Junkers Ju 52

Last updated
Ju 52
Ju-Air Junkers Ju-52 in flight over Austria.jpg
JU Air Junkers Ju 52/3m HB/HOS in flight over Austria (July 2013)
RoleTransport aircraft, medium bomber, airliner
Manufacturer Junkers
DesignerErnst Zindel
First flight13 October 1930 (Ju 52/1m); 7 March 1932 (Ju 52/3m)
StatusIn limited use
Primary users Luftwaffe
Luft Hansa
Spanish Air Force
Produced1931–1945 (Germany)
1945–1947 (France)
1945–1952 (Spain)
Number built4,845

The Junkers Ju 52/3m (nicknamed Tante Ju ("Aunt Ju") and Iron Annie) is a German transport aircraft manufactured from 1931 to 1952, initially designed with a single engine but subsequently produced as a trimotor. It had both civilian and military service during the 1930s and 1940s. In a civilian role, it flew with over 12 air carriers including Swissair and Deutsche Luft Hansa as an airliner and freight hauler. In a military role, it flew with the Luftwaffe as a troop and cargo transport and briefly as a medium bomber. The Ju 52 continued in postwar service with military and civilian air fleets well into the 1980s. The aircraft has continued to be used well beyond that date for purposes such as sightseeing.

A trimotor is an aircraft powered by three engines and represents a compromise between complexity and safety and was often a result of the limited power of the engines available to the designer. Many trimotors were designed and built in the 1920s and 1930s, when engine power lagged behind the designers' power requirements.

Swissair national airline of Switzerland

Swissair AG/S.A. was the national airline of Switzerland between its founding in 1931 and bankruptcy in 2002.

Deutsche Luft Hansa 1926-1945 airline in Germany

Deutsche Luft Hansa A.G. was a German airline, serving as flag carrier of the country during the later years of the Weimar Republic and throughout Nazi Germany.

Contents

Design and development

The Ju 52 was similar to the company's previous Junkers W 33, although larger. In 1930, Ernst Zindel and his team designed the Ju 52 at the Junkers works at Dessau. The aircraft's unusual corrugated duralumin metal skin, pioneered by Junkers during World War I, strengthened the whole structure.

Junkers W 33 German single-engine transport aircraft

The Junkers W 33 was a German single-engine transport aircraft. It was aerodynamically and structurally advanced for its time (1920s), a clean, low-wing all-metal cantilever monoplane. Almost 200 were produced. It is remembered in aviation history for the first east–west non-stop heavier-than-air crossing of the Atlantic.

Dessau Stadtteil of Dessau-Roßlau in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany

Dessau is a town and former municipality in Germany on the junction of the rivers Mulde and Elbe, in the Bundesland of Saxony-Anhalt. Since 1 July 2007, it has been part of the newly created municipality of Dessau-Roßlau. Population of Dessau proper: 77,973.

Duralumin trade name of age-hardenable aluminium alloy

Duralumin is a trade name for one of the earliest types of age-hardenable aluminium alloys. Its use as a trade name is obsolete, and today the term mainly refers to aluminium–copper alloys, designated as the 2000 series by the International Alloy Designation System (IADS), as with 2014 and 2024 alloys used in airframe fabrication.

Lufthansa's 21st-century airworthy heritage Ju 52/3mg2e (Wk-Nr 5489) in flight, showing the Doppelflugel, "double wing" trailing-edge control surfaces Junkers Ju 52-3mg2.jpg
Lufthansa's 21st-century airworthy heritage Ju 52/3mg2e (Wk-Nr 5489) in flight, showing the Doppelflügel, "double wing" trailing-edge control surfaces

The Ju 52 had a low cantilever wing, the midsection of which was built into the fuselage, forming its underside. [1] It was formed around four pairs of circular cross-section duralumin spars with a corrugated surface that provided torsional stiffening. A narrow control surface, with its outer section functioning as the aileron, and the inner section functioning as a flap, ran along the whole trailing edge of each wing panel, well separated from it. The inner flap section lowered the stalling speed and the arrangement became known as the Doppelflügel, or "double wing". [2]

Fuselage aircraft main body which is the primary carrier of crew, passengers, and payload

The fuselage is an aircraft's main body section. It holds crew, passengers, and cargo. In single-engine aircraft it will usually contain an engine, as well, although in some amphibious aircraft the single engine is mounted on a pylon attached to the fuselage, which in turn is used as a floating hull. The fuselage also serves to position control and stabilization surfaces in specific relationships to lifting surfaces, which is required for aircraft stability and maneuverability.

Spar (aeronautics) Main structural member of the wing of an aircraft

In a fixed-wing aircraft, the spar is often the main structural member of the wing, running spanwise at right angles to the fuselage. The spar carries flight loads and the weight of the wings while on the ground. Other structural and forming members such as ribs may be attached to the spar or spars, with stressed skin construction also sharing the loads where it is used. There may be more than one spar in a wing or none at all. However, where a single spar carries the majority of the forces on it, it is known as the main spar.

Aileron Aircraft control surface used to induce roll

An aileron is a hinged flight control surface usually forming part of the trailing edge of each wing of a fixed-wing aircraft. Ailerons are used in pairs to control the aircraft in roll, which normally results in a change in flight path due to the tilting of the lift vector. Movement around this axis is called 'rolling' or 'banking'.

The outer sections of this operated differentially as ailerons, projecting slightly beyond the wingtips with control horns. The strutted horizontal stabilizer carried horn-balanced elevators which again projected and showed a significant gap between them and the stabilizer, which was adjustable in-flight. All stabilizer surfaces were corrugated.

Tailplane small lifting surface located on the tail (empennage) behind the main lifting surfaces of a fixed-wing aircraft as well as other non-fixed-wing aircraft such as helicopters and gyroplanes

A tailplane, also known as a horizontal stabiliser, is a small lifting surface located on the tail (empennage) behind the main lifting surfaces of a fixed-wing aircraft as well as other non-fixed-wing aircraft such as helicopters and gyroplanes. Not all fixed-wing aircraft have tailplanes. Canards, tailless and flying wing aircraft have no separate tailplane, while in V-tail aircraft the vertical stabilizer, rudder, and the tail-plane and elevator are combined to form two diagonal surfaces in a V layout.

Elevator (aeronautics) type of flight control surface

Elevators are flight control surfaces, usually at the rear of an aircraft, which control the aircraft's pitch, and therefore the angle of attack and the lift of the wing. The elevators are usually hinged to the tailplane or horizontal stabilizer. They may be the only pitch control surface present, sometimes located at the front of the aircraft or integrated into a rear "all-moving tailplane" also called a slab elevator or stabilator.

Junkers Ju 52 JU 52.svg
Junkers Ju 52

The fuselage was of rectangular section with a domed decking, all covered with corrugated light alloy. A port-side passenger door was placed just aft of the wings, with windows stretching forward to the pilots' cockpit. The main undercarriage was fixed and divided; some aircraft had wheel fairings, others did not. A fixed tailskid, or a later tailwheel, was used. Some aircraft were fitted with floats or skis instead of the main wheels.

Cockpit area, usually near the front of an aircraft, from which a pilot controls the aircraft

A cockpit or flight deck is the area, usually near the front of an aircraft or spacecraft, from which a pilot controls the aircraft.

Landing gear aircraft part which supports the aircraft while not in the air

Landing gear is the undercarriage of an aircraft or spacecraft and may be used for either takeoff or landing. For aircraft it is generally both. It was also formerly called alighting gear by some manufacturers, such as the Glenn L. Martin Company.

Aircraft fairing

An aircraft fairing is a structure whose primary function is to produce a smooth outline and reduce drag.

In its original configuration, designated the Ju 52/1m, the Ju 52 was a single-engined aircraft, powered by either a BMW IV or Junkers liquid-cooled V-12 engine. However, the single-engined model was underpowered, and after seven prototypes had been completed, all subsequent Ju 52s were built with three radial engines as the Ju 52/3m (drei motoren—"three engines"). Originally powered by three Pratt & Whitney R-1690 Hornet radial engines, later production models mainly received 574 kW (770 hp) BMW 132 engines, a licence-built refinement of the Pratt & Whitney design. Export models were also built with 447 kW (600 hp) Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp and 578 kW (775 hp) Bristol Pegasus VI engines. The two wing-mounted radial engines of the Ju 52/3m had half-chord cowlings and in planform view (from above/below) appeared to be splayed outwards, being mounted at an almost perpendicular angle to the tapered wing's sweptback leading edge (in a similar fashion to the Mitsubishi G3M bomber and Short Sunderland; the angled engines on the Ju 52 were intended to make maintaining straight flight easier should an engine fail, while the others had different reasons). The three engines had either Townend ring or NACA cowlings to reduce drag from the engine cylinders, although a mixture of the two was most common (as can be seen in many of the accompanying photographs), with deeper-chord NACA cowlings on the wing engines and a narrow Townend ring on the center engine (onto which a deeper NACA cowl was more difficult to fit, due to the widening fuselage behind the engine). Production Ju 52/3m aircraft flown by Deutsche Luft Hansa before World War II, as well as Luftwaffe-flown Ju 52s flown during the war, usually used an air-start system to turn over their trio of radial engines, using a common compressed-air supply that also operated the main wheels' brakes.

BMW IV aircraft engine family by BMW

The BMW IV was a six-cylinder, water-cooled inline aircraft engine built in Germany in the 1920s. Power was in the 180 kW (250 hp) range. The IV was also produced under license by Junkers as the L2.

V12 engine piston engine with 12 cylinders in vee configuration

A V12 engine is a V engine with 12 cylinders mounted on the crankcase in two banks of six cylinders each, usually but not always at a 60° angle to each other, with all 12 pistons driving a common crankshaft. Since each cylinder bank is essentially a straight-six which is by itself in both primary and secondary balance, a V12 inherits perfect primary and secondary balance no matter which V angle is used, and therefore it needs no balance shafts. A four-stroke 12 cylinder engine has an even firing order if cylinders fire every 60° of crankshaft rotation, so a V12 with cylinder banks at a multiples of 60° will have even firing intervals without using split crankpins. By using split crankpins or ignoring minor vibrations, any V angle is possible. The 180° configuration is usually referred to as a "flat-twelve engine" or a "boxer" although it is in reality a 180° V since the pistons can and normally do use shared crankpins. It may also be written as "V-12", although this is less common.

Prototype early sample or model built to test a concept or process

A prototype is an early sample, model, or release of a product built to test a concept or process or to act as a thing to be replicated or learned from. It is a term used in a variety of contexts, including semantics, design, electronics, and software programming. A prototype is generally used to evaluate a new design to enhance precision by system analysts and users. Prototyping serves to provide specifications for a real, working system rather than a theoretical one. In some design workflow models, creating a prototype is the step between the formalization and the evaluation of an idea.

Operational history

Ju 52/1m replica (converted from 52/3m) of "CF-ARM" at the Royal Aviation Museum of Western Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada Junkers Ju-52 single-engine.JPG
Ju 52/1m replica (converted from 52/3m) of "CF-ARM" at the Royal Aviation Museum of Western Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
Ju 52s damaged in Crete, 1941 Bundesarchiv Bild 101I-166-0512-39, Kreta, Abgesturzte Ju 52.jpg
Ju 52s damaged in Crete, 1941
A Luftwaffe Ju 52 being serviced in Crete in 1943: Note the narrow-chord Townend ring on the central engine and the deeper-chord NACA cowlings on the wing engines. Bundesarchiv Bild 101I-026-0122-32A, Griechenland, Kreta, Ju 52.jpg
A Luftwaffe Ju 52 being serviced in Crete in 1943: Note the narrow-chord Townend ring on the central engine and the deeper-chord NACA cowlings on the wing engines.
Luftwaffe Ju 52s dropping paratroops Bundesarchiv Bild 101I-670-7410-10, Fallschirmjagerabsprung aus Junkers Ju 52.jpg
Luftwaffe Ju 52s dropping paratroops
Internal view of Ju 52 showing a defensive MG 15 beam machine gun and storage mounts for spare saddle-drum magazines MG-15 ammo Ju-52.jpg
Internal view of Ju 52 showing a defensive MG 15 beam machine gun and storage mounts for spare saddle-drum magazines
Junkers Ju 52 cockpit layout Junkers Ju 52 cockpit.jpg
Junkers Ju 52 cockpit layout

Prewar civil use

In 1932, James A. Richardson's Canadian Airways received (Werknummer 4006) CF-ARM, the sixth-built Ju 52/1m. The aircraft, first refitted with an Armstrong Siddeley Leopard radial engine and then later with a Rolls-Royce Buzzard and nicknamed the "Flying Boxcar" in Canada, [3] [4] could lift about 3 tons and had a maximum weight of 7 tonnes (8 tons). It was used to supply mining and other operations in remote areas with equipment too big and heavy for other aircraft then in use. The Ju 52/1m was able to land on wheels, skis, or floats (as were all Ju 52 variants). [5]

Before the Nazi government seized control of Junkers in 1935, the Ju 52/3m was produced principally as a 17-seat airliner. It was used mainly by Luft Hansa and could fly from Berlin to Rome in 8 hours. The Luft Hansa fleet eventually numbered 80 and flew from Germany on routes in Europe, Asia, and South America.[ citation needed ]

Military use 1932–1945

The Colombian Air Force used three Ju 52/3mde bombers equipped as floatplanes during the Colombia-Peru War in 1932–1933. After the war, the air force acquired three other Ju 52mge as transports; the type remained in service until after World War II.[ citation needed ]

Bolivia acquired four Ju 52s in the course of the Chaco War (1932–1935), mainly for medical evacuation and air supply. During the conflict, the Ju 52s alone transported more than 4,400 tons of cargo to the front. [6]

In 1934, Junkers received orders to produce a bomber version of the Ju 52/3m to serve as interim equipment for the bomber units of the still-secret Luftwaffe until it could be replaced by the purpose-designed Dornier Do 11. [7] Two bomb bays were fitted, capable of holding up to 1,500 kg (3,300 lb) of bombs, while defensive armament consisted of two 7.92 mm MG 15 machine guns, one in an open dorsal position, and one in a retractable "dustbin" ventral position, which could be manually winched down from the fuselage to protect the aircraft from attacks from below. The bomber could be easily converted to serve in the transport role. [8] The Dornier Do 11 was a failure, however, and the Junkers ended up being acquired in much larger numbers than at first expected, with the type being the Luftwaffe's main bomber until more modern aircraft such as the Heinkel He 111, Junkers Ju 86 and Dornier Do 17 entered into service. [9] [10]

The Ju 52 first was used in military service in the Spanish Civil War against the Spanish Republic. It was one of the first aircraft delivered to the faction of the army in revolt in July 1936, as both a bomber and transport. In the former role, it participated in the bombing of Guernica. No more of the bomber variants were built after this war, though it was again used as a bomber during the bombing of Warsaw [11] during the invasion of Poland in September 1939. The Luftwaffe then relied on the Ju 52 for transport roles during World War II, including paratroop drops.

World War II

In service with Lufthansa, the Ju 52 had proved to be an extremely reliable passenger airplane. Therefore, it was adopted by the Luftwaffe as a standard aircraft model. In 1938, the 7th Air Division had five air transport groups with 250 Ju 52s. The Luftwaffe had 552 Ju 52s at the start of World War II. Though it was built in great numbers, the Ju 52 was technically obsolete. Between 1939 and 1944, 2,804 Ju 52s were delivered to the Luftwaffe (1939: 145; 1940: 388; 1941: 502; 1942: 503; 1943: 887; and 1944: 379). The production of Ju 52s continued until around the summer of 1944; when the war came to an end, 100 to 200 were still available.

The Ju 52 could carry 18 fully equipped soldiers, or 12 stretchers when used as an air ambulance. Transported material was loaded and unloaded through side doors by means of a ramp. Air-dropped supplies were jettisoned through two double chutes; supply containers were dropped by parachute through the bomb-bay doors, and paratroopers jumped through the side doors. Sd.Kfz. 2 Kettenkrafträder (half-track motorcycles) and supply canisters for parachute troops were secured under the fuselage at the bomb bay exits and were dropped with four parachutes. A tow coupling was built into the tail-skid for use in towing freight gliders. The Ju 52 could tow up to two DFS 230 gliders.

Lightly armed, and with a top speed of only 265 km/h (165 mph) – half that of a contemporary Hurricane – the Ju 52 was very vulnerable to fighter attack, and an escort was always necessary when flying in a combat zone. Many Ju 52's were shot down by antiaircraft guns and fighters while transporting supplies, most notably during the desperate attempt to resupply the trapped German Sixth Army during the final stages of the Battle of Stalingrad in the winter of 1942–1943.

From November 24, 1942 to January 31, 1943, 488 aircraft were lost (this number included 266 Yu-52, 165 He-111, 42 Yu-86, 9 FV-200, 5 He-177 and 1 Yu-290) and about 1,000 flight personnel [12]

Denmark and Norway campaign

The first major operation for the aircraft after the bombing of Warsaw was in Operation Weserübung, the attack on Denmark and Norway on 9 April 1940. Fifty-two Ju 52s from 1. and 8. Staffel in Kampfgeschwader 1 transported a company of Fallschirmjäger (paratroopers) and a battalion of infantry to the northern part of Jutland, and captured the airfield at Aalborg, vital to support the operation in southern Norway. Several hundred Ju 52s were also used to transport troops to Norway in the first days of this campaign.

A minesweeper Ju 52/3m MS (Minensuch) equipped with degaussing ring JU 52 Minensuchgruppe Mausi.jpg
A minesweeper Ju 52/3m MS (Minensuch) equipped with degaussing ring

The seaplane version, equipped with two large floats, served during the Norwegian campaign in 1940, and later in the Mediterranean theatre. Some Ju 52's, both floatplanes and landplanes, were also used as minesweepers, known as Minensuch — literally, "mine-search" aircraft in German — and fitted with a 14 m (46 ft) diameter current-carrying degaussing ring under the airframe to create a magnetic field that triggered submerged naval mines. These aircraft were usually given an -"MS" suffix to designate them, as had been done with the similarly equipped Bv 138 MS trimotor flying boat. [13]

Netherlands campaign

The Ju 52 transport aircraft participated in the attack on the Netherlands on 10 May 1940, where they were deployed in the first large-scale air attack with paratroops in history during the Battle for The Hague. Many aircraft where shot down by Dutch AA-fire; a total of 125 Ju 52s were lost and 47 damaged, a very costly defeat in the opening days for the Luftwaffe [14]

Later, these aircraft were deployed at airfields in the Lyon, Lille, and Arras areas in August 1940. [15]

A Ju 52 approaching Stalingrad, 1942 Ju 52 approaching Stalingrad late 1942.jpg
A Ju 52 approaching Stalingrad, 1942

Balkans campaign

The next major use of the Ju 52 was in the Balkans campaign, most famously in the Battle of Crete in May 1941.

North Africa campaign

During the North African campaign, the Ju 52 was the mainstay reinforcement and resupply transport for the Germans, starting with 20 to 50 flights a day to Tunisia from Sicily in November 1942, building to 150 landings a day in early April as the Axis situation became more desperate. The Allied air forces developed a counter-air operation over a two-month period and implemented Operation Flax on 5 April 1943, destroying 11 Ju 52s in the air near Cap Bon and many more during bombing attacks on its Sicilian airfields, leaving only 29 flyable. [16] That began two catastrophic weeks in which more than 140 were lost in air interceptions, [17] culminating on 18 April with the "Palm Sunday Massacre" in which 24 Ju 52s were shot down, and another 35 staggered back to Sicily and crash-landed. [18]

Hitler's personal transport

Hitler used a Deutsche Luft Hansa Ju 52 for campaigning in the 1932 German election, preferring flying to train travel. After he became Chancellor of Germany in 1933, Hans Baur became his personal pilot, and Hitler was provided with a personal Ju 52. Named Immelmann II after the World War I ace Max Immelmann, it carried the registration D-2600. [19] As his power and importance grew, Hitler's personal air force grew to nearly 50 aircraft, based at Berlin Tempelhof Airport and made up mainly of Ju 52s, which also flew other members of his cabinet and war staff. In September 1939 at Baur's suggestion, Immelmann II was replaced by a four-engine Focke-Wulf Fw 200 Condor, although Immelman II remained his backup aircraft for the rest of World War II.

Chiang Kai-shek's personal transport

A Ju 52 of Eurasia, 1930s in China Ju52 airliner Eurasia.jpg
A Ju 52 of Eurasia, 1930s in China

Eurasia was the main Chinese Airliner Company in the 1930s and the Ju-52 was their main airliner plane. One of them was commandeered by the Chinese Nationalist Party government and became Chiang Kai-shek's personal transport.[ citation needed ]

Postwar use

Ju 52 HB-HOS on sightseeing tour at Degerfeld airfield (2016) Ju 52 HB-HOS at airshow (2016).jpg
Ju 52 HB-HOS on sightseeing tour at Degerfeld airfield (2016)
Ju 52/3m of British European Airways in 1947 Junkers Ju52.3m G-AHOF BEA Ringway 25.09.47 edited-2.jpg
Ju 52/3m of British European Airways in 1947
French-built AAC.1 of STA at Manchester Airport in 1948: This aircraft is preserved in Belgrade. AAC.1 F-BBYB STA Ringway 1948 edited-2.jpg
French-built AAC.1 of STA at Manchester Airport in 1948: This aircraft is preserved in Belgrade.
Junkers C-79, s/n 42-52883, at Howard Field, Panama Canal Zone, late 1942 with the USAAF 20th Transportation Squadron, Sixth Air Force. German Junkers Ju 52 in USAAF service 1942.jpg
Junkers C-79, s/n 42-52883, at Howard Field, Panama Canal Zone, late 1942 with the USAAF 20th Transportation Squadron, Sixth Air Force.

Various Junkers Ju 52s continued in military and civilian use following World War II. In 1956, the Portuguese Air Force, which was already using the Ju 52s as a transport plane, employed the type as a paratroop drop aircraft for its newly organized elite parachute forces, later known as the Batalhão de Caçadores Páraquedistas . The paratroopers used the Ju 52 in several combat operations in Angola and other Portuguese African colonies before gradually phasing it out of service in the 1960s. [21]

The Swiss Air Force also operated the Ju 52 from 1939 to 1982, when three aircraft remained in operation, probably the last and longest service in any air force. [22] Museums hoped to obtain the aircraft, but they were not for sale. [23] They are still in flying condition and together with a CASA 352 can be booked for sightseeing tours with Ju-Air. [24] During the 1950s, the Ju 52 was also used by the French Air Force during the First Indochina War as a bomber. The use of these Junkers was quite limited. [25]

The Spanish Air Force operated the Ju 52, nicknamed Pava, until well into the 1970s. Escuadrón 721, flying the Spanish-built versions, was employed in training parachutists from Alcantarilla Air Base near Murcia. [26]

Some military Ju 52s were converted to civilian use. For example, British European Airways operated 11 ex-Luftwaffe Ju 52/3mg8e machines, taken over by the RAF, between 1946 and retirement in 1947 on intra-U.K. routes before the Douglas DC-3 was introduced to the airline. [2] French airlines such as Societe de Transports Aeriens (STA) and Air France flew Toucans in the late 1940s and early 1950s.

In the USSR, captured Ju 52s were allocated to the Civil Air Fleet, being found particularly suitable for transporting sulphur from the Karakum Desert. [27] Various Soviet agencies used the Ju 52 through to 1950.

A Ju 52 and a Douglas DC-3 were the last aircraft to take off from Berlin Tempelhof Airport before all operations ceased there on 30 October 2008. [28]

Other versions

Most Ju 52s were destroyed after the war, but 585 were built after 1945. In France, the machine had been manufactured during the war by the Junkers-controlled Avions Amiot company, and production continued afterwards as the Amiot AAC 1 Toucan. In Spain, Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA continued production as the CASA 352 and 352L. Four CASA 352s are airworthy and in regular use today.

A CASA-built Ju52/3m appears in the opening sequence and finale of the 1968 Richard Burton and Clint Eastwood film Where Eagles Dare .

Variants

Data from Junkers Aircraft & Engines 1913–1945 [29]

Civil variants

Ju 52
Prototype of the single-engined transport aircraft, of twelve laid down only six were completed as single-engined aircraft. First flight: 3 September 1930, powered by a BMW VIIaU engine. [30]
Ju 52/1mba
The prototype Ju 52, (c/n 4001, regn D-1974), redesignated after being re-engined with a single Junkers L88 engine
Ju 52/1mbe
Aircraft powered by BMW VIIaU
Ju 52/1mbi
The second prototype, (c/n 4002, regn D-2133), fitted with an 600 kW (800 hp) Armstrong Siddeley Leopard engine
Ju 52/1mca
D-1974 fitted with drag flaps and refitted with a BMW VIIaU
Ju 52/1mcai
D-2356, (c/n 4005), crashed in May 1933
Ju 52/1mce
D-USON (c/n 4003) used as a target tug. D-2317, (c/n 4004), converted to a torpedo bomber in Sweden as the K 45
Ju 52/1mci
The second prototype fitted with 11.05 m (36 ft 3 in) long stepped floats, flying from the River Elbe on 17 July 1931
Ju 52/1mdi
The second prototype after having the floats removed and undercarriage reinstated, registered as D-USUS from 1934
Ju 52/1mdo
D-1974 fitted with a Junkers Jumo 4 engine as a testbed, reregistered as D-UZYP from 1937
Ju 52/3m
Three-engined prototype, powered by three 410 kW (550 hp) Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp engines, first flight: 7 March 1932
Ju 52/3mba
VIP version for the president of the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale, Romanian prince Gheorghe Bibescu, powered by a 560 kW (750 hp) Hispano-Suiza 12Mb engine in the nose and two 423 kW (567 hp) Hispano-Suiza 12Nb engines (one on each wing)
Ju 52/3mce
Three-engined civil transport aircraft, powered by three Pratt & Whitney Hornet or BMW 132 engines
Ju 52/3mci
Planned version for Sweden, powered by Pratt & Whitney Wasp engines, not built
Ju 52/3mde
Seaplane version for Bolivia and Colombia, converted from Ju 52/1m
Ju 52/3mfe
Improved version, with chassis reinforcements and NACA cowlings on the outer engines, powered by three BMW 132A-3 engines
Ju 52/3mf1e
Trainer version for DVS
Ju 52/3mge
Airliner version, powered by BMW Hornet 132A engines
Ju 52/3mho
Two aircraft powered by Junkers Jumo 205C diesel engines, used only for testing
Ju 52/3mkao
Version powered by two BMW 132A and one BMW 132F or BMW 132N as a testbed
Ju 52/3ml
Powered by three 489 kW (656 hp) Pratt & Whitney R-1690-S1EG engines
Ju 52/3mlu
Airliner version for Italy, powered by Piaggio Stella X engines, later re-engined with Alfa Romeo 126RC/34 engines
Ju 52/3mmao
Similar to kao except with NACA cowling
Ju 52/3mnai
Airliner version for Sweden and Great Britain, powered by Pratt & Whitney Wasp engines
Ju 52/3mreo
Airliner version for South America, powered by BMW 132Da/Dc engines
Ju 52/3msai
Airliner version for Sweden and South America, powered by Pratt & Whitney Wasp engines
Ju 52/3mte
Airliner version, powered by three BMW 132K engines
Ju 52/3mZ5
Export version for Finland, powered by BMW 132Z-3 engines

Military variants

Ju 52/3mg3e
Improved military version, powered by three 541 kW (725 hp) BMW 132A-3 (improved version of the Pratt & Whitney R-1690 Hornet) radial engines, equipped with an improved radio and bomb-release mechanism. Later versions had a tailwheel that replaced the tailskid.
Ju 52/3mg4e
Military transport version, the tailskid was replaced by a tailwheel.
Ju 52/3mg5e
Similar to g4e, but powered by three 619 kW (830 hp) BMW 132T-2 engines, it could be fitted with interchangeable floats, skis, and wheeled landing gear.
Ju 52/3mg6e
Transport version equipped with extra radio gear and autopilot, could also be fitted with a degaussing ring
Ju 52/3mg7e
Transport version, capable of carrying 18 troops or 12 stretchers, featured autopilot and larger cargo doors
Ju 52/3mg8e
Similar to g6e, but with improved radio and direction finding gear, a few were fitted with floats.
Ju 52/3mg9e
Tropical version of g4e for service in North Africa, fitted with glider towing gear and strengthened undercarriage
Ju 52/3mg10e
Similar to g9e, but could be fitted with floats or wheels, lacked deicing equipment
Ju 52/3mg11e
Similar to g10e, but fitted with deicing equipment
Ju 52/3mg12e
Land transport version, powered by three BMW 132L engines
Ju 52/3m12e
Civilian version of Ju 52/3mg12e for Luft Hansa
Ju 52/3mg13e
No details are known.
Ju 52/3mg14e
Similar to g8e, but with improved armor, last German production version
Preserved AAC 1 showing corrugated skin, at Duxford, 2001 Ju52DuxfordJM.jpg
Preserved AAC 1 showing corrugated skin, at Duxford, 2001
A.A.C. 1 Toucan
Postwar French version of g11e, 415 built [31]
CASA 352
Postwar Spanish version, 106 built [31]
CASA 352L
Spanish version with Spanish 578 kW (775 hp) ENMA Beta B-4 (license-built BMW 132) engines, 64 built [31] [32]
C-79
Designation assigned to a single example operated by the United States Army Air Forces [33]
D52
Designation used by the Czechoslovak Air Force
T2B
Designation used by the Spanish Air Force
Tp 5
Designation used by the Swedish Air Force
K 45c
A single Ju 52/1mce (c/n 4004) was delivered to the Junkers factory at Limhamn in Sweden, where it was converted to a torpedo bomber as the K 45c.

Operators

A Lufthansa Junkers Ju 52/3m (registered D-CDLH), until 1984, known as "Iron Annie N52JU", was painted as D-AQUI in historic 1936 Deutsche Luft Hansa colors. D-CDLH has P&W engines, now with three-bladed propellers (ex Caiden). JU 52 3M.jpg
A Lufthansa Junkers Ju 52/3m (registered D-CDLH), until 1984, known as "Iron Annie N52JU", was painted as D-AQUI in historic 1936 Deutsche Luft Hansa colors. D-CDLH has P&W engines, now with three-bladed propellers (ex Caiden).
CASA 352 (license-built Junkers Ju 52/3m) in Ju-Air markings at Zurich airport Casa352.JPG
CASA 352 (license-built Junkers Ju 52/3m) in Ju-Air markings at Zürich airport

Accidents and incidents

Surviving aircraft

Airworthy aircraft

As of 2018, the two remaining Ju 52s which operated pleasure flights from Dübendorf airport in Switzerland, are grounded following corrosion found in the wreck of the JU 52 which crashed in August 2018 with the loss of 20 lives. [34] Lufthansa operates one Ju 52/3m (D-AQUI) for air shows and pleasure flights. [35]

Aircraft on display

Germany
Junkers Ju 52/3m (D-AZAW) is on display at the Deutsches Technikmuseum in Berlin Junkers Ju 523m D AZAW at the Deutsches Technikmuseum Berlin.JPG
Junkers Ju 52/3m (D-AZAW) is on display at the Deutsches Technikmuseum in Berlin
Survivor in the Munich Airport D-Anoy JU-52 Junkers 52 Rudolf von Thuena, Parque de visitantes, Aeropuerto de Munich, Alemania, 2012-05-27, DD 01.JPG
Survivor in the Munich Airport
Argentina
Belgium
Colombia
France
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Serbia
Spain
Sweden
United Kingdom
United States

Specifications (Junkers Ju 52/1m ce)

Data from Wagner 1996 [49]

General characteristics

Performance

Specifications (Junkers Ju 52/3m ce)

Data from Wagner 1996 [51]

General characteristics

Performance

Specifications (Junkers Ju 52/3m g7e)

CASA 352-L 352-L Silh.jpg
CASA 352-L

Data from Jane’s Fighting Aircraft of World War II, 1946 [52]

General characteristics

Performance

Armament

See also

Related development

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

Related lists

Other

Related Research Articles

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References

Notes

  1. Grey and Bridgman 1972
  2. 1 2 Jackson 1960, p. 100.
  3. "'Bud' Johnston Library." Archived 14 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine Rolls-Royce of Canada Ltd., Montreal Quebec.
  4. "Flying Box Car for Sky Lanes Of Northland." Popular Mechanics, May 1939.
  5. "Junkers_Ju-52/1m ." Archived 29 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine scramble.nl. Retrieved: 12 October 2010.
  6. Hagedorn, Dan & Antonio Luis Sapienza (1996) Aircraft of the Chaco War, 1928–1935. Schiffer Publishing Co. Atglen, pp. 96–100. ISBN   0764301462
  7. Green 1972, p. 405.
  8. Green 1972, p. 406.
  9. Green 1972, pp. 405–406.
  10. Smith and Kay 1972, p. 360.
  11. "Warsaw." Archived 27 June 2006 at the Wayback Machine richmond.edu. Retrieved: 12 October 2010.
  12. Morzik F. German Air force Airlift Operations. USAAF Historical division. 1961. P. 195.
  13. The Aeroplane Monthly, June 1994 p. 28.
  14. E.R Hooton, "Luftwaffe at War: Blitzkrieg in the West", 2007 Vol. 2, p. 50.
  15. Page 50, "German Air Force Air Lift Operations", by GeneralMajor Fritz Morzik, USAF Historical Division, 1961
  16. Craven and Cate 1949, pp. 189–190
  17. Craven and Cate 1949, pp. 190–191
  18. Weal 2003, p. 91.
  19. Hoffmann 2000, p. 75.
  20. See German Wikipedia Flugplatz Albstadt-Degerfeld
  21. Afonso and Gomes 2000, pp. 178–183.
  22. airforce history "Ju-52." [ permanent dead link ]Swiss Air Force History. Retrieved: 12 October 2010.
  23. McPhee, John (7 November 1983). "La Place de la Concorde Suisse-II". The New Yorker. p. 55. Retrieved 22 July 2013.
  24. "Ju 52." Archived 5 April 2007 at the Wayback Machine Museum of Military Aviation. Retrieved: 12 October 2010.
  25. Duwelz, Yves. "Junkers Ju 52/3mge W Nr 5670 6309." Aviation Heritage in Belgium, October 2001. Retrieved: 4 April 2009.
  26. "Escuela Militar de Paracaidismo" (Military school of Parachuting) (in Spanish). Archived 25 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine ejercitodelaire.mde.es. Retrieved: 4 November 2010.
  27. ^ Kotelnikov, V. Stalin's Captives article in Fly Past magazine, February 2017 p.103 with ground load photo
  28. Kulish, Nicholas. "Crowds Bid Fond Farewell to Airport That Saved Berlin." The New York Times, 30 October 2008. Retrieved: 4 April 2009.
  29. Kay, Anthony L. (2004). Junkers Aircraft & Engines 1913–1945. London: Putnam Aeronautical Books. ISBN   0 85177 985 9.
  30. "Aerial Furniture Van Has Capacity of Three Tons" Popular Mechanics, July 1931
  31. 1 2 3 Blewett 2007
  32. "Transports", Flight International, p. 223, 8 August 1968
  33. Hagedorn, Dan (Fall 1992). "The Trek of the Aconcagua". AAHS Journal. Huntington Beach, CA: American Aviation Historical Society. 37 (3): 227.
  34. "Aviation Museum Dóbendorf" . Retrieved 25 June 2014.
  35. "Queen of the Skies". Deutsche Lufthansa Berlin-Stiftung. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
  36. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 31 December 2015. Retrieved 3 February 2017.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link). Retrieved: 24 May 2011.
  37. "Ju 52/3m." Archived 8 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine Deutsches Technikmuseum. Retrieved: 12 October 2010.
  38. Archived 15 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine Technikmuseum Hugo Junkers Dessau. Retrieved: 22 June 2011.
  39. "Junkers Ju-52/3m g4e." Traditionsgemeinschaft Lufttransport Wunstorf . Retrieved: 12 October 2010.
  40. "Junkers Ju 52/3m [1937]" Archived 24 June 2015 at the Wayback Machine . Munich Airport. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
  41. Brea, Esteban (13 March 2012). "Museo Nacional de Aeronáutica: Más de medio siglo de preservación" [National Aeronautics Museum: More than half a century of preservation]. Gaceta Aeronautica (in Spanish). Retrieved 29 August 2015.
  42. Forsgren, Jan (2017). The Junkers Ju 52 Story. Fonthill Media. Retrieved 26 February 2019.
  43. "Junkers added to AMPAA collection". Aeroplane (August 2011): 12.
  44. "Ju 52." [ permanent dead link ]luftfahrt.museum.no. Retrieved: 12 October 2010.
  45. "List of aircraft displayed at the Norwegian Armed Forces Aircraft Collection." akersmus.no. Retrieved: 12 October 2010.
  46. "Junkers Ju52/3M (CASA 352L)." Archived 18 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine RAF Museum Cosford. Retrieved: 5 August 2018.
  47. "Junkers Ju52." Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum. Retrieved: 29 March 2015.
  48. "Junkers Ju 52." National Museum of the US Air Force. Retrieved: 29 August 2015.
  49. Wolfgang Wagner Hugo Junkers Pionier der Luftfahrt – Seine Flugzeuge Bernard & Graefe Verlag, Bonn 1996 ISBN   3-7637-6112-8 (in German) p. 342
  50. 1 2 Originally measured as 690 PS
  51. "Hugo Junkers Pionier der Luftfahrt - Seine Flugzeuge" Bernard & Graefe Verlag, Bonn 1996 ISBN   3-7637-6112-8 (in German) p. 358
  52. Jane 1946, pp. 170–171.
  53. Originally measured as 725 PS

Bibliography

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Further reading