-air missiles; in the ensuing dogfight, the outdated Vampires were outclassed. One was shot down by ground fire and another three were shot down by Sabres. [63] [64] The Vampires were withdrawn from front line service after these losses.

Italy

The Vampire was procured by Italy to equip the Italian Air Force. The type was licensed-manufactured by Macchi at Varese and Fiat at Turin, who constructed a total of 80 Vampire FB.52As. [31] Italy later ordered 14 Vampire NF.10s, designated the NF.52.

Norway

Vampire T55 & FB6 in Norwegian livery Norwegian Vampire T55 & Vampire FB6 departing RIAT 2011 (6843660007).jpg
Vampire T55 & FB6 in Norwegian livery

The Royal Norwegian Air Force (RNAF) purchased a total of 20 Vampires F.3s, 36 FB.52s and six T.55 trainers. [31] The Vampire was in Norwegian use as a fighter from 1948 to 1957, equipping a three-squadron Vampire wing stationed at Gardermoen. In 1957, the type was withdrawn when the RNAF decided to re-equip with the Republic F-84G Thunderjet. In 1955, the Vampire trainers were replaced by the Lockheed T-33, these aircraft were returned to the United Kingdom and saw later use by the Royal Air Force.

Norwegian De Havilland DH 100 Vampire F.3 displayed at the Norwegian Armed Forces Aircraft Collection De Havilland DH 100 Vampire F.3.jpg
Norwegian De Havilland DH 100 Vampire F.3 displayed at the Norwegian Armed Forces Aircraft Collection

Rhodesia

ex-Rhodesian Air Force De Havilland Vampire T.11 (DH.115) '4220' DH.115 Vampire T.11 (2406) (8643525896).jpg
ex-Rhodesian Air Force De Havilland Vampire T.11 (DH.115)

The Rhodesian Air Force acquired 16 Vampire FB.9 fighters and a further 16 Vampire T.11 trainers in the early 1950s, its first jet aircraft, equipping two squadrons. [65] These were regularly deployed to Aden between 1957 and 1961, supporting British counter-insurgency operations. [66] 21 more two-seaters and 13 single-seaters were supplied by South Africa in the late 1960s and early 1970s. [67] Rhodesia operated Vampires until the end of the bush war in 1979. In 1977, six were pressed into service for Operation Dingo. They were eventually replaced by the BAE Hawk 60 in the early 1980s. After 30 years service, they were the last Vampires used on operations anywhere. [68]

Sweden

Two Swedish Air Force de Havilland Vampires FVMF.002274.jpg
Two Swedish Air Force de Havilland Vampires

In 1946, the Swedish Air Force purchased its first batch of 70 FB 1 Vampires, having been looking for a jet-powered fighter to replace its outdated SAAB 21 and J 22 aircraft of its fighter force. In Swedish service, the Vampire received the designation J 28A, it was assigned to the Bråvalla Air Force Wing (F 13). The type soon provided such good service that the Vampire was soon selected to serve as the backbone of the fighter force. In 1949, a total of 310 of the more modern FB.50s, designated J 28B, which were based on the Vampire FB.5, were procured. [31] The last of these was delivered in 1952, after which all piston-engined fighters were decommissioned. In addition, a total of 57 two-seater DH 115 Vampires, designated J 28C, were also used for training purposes.

In 1956, the Swedish Vampires were retired from the fighter role; it was replaced in service with the J 29 (SAAB Tunnan) and J 34 (Hawker Hunter). In 1968, the final Vampire trainer was retired.

Switzerland

Swiss Air Force de Havilland Vampire T55 De Havilland (F+W Emmen) Vampire T55 (DH-115) AN2244396.jpg
Swiss Air Force de Havilland Vampire T55

In 1946, the Swiss Air Force purchased an initial four Vampire F.1s, one of which crashed on 2 August 1946 while the other three remained in service until 1961. In 1949, the Swiss government signed a contract to locally manufacture the Vampire FB.6 in Switzerland using British-built Goblin engines; accordingly, a batch of 85 Vampire FB.6s were produced. [61] [69] In 1952, the first production Vampire NF.10 was delivered to Switzerland for evaluation purposes. [70]

In 1949, the first batch of 75 Vampire Mk.6 (J-1005 to J-1079) was purchased. Most of these were phased out of service in 1968/1969, the last aircraft being withdrawn in 1973. A second batch of 100 Mk.6 aircraft (J-1101 to J-1200) were built under licence by a consortium of Swiss aviation companies, including Eidgenössische Flugzeugwerke Emmen, Pilatus Aircraft and Flug- und Fahrzeugwerke Altenrhein. [31] Aircraft from this batch were in use from 1951 to 1974, and were retained in storage until 1988. A further three DH-100 Mk.6 (J-1080 to J-1082) were subsequently built from remaining spare parts. A force of 39 DH-115 Mk 55 Vampire two-seat trainers (U-1201 to U-1239) were also in service from 1953 to 1990. [71] [72]

Variants

[75]

Operators

de Havilland Vampire T.35 (A79-612) in Wagga Wagga, New South Wales, Australia DH Vampire A79-612.jpg
de Havilland Vampire T.35 (A79-612) in Wagga Wagga, New South Wales, Australia
Vampire bearing Lebanese colours at Hatzerim, Israel Hatzerim 290110 Vampire.jpg
Vampire bearing Lebanese colours at Hatzerim, Israel
Swiss Air Force Vampire at Letecke muzeum Kbely Letecke muzeum Kbely (143).jpg
Swiss Air Force Vampire at Letecké muzeum Kbely
T.55 of Japan Air Self-Defense Force at Hamamatsu Air Base public hall Jasdf vampire trainer.JPG
T.55 of Japan Air Self-Defense Force at Hamamatsu Air Base public hall
Flag of Austria.svg  Austria
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia [76] [77]
Flag of Burma (1948-1974).svg  Burma
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
Flag of Ceylon.svg  Ceylon
Flag of Chile.svg  Chile
Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg  Dominican Republic
Flag of Egypt.svg  Egypt
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland
Flag of France.svg  France
Flag of India.svg  India
Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia
Flag of Iraq (1959-1963).svg  Iraq
Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy
Flag of Japan.svg  Japan
Flag of Jordan.svg  Jordan
Flag of Katanga.svg  Katanga
Flag of Lebanon.svg  Lebanon
Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand [78]
Flag of Norway.svg  Norway
Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal
Flag of Rhodesia (1968-1979).svg  Rhodesia
Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg  Saudi Arabia
Flag of South Africa (1928-1994).svg  South Africa
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden
Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland
Flag of Syria.svg  Syria
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Flag of Venezuela (1930-1954).svg  Venezuela
Flag of Zimbabwe.svg  Zimbabwe

Surviving aircraft

Specifications (Vampire FB.6)

de Havilland Vampire FB.5 Vampire FB5 Silh.jpg
de Havilland Vampire FB.5
Cockpit layout of the Vampire FB.6 DH-115 MK 55 Vampire cocpit.jpg
Cockpit layout of the Vampire FB.6

Data fromThe Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft, [79] The De Havilland Vampire Mk. 5 & 9 [80]

General characteristics

Performance

Armament

Notable appearances in media

See also

Related development

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

Related lists

Related Research Articles

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References

Notes

  1. On 6 November 1945, a Ryan FR Fireball, designed to utilize its piston engine during takeoff and landing, had a piston engine failure on final approach. The pilot started the jet engine, performing the first jet-powered carrier landing, albeit unintentionally, although the Fireball was not a high performance jet fighter like the Vampire. [18]
  2. Quote: "The Vampire had been conceived during the war as a high-altitude fighter ..." [33]

Citations

  1. Gunston 1981, p. 52.
  2. Mason 1965, pp. 10, 12.
  3. Gunston 2006, p. 62.
  4. 1 2 Buttler 2000, p. 201.
  5. 1 2 Buttler 2004, p. 201.
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 "De Havilland DH100 Vampire." BAE Systems , Retrieved: 18 May 2017.
  7. Buttler 2004 p. 203.
  8. Gunston 1981, p. 49.
  9. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Mason 1965, p. 3.
  10. Gunston 1981, p. 50.
  11. 1 2 Jackson 1987, p. 484.
  12. Jackson 1987, pp. 496—501.
  13. Harvey, Heyworth & Jackson 2006, p. 109.
  14. Harker 1976, p. 79.
  15. 1 2 3 4 Gunston 1991, p. 173.
  16. Gunston 1992, p. 454.
  17. Brown 1985, pp. 32–34.
  18. "First Jet Landing", Naval Aviation News, United States Navy: 6, March 1946
  19. 1 2 Cooper 2008, pp. 197–204.
  20. Brown 1976, pp. 126–7.
  21. 1 2 3 4 5 Mason 1965, p. 7.
  22. Brown 1976, pp. 132–6.
  23. Marriott 1985, [ page needed ]
  24. Jackson 1987, p. 424.
  25. "How The Vampires Crossed", Flight, LIV (2065): 105, 22 July 1948
  26. Dorr 1998, p. 119.
  27. Wood, William 'Bill' (1997), Only Birds and Fools Fly, UK, retrieved 6 October 2009
  28. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Mason 1965, p. 10.
  29. Smith, Maurice (27 November 1947), "'Flight' Pilots a Jet", Flight, LII (2031): 610
  30. 1 2 3 "Aero Engines 1954", Flight, p. 450, 9 April 1954
  31. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Mason 1965, p. 8.
  32. Mason 1965, pp. 8, 10.
  33. Watkins 1996, p. 58.
  34. Mason 1965, pp. 3, 12.
  35. Mason 1965, pp. 3–4.
  36. 1 2 3 4 Mason 1965, p. 4.
  37. 1 2 3 Mason 1965, p. 5.
  38. 1 2 3 Jackson 1987, p. 499.
  39. Mason 1965, p. 6.
  40. Mason 1965, pp. 6–7.
  41. Jackson 1987, pp. 429–430.
  42. http://www.airvectors.net/avvamp_1.html#m6
  43. Mason 1965, pp. 7–8.
  44. Watkins 2013, p. 1926.
  45. "RAAF Museum: RAAF Aircraft Series 2 A79 DHA Vampire". airforce.gov.au. Retrieved 28 January 2017.
  46. Milberry 1984, p. 212.
  47. Milberry 1984, pp. 212, 215.
  48. Nicolle & Cattaneo 1997, p. 2.
  49. Jackson 1987, p. 432.
  50. Nicolle & Cattaneo 1997, pp. 2–3.
  51. Nicolle & Cattaneo 1997, p. 3.
  52. Nicolle & Cattaneo 1997, pp. 3–4.
  53. Birtles 1986, p. 37.
  54. Birtles 1986, p. 59.
  55. Nicolle & Cattaneo 1997, p. 6.
  56. Nicolle & Cattaneo 1997, pp. 6–8.
  57. Nicolle & Cattaneo 1997, pp. 8, 10.
  58. "Attributed Israeli Air Combat Victories" . Retrieved 7 July 2016.
  59. Nicolle & Cattaneo 1997, pp. 10–11.
  60. "Vampires for France". The Times (51284). London. 20 January 1949. p. 4.
  61. 1 2 3 Jackson 1987, p. 428.
  62. (Retd), Sqn Ldr Ian S Loughran. "Four Sorties over Goa" . Retrieved 7 July 2016.
  63. Pakistani Air-to-Air Victories, Air Combat Information Group, 2003, retrieved 10 June 2009
  64. (Retd), Air Marshal Trilochan Singh PVSM AVSM VrC VM. "Tank Busting In The Chamb" . Retrieved 7 July 2016.
  65. Thomas 2005, pp. 30, 32.
  66. Thomas 2005, pp. 32–5.
  67. Thomas 2005, pp. 36–7.
  68. Thomas 2005, p. 39.
  69. "Vampires to be built in Switzerland". The Times (51303). London. 11 February 1949. p. 2.
  70. Jackson 1987, p. 485.
  71. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 14 May 2015. Retrieved 25 May 2015.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  72. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2015. Retrieved 25 May 2015.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  73. "de Havilland Vampire in Swedish service".
  74. Brown 1976, p. 130.
  75. "De Havilland DH115 Vampire Trainer". BAE Systems - International.
  76. "ADF-Serials Vampire". Adf-serials.com.au. Retrieved 2018-09-20.
  77. "RAAF leased Vampire FB.9 and Meteor T.7". Adf-gallery.com.au. Retrieved 2018-09-20.
  78. "NZDF-Serials DH.100 Vampire". Adf-serials.com.au. Retrieved 2018-09-20.
  79. Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft 1985, p. 1380.
  80. Mason 1965, p. 12.
  81. 1 2 Jackson 1987, p. 431.

Bibliography

Books

  • Bain, Gordon (1992). De Havilland: A Pictorial Tribute. London: AirLife. ISBN   978-1-85648-243-1.
  • Birtles, Philip (1986). De Havilland Vampire, Venom and Sea Vixen. London: Ian Allan. ISBN   978-0-7110-1566-1.
  • Buttler, Tony (2000). British Secret Projects: Jet Fighters Since 1950. Leicester, UK: Midland. ISBN   978-1-85780-095-1..
  • Buttler, Tony (2004). British Secret Projects: Fighters & Bombers 1935–1950. Hinckley, UK: Midland. ISBN   978-1-85780-179-8.
  • Cooper, Geoffrey G. J. (2008). Farnborough and the Fleet Air Arm. Ian Allan. ISBN   978-1-85780-306-8.
  • Gunston, Bill (1981). Fighters of the Fifties. Cambridge, UK: Patrick Stephens. ISBN   978-0-85059-463-8.
  • Gunston, Bill (1991). Plane Speaking. Cambridge: Patrick Stephens. ISBN   978-1-85260-166-9.
  • Gunston, Bill (1992). Vampire Fighters Lead Victory Day Fly-by. The Chronicle of Aviation. et al. Liberty, MO: JL. ISBN   978-1-872031-30-9.
  • Gunston, Bill (2006). World Encyclopedia of Aero Engines: From the Pioneers to the Present Day. London: Sutton. ISBN   978-0-7509-4479-3.
  • Harrison, W. A. (2000). De Havilland Vampire. Warpaint. Buckinghamshire, UK: Hall Park Books. OCLC   65202533.
  • Harker, R.W. (1976). Rolls-Royce From the Wings: Military Aviation, 1925–71. Oxford: Oxford Illustrated Press. ISBN   978-0-902280-38-0.
  • Jackson, R. (2006). Men Of Power, The Lives Of Rolls-Royce Chief Test Pilots. Barnsley: Pen and Sword. ISBN   978-1-84415-427-2.
  • Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft. Part Work 1982–1985. London: Orbis. 1985. OCLC   774502902.
  • Jackson, A. J. (1987). De Havilland Aircraft since 1909 (3rd ed.). London: Putnam. ISBN   978-0-85177-802-0.
  • Mason, Francis K. (1965). The De Havilland Vampire Mk. 5 & 9. Aircraft in Profile. Leatherhead, UK: Profile Publications. OCLC   45318860.
  • Marriott, Leo (1985). Royal Navy Aircraft Carriers 1945–1990. London: Ian Allan. ISBN   978-0-7110-1561-6.
  • Milberry, Lawrence "Larry" (1984). Sixty Years: The RCAF and Air Command 1924–1984. Toronto: Canav Books. ISBN   978-0-07-549484-3.
  • Watkins, David (1996). de Havilland Vampire: The Complete History. Thrupp UK: Budding Books. ISBN   978-1-84015-023-0.
  • Watkins, David (2013). The History of the de Havilland Vampire. Stroud, UK: Fonthill Media. ISBN   978-1-78155-266-7.

Journals

  • Brown, Eric (1976). "Vampire on a Trampoline". Air Enthusiast Quarterly . Bromley, UK: Fine Scroll (2): 126–136. ISSN   0143-5450.
  • Brown, Eric (January 1985). "Dawn of the Carrier Jet". Air International . 28 (1): 31–37. ISSN   0306-5634.
  • Dorr, Robert F. (1998). "Lockheed P-80 Shooting Star, Variant Briefing". Wings of Fame: The Journal of Classic Combat Aircraft. London: AIRTime. 11. ISBN   978-1-86184-017-2.
  • Nicolle, David; Cattaneo, Gianni (May–June 1997). "'A Delight to Fly': DH Vampires in Egyptian Service". Air Enthusiast. Stamford, UK: Key Publishing (69): 2–11. ISSN   0143-5450.|
  • Thomas, Andrew (September–October 2005). "'Booms' Over the 'Bush': De Havilland Vampires in Rhodesian Service". Air Enthusiast . Stamford, UK: Key Publishing (119): 30–39. ISSN   0143-5450.
External video
Nuvola apps kaboodle.svg Vampire engine start at AFB Swartkop
Nuvola apps kaboodle.svg In cockpit flight view of South African Air Force Museum Vampire T 55 flown by Col. Rama Iyer