Sud Aviation Caravelle

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Sud SE-210 Caravelle III, F-BHRS, Air France Manteufel-1.jpg
Caravelle III
Role Narrow-body jet airliner
National originFrance
Manufacturer Sud Aviation
First flight27 May 1955
Introduction26 April 1959 with Scandinavian Airlines
Primary users Air France
Scandinavian Airlines
Produced1958–1972 [1]
Number built282

The Sud Aviation SE 210 Caravelle is a French jet airliner produced by Sud Aviation. It was developed by SNCASE in the early 1950s, and made its maiden flight on 27 May 1955. It included some de Havilland designs and components developed for the de Havilland Comet. SNCASE was then merged into the larger Sud Aviation conglomerate before the aircraft entered revenue service on 26 April 1959 with Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS); 282 were built until the production end in 1972. It was operated in every continent until its retirement in 2005.


The short-range, five-abreast airliner is powered by two aft-mounted Rolls-Royce Avon turbojet engines, allowing a clean low wing. The configuration was later retained in many narrow-body aircraft and regional jets. The initial I, III and VI variants could seat 90 to 99 passengers over 1,650 to 2,500 km (890 to 1,350 nmi). The later, slightly longer 10/11 variants could seat 99 to 118 passengers over 2,800 to 3,300 km (1,500 to 1,800 nmi), powered by Pratt & Whitney JT8D low-bypass turbofans. The stretched Caravelle 12 could seat 131 over 3,200 km (1,700 nmi).



On 12 October 1951, the Comité du matériel civil (civil aircraft committee) published a specification for a medium-range aircraft, which was later sent to the aviation industry by the Direction technique et industrielle. This called for an aircraft capable of carrying 55 to 65 passengers and 1,000 kg (2,200 lb) of cargo on routes up to 2,000 km (1,100  nmi ; 1,200  mi ) with a cruising speed of about 600 km/h (320  kn ; 370  mph ). The type and number of engines were not specified. Since 1946, various design studies for aircraft in this category had already been underway at several of the leading French aircraft manufacturing organisations, and had resulted in some ambitious concepts being mooted. None of these firms possessed the financial power to independently embark on the substantial development work involved, let alone to establish a manufacturing line for the construction of such aircraft. [2] [3]

The response to the specification from the French industry was strong, it has been claimed that every major manufacturer submitted at least one proposal; a total of 20 different designs were ultimately received. The majority of these proposals were powered by all-turbojet engine arrangements, although Breguet had entered a number of designs that were powered by both turbojet and turboprop engines; among these was one for a Snecma Atar-powered tri-jet to be developed in association with the SNCA du Nord and a turboprop type; all of the different designs were designated as Br. 978. Hurel-Dubois had entered several turboprop designs based on a narrow fuselage and shoulder-mounted wing, similar to many regional propliners. Proposals from SNCASO included the S.O.60 with two Rolls-Royce Avon RA.7 engines, outfitted with two smaller Turbomeca Marborés as auxiliaries. SNCASE had also returned a number of designs from the X-200 to X-210, all of these being purely jet-powered. [2]

On 28 March 1952, after studying the various entries, the Comité du Matériel Civil announced that it had produced a short list of three entrants: the four-engined Avon/Marbore SNCASO S.0.60, the twin-Avon Hurel-Dubois project, and the three-engined Avon SNCASE X-210. At this point, British engine manufacturer Rolls-Royce had already begun to offer a new version of the Avon that was to be capable of developing 9,000 lbf (40 kN) of thrust, which would render the auxiliary engines of the S.O.60 and the third engine featured on the X-210 unnecessary. [2] The Committee issued a request for SNCASE to re-submit its X-210 proposal as a twin-Avon design. [3] In doing so, SNCASE decided not to bother moving the remaining engines from their rear-mounted position; most designs had placed the engines underneath the wing, where they could be mounted on the spar for lower overall weight, but it was felt that these weight savings were not worth the effort. This turned out to be a benefit to the design, as the cabin noise was greatly reduced as a result. In July 1952, the revised X-210 design with twin Avons was re-submitted to the Secretariat General for Civil and Commercial Aviation (SGACC). [2]


The unusual cockpit window arrangement of the Caravelle, licensed from the de Havilland Comet Air Toulouse (F-BMKS), Dublin, February 1993 (02).jpg
The unusual cockpit window arrangement of the Caravelle, licensed from the de Havilland Comet
Cockpit Caravelle cockpit.JPG

Two months later, SNCASE received official notification that its design had been accepted. On 6 July 1953, the SGACC placed a formal order for the construction of a pair of prototypes along with a pair of static airframes for fatigue testing. SNCASE's design licensed several fuselage features from British aircraft company de Havilland, the two companies already having had dealings in respect to several earlier designs. The nose area and cockpit layout were taken directly from the de Havilland Comet jet airliner, while the rest of the airliner was locally designed. [2] A distinctive design feature was the cabin windows in the shape of a curved triangle, which were smaller than conventional windows but gave the same field of view downwards.

On 21 April 1955, the first prototype of the Caravelle (F-WHHH), christened by Madame de Gaulle, was rolled out. On 27 May 1955, the first prototype conducted its maiden flight, powered by a pair of British Rolls-Royce RA-26 Avon Mk.522, capable of providing 4,536  kgf (44,480  N ; 10,000  lbf ) of unitary thrust. For the maiden flight, which had a total duration of 41 minutes, the crew consisted of Pierre Nadot (first officer), André Moynot (second officer), Jean Avril (mechanic), André Préneron (radio operator) and Roger Beteille. [2]

Almost one year later, on 6 May 1956, the second prototype made its first flight. The first prototype had been fitted with a cargo door located on the lower left side of the fuselage, but this door was removed in the second prototype in favour of an all-seating arrangement. [2] By October 1956, both prototypes had accumulated in excess of 1,000 flight hours. [3] By the end of 1956, the two aircraft had visited various locations across Europe and North Africa; and trials were already underway for French carrier Air France. During 1957, the second prototype accumulated roughly 2,500 flight hours across various flights conducted throughout North America and South America. [3]

In 1956, the type received its first order from Air France; it was followed by Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS) in 1957. More orders followed, which had been partially driven by a campaign of direct presentations held at airshows and dedicated flight demonstrations using the two prototypes to potential customers. [3] Also during 1956, SNCASE (Sud-Est - Southeast) had merged with SNCASO (Sud-Ouest - Southwest) and several other French aircraft manufacturers to become Sud Aviation; however, the original SE designation assigned to the airliner was retained. [3] In May 1959, the Caravelle received its airworthiness certification, enabling the type to enter passenger service. On 26 April 1959, the Caravelle performed its first flight with paying passengers on board for Scandinavian operator SAS;[ clarification needed ] shortly thereafter, the type commenced operations with Air France as well. [2]

Further development

Assembly hall in 1962, during a visit of French prime minister Michel Debre 2 et 3.02.1962. Michel Debre a Toulouse. L. Bazerque. Prefet Morin. (1962) - 53Fi3390 (cropped).jpg
Assembly hall in 1962, during a visit of French prime minister Michel Debré

Within four years of entering airliner service, a total of 172 Caravelles had been sold to a range of operators. [3] Aviation writer M.G. Douglas attributed the type's favourable early sales record to the effective marketing campaign of performing demonstrations to prospective customers using the two prototypes, as well to the Caravelle having effectively no jet-powered rivals, being the only short-haul jetliner for several years following its introduction. [3] Several models of the Caravelle were developed and produced over the lifetime of the production run, often in response to the increasing power of the available engines, which allowed higher takeoff weights to be adopted. [2]

By 1963, there were a total of six different versions of the Caravelle in production, designated III, VI-N, VI-R, 10A, 10B, and X-BIR. [4] Of these, the Caravelle III was considered to be the basic version of the airliner, while the other variants featured an increasing number of improvements. The Caravelle VI-N was equipped with more powerful Avon 531 engines and an additional heat exchanger for the air conditioning, while the Caravelle VI-R, which had come about as a result of demands by U.S. carrier United Airlines, was furnished with thrust reverser-equipped Avon 352s, a revised windscreen design, soundproofing, a new luggage compartment door, and wing spoilers. [4]

The Caravelle 10A and 10B, which differed only in the engines used and were commonly referred to as the Super Caravelle, featured the improvements of the VI-R in addition to a high degree of further design changes. [4] The more high-profile modifications included a stretch of the fuselage by 33 inches (84 cm); a highly altered wing; an aerodynamic fairing behind the fin of the tailplane; expanded cargo capacity via raised floor support struts; and higher cabin windows. Other changes included the adoption of variable-displacement pumps for the hydraulic system and the use of AC-based generators in place of earlier DC counterparts along with an auxiliary power unit (APU). The redesigned wing was equipped with double-slotted Fowler flaps, additional and repositioned stall vanes,[ clarification needed ] aerodynamic improvements to the wing root and adjustments to the leading edge that improved the performance of the wing during the crucial takeoff and landing phases of flight. [4]

Despite its commercial success, however, the Caravelle was soon displaced from being the focus of Sud Aviation's development efforts as the majority of the company's design engineers were progressively reallocated onto an entirely new project that was intended to produce a successor to the Caravelle. The project was relatively ambitious, having the aim of producing a viable supersonic transport that possessed the same general size and range as the Caravelle. It was decided that the envisioned supersonic airliner should be naturally named after the firm's recent success, thus the Super-Caravelle name was applied to the design. Ultimately, the work on the Super-Caravelle would be merged with similar work that had been undertaken by Britain's Bristol Aeroplane Company, and would result in the development of Concorde. [2]

In total, 282 Caravelles of all types were manufactured (2 prototypes or pre-production aircraft and 280 production aircraft); reportedly, Sud Aviation's projected break-even point for the type had been forecast to be around the 200-unit mark. [2]


Rear fuselage of a Caravelle, showing its Rolls-Royce Avon turbojet engine Royal Military Museum Brussels 2007 459.JPG
Rear fuselage of a Caravelle, showing its Rolls-Royce Avon turbojet engine

The Caravelle belongs to the first generation of passenger aircraft to use newly developed jet propulsion technology, and it was the first jet airliner developed specifically for the short/medium-range sector of the market. Early in the Caravelle's career, its chief competitors were propeller-driven aircraft, such as the British-built Vickers Viscount and the U.S.-built Convair CV-440. [3] Reportedly, the Caravelle proved to be a highly reliable airliner during its early years of service. The low accident rate for the type led to lower than average insurance premiums for Caravelle operators. [5]

The Caravelle was typically powered by a pair of British-built Rolls-Royce Avon turbojet engines, installed in a rear-mounted position close to the tail unit. [3] Various models of the Avon engine were adopted for different versions of the airliner, often with increased thrust and additional features such as thrust reversers. Alternative powerplants were adopted or proposed for some Caravelle models, such as the U.S.-built Pratt & Whitney JT8D-1 and General Electric CJ-805-23C engines. [6]

The Caravelle was designed to maximise passenger comfort and operator convenience. The rear entry door had built-in stairs that, while adding structural complexity, meant that mobile airport stairs were unnecessary. [4] On later variants, soundproofing in the form of readily removable mattress-like rolls that fixed in place via existing brackets was added to the design. [4] In some configurations, the Caravelle's cabin was furnished with a number of rearward-facing passenger seats, which was an uncommon arrangement amongst civil aircraft. [2] From September 1963 onwards, an autolanding capability (via two separate systems, of which one was self-contained while the other was integrated with the airliner's autopilot), was made available for the Caravelle by Sud Aviation. [5]

The final assembly line for the Caravelle was at Sud Aviation's factory at Blagnac Airport near Toulouse. Much of the aircraft was manufactured at other sites across France and in other countries, however. [6] The production of large portions of the Caravelle had been subcontracted to other manufacturers; these included the Italian aircraft manufacturer Fiat Aviazione, which produced the aircraft's tailplane, fin, ailerons, and engine nacelles; and French aviation firm Breguet Aviation, which performed the outfitting of the rear fuselage; while much of the ancillary equipment of the Caravelle originated from either British or U.S. manufacturers. Sud Aviation constructed and outfitted the nose section, along with manufacturing the tailcone, rudder, Fowler flaps, both the leading edges and trailing edges of the wing, and the majority of the fuselage. [3]


The triangular windows of the Caravelle remained unaltered throughout its development. Wing fences on the wing of a Caravelle.jpg
The triangular windows of the Caravelle remained unaltered throughout its development.
Variants [2]
Caravelle I32.01 m (105 ft 0 in)RA-29 Mk.52280
Caravelle IA32.01 m (105 ft 0 in)RA-29 Mk.522A80
Caravelle III32.01 m (105 ft 0 in)RA-29 Mk.527 and 527B80
Caravelle VI-N32.01 m (105 ft 0 in)RA-29 Mk.531 and 531B80
Caravelle VI-R32.01 m (105 ft 0 in)RA-29 Mk.533R80
Caravelle 10R32.01 m (105 ft 0 in)P&W JT8D-780
Caravelle 11R32.71 m (107 ft 4 in)P&W JT8D-789–99
Caravelle 10B33.01 m (108 ft 4 in)P&W JT8D-7105
Caravelle 1236.24 m (118 ft 11 in)P&W JT8D-9140
Caravelle I
Similar to the original prototypes; first flew on 14 May 1958. This variant was powered by two Rolls-Royce RA-29 Avon Mk.522 with 4,763  kgf (46,710  N ; 10,500  lbf ) of unitary thrust[ clarification needed ] and a capacity of 80 passengers. French certification was obtained on 2 April 1959, and U.S. certification was obtained six days later. The first revenue flight took place that year with Air France on the Paris-Rome-Athens–Istanbul route. Air France Caravelle registration F-BHRB "Lorraine" was introduced in the Paris-London route on 27 July 1959.
Sales: 20 were sold; to Air France (10), SAS (6), Air Algérie (2) and VARIG (2). One of the VARIG aircraft was leased by Sud to Air Vietnam and Middle East Airlines before delivery to Royal Air Maroc. In Australia, Trans Australia Airlines had planned to re-equip with the Caravelle but as Ansett felt this was too advanced at that stage for its own needs, under Australia’s Two Airlines Policy both airlines were required to purchase the Ansett preference (the less-advanced turbo-prop Lockheed L-188 Electra).
Caravelle IA
This variant had the same external configuration as variant I but with more powerful engines, the Rolls-Royce Avon RA-29/1 Mk.526 giving improved capabilities. The first flight took place on 11 February 1960. Caravelle I and IA aircraft were later converted to the III variant.
Sales: 12 built. Deliveries were to Air France, SAS, Air Algérie, Finnair, and Royal Air Maroc.
Air France Caravelle III deploying a drogue parachute, before thrust reversers Air France Caravelle with parachute.jpg
Air France Caravelle III deploying a drogue parachute, before thrust reversers
Caravelle III
Later improvements to the Avon led to the Caravelle III. It first flew on 30 December 1959, entering service with Alitalia in April 1960. The Caravelle III was powered by Rolls-Royce Avon RA-29/3 Mk.527 and RA-29/3 Mk.527B engines, both with 5,170  kgf (50,700  N ; 11,400  lbf ) of unitary thrust.
Sales: The Series III was the best-selling Caravelle with 78 built. All but one of the 32 Series Is built were upgraded to Series III standard. Air Inter used 16 of this type for its domestic routes. Major deliveries were to Air France, as well as aircraft for Swissair, Alitalia, SAS, and Royal Air Maroc.
Corse Air VI-N variant Corse Air International Sud Aviation Caravelle at Basle Airport in October 1985.jpg
Corse Air VI-N variant
Caravelle VI-N
N standing for "normal". [4] A version with more powerful Avon RA-29/6 Mk 531 and RA 29/6 Mk 531B engines producing 5,535  kgf (54,280  N ; 12,200  lbf ) of unitary thrust. The capabilities were improved and the weights increased; the actual payload was reduced. The Caravelle VI-N first flew on 10 September 1960, beginning service with Belgian airline Sabena in January 1961. Five of the 78 Series IIIs were upgraded to Series VI N.
Sales: 53 built. Deliveries to Saeta, Corse Air, Europe A.S., Minerve, Pushpaka Aviation and Yugoslav Airlines.
Airborne Express Sud SE-210 Caravelle VI-R Airborne Express Sud SE-210 Caravelle VI-R N901MW.jpg
Airborne Express Sud SE-210 Caravelle VI-R
Caravelle VI-R
First Caravelle with thrust reversers. The cockpit windows were made larger with redesigned layout and more powerful brakes were introduced. It first flew on 6 February 1961, obtaining U.S. certification on 5 June that same year. It began service with United Airlines on 14 July. The VI-R was powered by Avon Ra-29 Mk. 533R and Mk 535R (R, for Reverse) engines with a unitary thrust of 5,715  kgf (56,050  N ; 12,600  lbf ).
Sales: 56 built, 20 for United Airlines. Other series VI customers included Indian Airlines (9), Panair do Brasil (4), Cruzeiro do Sul, Iberia Líneas Aéreas De España (4), LAN Chile (3), Aerolíneas Argentinas (3) and TAP Portugal (3). This model was also used by Filipinas Orient Airways , Aerocesar, Airborne Express and SA Nacionales.
Caravelle VII
This was a Series III (c/n 042) that was purchased by General Electric, ferried to the United States as Santa Marian 9 and equipped with General Electric CJ805 aft-fan engines, becoming, in effect, the engine test-bed for the Caravelle 10A. Flight tests with the new engines began on 29 December 1960 and a second aircraft was planned to be converted, but this aircraft became the sole Caravelle 10A.
Caravelle 10A
Based on the Series VII, but intended for the U.S. market, the 10A was 1 metre (3 ft 3 in) longer than the Series VI, with the windows located 200 mm (7.9 in) higher on the fuselage. The sole prototype was powered by two 71.62 kN (16,100 lbf) General Electric CJ-805-23C aft-fan engines and flew for the first time on 31 August 1962. A modified wing with improved flaps was fitted to meet U.S. certification requirements, as was an auxiliary power unit (APU) in the rear fuselage. Trans World Airlines (TWA) cancelled its order for 20 aircraft due to financial problems, however, and by the time TWA was in a position to purchase new aircraft, the Douglas DC-9 was preferred. After testing the prototype was scrapped.
Caravelle 10B (Super Caravelle)
Based on the Series 10A, this variant offered many modifications in respect to other series. It introduced a leading edge extension (a fillet added to the front of an aircraft wings in order to provide usable airflow at high angles of attack). The wing had split flaps instead of the earlier models’ double-slotted Fowler flaps and the fuselage was extended 1.40 m (4 ft 7 in), with an increase in passenger capacity to 105. The engines used were the new Pratt & Whitney JT8D turbofan engines with 6,350  kgf (62,300  N ; 14,000  lbf ) of unitary thrust. The 10B first flew on August 31, 1964 and was produced as a run of 22 aircraft.
Launch customer [7] and primary operator of the 10B was Finnair with 8 examples. Aviaco ordered 5 but this was cancelled, with those aircraft going to Sterling Airways, LTU, and Iberia Airlines. Alia and Union des Transports Aériens (UTA) also acquired aircraft. The last operational Caravelle was a Type 3 10B that flew with Waltair until 2005. [8]
Caravelle 10R
A combination of the 10B's engines on the Series VI-R fuselage, creating a smaller but higher powered aircraft. Maximum weight at take-off was increased to 52,000 kg (115,000 lb) (6,000 kg or 13,000 lb more than the Series I and 2,000 kg or 4,400 lb more than the Series VI-R). It first flew on 8 January 1965 and received U.S. certification on 23 May of that same year.
A total of 20 were built, starting service with Alia on July 31, 1965. It also flew with Aero Lloyd, CTA, Hispania and SAT, among others.
Caravelle 11R
The 11R had a fuselage length of 31.72 m (104 ft 1 in) (70 cm or 28 in more than other variants) and incorporated a 3.32 m × 1.84 m (10.9 ft × 6.0 ft) cargo door in the port side. This enabled it to carry a mixed load of passengers and cargo. First flight of the series 11R was on 21 April 1967.
Only six were built, delivered to Air Afrique, Air Congo, and Transeuropa of Spain.
Caravelle 12 of Air Inter at Paris Orly Airport in 1974 with an Air Algerie Caravelle in the background Sud SE-210.12 F-BTOE Air Inter Orly 03.08.74 edited-2.jpg
Caravelle 12 of Air Inter at Paris Orly Airport in 1974 with an Air Algerie Caravelle in the background
Caravelle 12 (Super Caravelle)
This was the last version of the Caravelle to appear, first flying on 12 March 1971. The Series 12 was a 10B with a noticeably longer fuselage, stretched by 3.2 m (10 ft 6 in), and a newer uprated version of the JT8D engines with 6,577 kgf (64,500 N; 14,500 lbf) of unitary thrust. This allowed for up to 140 passengers over a reduced range. The Caravelle 12 was aimed primarily at the charter market, produced to 12 examples starting in 1972. By this point Concorde was in production; this design was originally known in France as Sud Aviation Super-Caravelle. The Caravelle 12 was often also referred to by this name.
The launch customer for the Series 12 was Sterling Airways with seven delivered, while the remaining five went to Air Inter. Series 12s flew in Europe until October 1996, and in Africa until more recently.
The unit cost was US$5.5M. (1972) [9]


Civil operators

Aerolineas Argentinas Caravelle VI-N, Aeroparque Jorge Newbery, 1972 Sud SE-210 VIN LV-HGX Aerol AEP 26.04.72 edited-2.jpg
Aerolineas Argentinas Caravelle VI-N, Aeroparque Jorge Newbery, 1972
An Iberia Sud Aviation Caravelle, May 1973 Iberia Caravelle Fitzgerald.jpg
An Iberia Sud Aviation Caravelle, May 1973
A Tunis Air Caravelle III at Euroairport in 1977 Tunisair Caravelle III TS-TAR LFSB 1977-03-05.png
A Tunis Air Caravelle III at Euroairport in 1977
A JAT Sud Aviation SE-210 Caravelle VI-N at Dusseldorf Airport, June 1973 JAT Caravelle Haafke.jpg
A JAT Sud Aviation SE-210 Caravelle VI-N at Düsseldorf Airport, June 1973
Central African Republic
Côte d'Ivoire
New Caledonia
  • Tunisair [44] The carrier took delivery of the first aircraft of the type in 1961. [45]
United States
South Vietnam

Military and government operators

Central African Republic
  • Central African Empire/Republic Government (1970–1979) [51]
  • Chad Government [52]
  • Gabon Government (1976–1978) [54]
  • Mauritanian Government [54]
  • Rwanda Government [54]
  • Senegal Government [52]

Incidents and accidents

For 45 years of commercial exploitation, 67 Caravelles have been withdrawn from service as a result of destruction or for irreparable damage. None of these accidents and incidents are attributed to a design defect, only a few technical failures, human errors, or sabotage. The total loss of life in accidents in Caravelle is more than 1,300. The accident rate per million flights is estimated at more than 5.5, compared with less than 1 for the most recent airliners.

Aircraft on display

OO-SRA at Royal Museum of the Armed Forces and Military History in Brussels Brussel Koninklijk Legermuseum Luchtvaarthal 02.JPG
OO-SRA at Royal Museum of the Armed Forces and Military History in Brussels
N1001U at the Pima Air & Space Museum in Tucson, Arizona Caravelle, Pima Museum, Arizona, 1990.jpg
N1001U at the Pima Air & Space Museum in Tucson, Arizona
North America


Specifications [73]
VariantCaravelle I/III/VICaravelle 10/11Caravelle 12
Flight crew2 or 3
Length32.01 m (105.0 ft)32.71–33.01 m (107.3–108.3 ft)36.24 m (118.9 ft)
Span34.3 m (113 ft)
Height8.65 m (28.4 ft)8.65–9.01 m (28.4–29.6 ft)8.65 m (28.4 ft)
Cargo8–10.6 m3 (280–370 cu ft)10.7–12 m3 (380–420 cu ft)16.5 m3 (580 cu ft)
Empty23,290–26,280 kg (51,350–57,940 lb)27,623–28,840 kg (60,898–63,581 lb)29,500 kg (65,000 lb)
MTOW43,500–51,000 kg (95,900–112,400 lb)54,000–57,000 kg (119,000–126,000 lb)58,000 kg (128,000 lb)
Engines Rolls-Royce Avon Pratt & Whitney JT8D
Unit Thrust46.75–56.05 kN (10,510–12,600 lbf)62.27 kN (14,000 lbf)64.50 kN (14,500 lbf)
Max cruise746–845 km/h (403–456 kn)800–824 km/h (432–445 kn)810 km/h (440 kn)
Range1,650–2,500 km (890–1,350 nmi)2,800–3,300 km (1,500–1,800 nmi)3,200 km (1,700 nmi)
Ceiling11,000–12,000 m (36,000–39,000 ft)

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Indian Airlines, later Indian, was a major airline of India based in Delhi and focused primarily on domestic routes, along with several international services to neighbouring countries in Asia. It was state-owned after merger of eight pre-Independence domestic airlines and was administered by the Ministry of Civil Aviation. Indian was one of the two flag carriers of India, the other being Air India.

Fokker F28 Fellowship Short range jet airliner produced 1967-1987

The Fokker F28 Fellowship is a twin-engined, short-range jet airliner designed and built by Dutch aircraft manufacturer Fokker.

SNCASE Armagnac

The SNCASE S.E.2010 Armagnac was a large French airliner of the late 1940s built by SNCASE (Sud-Est). The aircraft's disappointing performance and range prevented it from achieving commercial success. Although the SNCASE Armagnac did not have a sterling career, its passenger compartment design gave it a much roomier feel and greater capacity and foreshadowed the future wide-body jet airliners.

This is a list of aviation-related events from 1960:

Middle East Airlines – Air Liban S.A.L., more commonly known as Middle East Airlines (MEA), is the national flag-carrier airline of Lebanon, with its head office in Beirut, near Beirut–Rafic Hariri International Airport. It operates scheduled international flights to Asia, Europe, the Middle East, and Africa from its base at Rafic Hariri International Airport.

Lockheed Model 14 Super Electra

The Lockheed Model 14 Super Electra, more commonly known as the Lockheed 14, was a civil passenger and cargo aircraft built by the Lockheed Aircraft Corporation during the late 1930s. An outgrowth of the earlier Model 10 Electra, the Model 14 was also developed into larger, more capable civil and military versions.

Fairchild Swearingen Metroliner Small airliner and executive aircraft family by Swearingen, later Fairchild

The Fairchild Swearingen Metroliner is a 19-seat, pressurized, twin-turboprop airliner first produced by Swearingen Aircraft and later by Fairchild Aircraft at a plant in San Antonio, Texas.

McDonnell Douglas DC-9 Twin-engine, single-aisle jet airliner produced 1965-1982

The McDonnell Douglas DC-9 is a single-aisle airliner designed by the Douglas Aircraft Company. After introducing its heavy DC-8 in 1959, Douglas approved the smaller, all-new DC-9 for shorter flights on April 8, 1963. The DC-9-10 first flew on February 25, 1965 and gained its type certificate on November 23, to enter service with Delta Air Lines on December 8. With five seats across in economy, it had two rear-mounted Pratt & Whitney JT8D turbofans under a T-tail for a cleaner wing, a two-person flight deck and built-in airstairs.

Hawker Siddeley Trident

The HS-121 Trident is a British airliner produced by Hawker Siddeley. In 1957, de Havilland proposed its DH.121 trijet design to a British European Airways (BEA) request. By 1960, de Havilland had been acquired by Hawker Siddeley. The Trident maiden flight happened on 9 January 1962, and it was introduced on 1 April 1964, two months after its main competitor, the Boeing 727. By the end of the programme in 1978, 117 Tridents had been produced, and the Trident was withdrawn from service in 1995.

SNCASE SE.161 Languedoc

The SNCASE SE.161 Languedoc was a French four-engined airliner produced by SNCASE (Sud-Est). Developed from the Bloch MB.160 and known in the late 1930s as the (SNCSO) Bloch MB.161, the SE.161 was in service with Air France and the French military after World War II.

1973 Royal Air Maroc Sud Aviation Caravelle crash

The 1973 Royal Air Maroc Sud Aviation Caravelle crash occurred on 22 December 1973 when a Sobelair Sud Aviation Caravelle SE-210 crashed near the Moroccan city of Tangier. All 106 people on board were killed.



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  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 López Ortega, Antonio (1999). Reactores comerciales: Dibujos del autor (in Spanish). Madrid: Agualarga. ISBN   978-84-95088-87-1. OCLC   47809267.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Dougal 1963, p. 456.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Dougal 1963, p. 457.
  5. 1 2 Dougal 1963, p. 458.
  6. 1 2 Dougal 1963, pp. 456–457.
  7. "Reittilentoliikenteen ensimmäinen Super Caravelle luovutettiin Suomeen" [The first Super Caravelle for scheduled flights was delivered to Finland]. Helsingin Sanomat (in Finnish). 26 July 1964. p. C 18 (2014).
  8. "Caravelle the Complete Story" (PDF). Archived from the original (pdf) on 2016-11-27.
  9. "Airliner price index". Flight International. 10 August 1972. p. 183.
  10. 1 2 3 Avrane 1981, p. 47.
  11. 1 2 Avrane 1981, p. 44.
  12. 1 2 3 Avrane 1981, p. 62.
  13. 1 2 3 Avrane 1981, p. 68.
  14. 1 2 Avrane 1981, p. 87.
  15. 1 2 Avrane 1981, p. 92.
  16. 1 2 Avrane 1981, p. 69.
  17. 1 2 3 4 Avrane 1981, p. 86.
  18. 1 2 Avrane 1981, p. 99.
  19. 1 2 3 Avrane 1981, p. 48.
  20. 1 2 3 Avrane 1981, p. 75.
  21. 1 2 Avrane 1981, p. 46.
  22. 1 2 Avrane 1981, p. 45.
  23. 1 2 3 Avrane 1981, p. 95.
  24. 1 2 3 Avrane 1981, p. 61.
  25. 1 2 3 Avrane 1981, p. 90.
  26. 1 2 3 4 Avrane 1981, p. 71.
  27. 1 2 Avrane 1981, p. 72.
  28. Avrane 1981, p. 51.
  29. 1 2 Avrane 1981, p. 70.
  30. 1 2 Avrane 1981, p. 85.
  31. 1 2 Avrane 1981, p. 97.
  32. 1 2 Avrane 1981, p. 50.
  33. 1 2 3 4 Avrane 1981, p. 84.
  34. 1 2 Avrane 1981, p. 91.
  35. Avrane 1981, p. 73.
  36. 1 2 3 Avrane 1981, p. 74.
  37. 1 2 3 4 Avrane 1981, p. 52.
  38. "World Airline Directory". Flight International. 133 (4106). 1988-03-26. Retrieved 14 April 2009.
  39. 1 2 3 Avrane 1981, p. 96.
  40. Avrane 1981, p. 93.
  41. 1 2 Avrane 1981, p. 63.
  43. 1 2 Avrane 1981, p. 94.
  44. 1 2 Avrane 1981, p. 98.
  45. Guttery 1998, p. 211.
  46. de:Istanbul Airlines
  47. Avrane 1981, p. 100.
  48. "World Airlines Directory". Flight International . 22 March 1973. p. 440.
  49. Avrane 1981, p. 119.
  50. Avrane 1981, p. 113.
  51. Avrane 1981, p. 112.
  52. 1 2 Avrane 1981, p. 117.
  53. Avrane 1981, p. 101.
  54. 1 2 3 Avrane 1981, p. 116.
  55. 1 2 Avrane 1981, p. 115.
  57. Rapport d'enquête sur la collision en vol survenue près d'Orly le 19 mai 1960
  59. "MEA Caravelle Lost", Flight International: 635, 24 April 1964
  60. "Accident Database". Archived from the original on 2012-11-04.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  61. "Crash Antibes/1968: Michel Laty, témoin capital, est mort" [Crash Antibes/1968: Michel Laty, principal witness, is dead]. Syndicat National du Personnel Navigant Commercial (in French). AFP and others. 16 December 2011. Retrieved 10 September 2019.
  62. "Accident description PP-PDX". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 22 June 2011.
  63. Germano da Silva, Carlos Ari César (2008). "O mistério do Tirirical". O rastro da bruxa: história da aviação comercial brasileira no século XX através dos seus acidentes 1928–1996 (in Portuguese) (2 ed.). Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS. pp. 279–284. ISBN   978-85-7430-760-2.
  64. Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Sud Aviation SE-210 Caravelle VI-R N905MW Atlanta Municipal Airport, GA (ATL)".
  65. "ASN Aircraft accident Sud Aviation SE-210 Caravelle III F-BHRS Milano-Malpensa Airport (MXP)".
  66. " – Kultur i Norge på nett" (in Norwegian). Retrieved 8 February 2012.
  67. "Velkommen til Danmarks Tekniske Museum". Danmarks Tekniske Museum.
  68. "Sud Aviation SE-210 Caravelle III". Retrieved 24 July 2017.
  69. "Anciennes Ailes Toulouse SUD AVIATION SE.210 CARAVELLE 10 B3".
  70. "Présentation> Musée de l'Air et de l'Espace – Site officiel". Retrieved 8 February 2012.
  72. "List of displayed aircraft - Aeroscopia official website".
  73. John Wegg (2005). Caravelle - La Française de la jet set. Avia-Éditions. pp. 412–433. ISBN   2-915030-09-X. Lay summary.