Fairchild Swearingen Metroliner

Last updated
Metroliner
VH-VEK Fairchild SA-227DC Metro 23 Vee H Aviation (10877945016).jpg
The Metro is a low wing, twin turboprop, small airliner with a retractable gear
Role Regional airliner
Manufacturer Fairchild
First flightAugust 26, 1969
Introduction1972
StatusIn service
Primary users Ameriflight
Key Lime Air
Perimeter Aviation
Sharp Airlines
Produced1968–2001
Number built>600
Developed from Swearingen Merlin
Variants Fairchild C-26 Metroliner

The Fairchild Swearingen Metroliner (previously the Swearingen Metro and later Fairchild Aerospace Metro) is a 19-seat, pressurized, twin-turboprop airliner first produced by Swearingen Aircraft and later by Fairchild Aircraft at a plant in San Antonio, Texas.

Contents

Design

A Metro II converted for cargo with a large freight door on the left side at the rear. N235BA Swearingen SA226TC Metro (7427882054).jpg
A Metro II converted for cargo with a large freight door on the left side at the rear.

The Metroliner was an evolution of the Swearingen Merlin turboprop-powered business aircraft. Ed Swearingen, a Texas fixed-base operator (FBO), started the developments that led to the Metro through gradual modifications to the Beechcraft Twin Bonanza and Queen Air business aircraft, which he dubbed Excalibur.

A new fuselage (but with a similar nose) and vertical fin were then developed, married to salvaged and rebuilt (wet) Queen Air wings and horizontal tails, and Twin Bonanza landing gear; this became the SA26 Merlin, more or less a pressurized Excalibur. Through successive models (the SA26-T Merlin IIA and SA26-AT Merlin IIB) the engines were changed to Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6, then Garrett TPE331 turboprops. These were marketed as business aircraft seating eight to ten passengers.

An all-new aircraft was built and named the SA226-T Merlin III with a new nose, wings, landing gear, cruciform horizontal tail [note 1] and inverted inlet Garrett engines. Ultimately a stretch of the Merlin III was designed, sized to seat 22 passengers and called the SA226-TC Metro. Because FAA regulations limited an airliner to no more than 19 seats if no flight attendant was to be carried, the aircraft was optimized for that number of passengers. The standard engines offered were two TPE331-3UW turboprops driving three-bladed propellers. A corporate version called the SA226-AT Merlin IVA was also marketed and initially sales of this version were roughly double that of the Metro. [1]

Development

The Garrett TPE331 installation VH-UZD Fairchild SA227-AC Metro III Jetcraft Aviation (9169308391).jpg
The Garrett TPE331 installation

Prototype construction of the Metro began in 1968 and the first flight was on August 26, 1969. Swearingen Aircraft encountered financial difficulties at this stage, and late in 1971 Fairchild (which was marketing the Metro [2] and building its wings and engine nacelles), bought 90% of Swearingen and the company was renamed Swearingen Aviation Corporation. It was at this point that the previously cash-strapped company was able to put the Metro into production. [3] [4] [5]

In 1974, the original Metro models were replaced by the SA226-TC Metro II after about 20 Metros and about 30 Merlin IVAs had been built. [note 2] Among the changes made were larger, squared-oval windows and optional provision for a small Rocket-Assisted Take Off (RATO) rocket in the tail cone, this being offered to improve takeoff performance out of "hot & high" airfields in the event of an engine failure.

The Metro and Metro II were limited to a maximum weight of 12,500 pounds (5,670 kg) in the US and countries using imperial units, and 5,700 kg in countries using SI units. When this restriction was lifted the Metro II was re-certified as the Metro IIA in 1980 with a maximum weight of 13,100 pounds (5,941 kg) and the Metro II's TPE331-3 engines replaced by -10 engines of increased power.

The SA227-AC Metro III followed, also initially certified in 1980 for up to 14,000 pounds (6,350 kg), this increasing to 14,500 pounds (6,577 kg) as engines and structures were upgraded. An option to go as high as 16,000 pounds (7,257 kg) was offered. Externally, improvements incorporated into the Metro III were a 10 ft (3.05 m) increase in wing span, four-bladed props, redesigned "quick-access" engine cowlings and numerous drag-reducing airframe modifications, including landing gear doors that closed after the gear was extended.

A purpose-built SA227-AT Expediter freighter without cabin windows Pelairmetromascot.JPG
A purpose-built SA227-AT Expediter freighter without cabin windows

Once again a corporate version was offered as the Merlin IVC (the model name was chosen to align with the contemporaneous short-fuselage Merlin IIIC). A version with strengthened floors and the high gross weight option was offered as a cargo aircraft known as the Expediter. Both the Expediter and the Merlin IVC were designated the SA227-AT. Finally, due to reliability problems with Garrett engines in the second half of the 1980s, the Metro IIIA was offered with two Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-45R turboprops in place of the Garrett units; however none were actually delivered. [6] A special model was the SA227-BC Metro III built for Mexican airline AeroLitoral, which took delivery of 15 of the 18 of this model that were produced.

Improvements beyond the Metro III provided better systems, more power and a further increase in takeoff weight. This design effort resulted in the SA227 CC (for Commuter Category) and SA227-DC models, initially called the Metro IV [6] then renamed Metro 23, so named as they were designed for certification under FAR Part 23 (Amendment 34) standards. A Metro 23 EF with an external pod under the lower fuselage for greater baggage capacity was also offered as well as an Expediter 23 and Merlin 23. The SA227-CC was an interim model with TPE331-11U engines and only a handful were built. [5] [7]

Further development

In the 1960s Swearingen Aircraft developed a prototype SA-28T eight-seat jet aircraft with a flapless delta wing. [2] [8] It shared the tail and cockpit with the Merlin/Metro. The two engines were to be Garrett TFE731 turbofans then in development; [9] they were originally to be mounted on the aft fuselage, however during the course of design work their location was moved to under the high-mounted wing. [10] Early flights were to be undertaken with General Electric CJ610 engines fitted. Development continued after Fairchild acquired the company, [11] but the project was shut down nine weeks from first flight. It was later cut up as scrap and the fuselage used as a Metro display at trade shows.[ citation needed ]

At the 1987 Paris Air Show, Fairchild released details of proposed developments of the Metro designated the Metro V and Metro VI. These versions would have featured a longer fuselage with a taller "stand-up" cabin providing 69 in (180 cm) of interior height for passengers; a redesigned, longer wing; engines moved further out on the wing from the fuselage; a "T-tail" and various system improvements. A Merlin V corporate version of the Metro V was also planned. The Metro V was to be fitted with the same engines as the Metro 23 and the Metro VI was to be fitted with more powerful TPE331-14 engines. [6] [12] The Metro VI was shelved within months of being announced due to a lack of customer interest, [13] but Fairchild did not proceed with the Metro V either.

One version that did see the light of day was the Metro 25, which featured an increased passenger capacity of 25 at the expense of the baggage space found in earlier models; the deletion of the left rear cargo door, the addition of a passenger door on the right-hand rear fuselage, and a belly pod for baggage. A Metro III was converted as a Metro 25 demonstrator, it flew in this configuration in October 1989. [14] Also mooted but not built was the Metro 25J, which would have been another jet-powered aircraft with TFE731s in over-wing pods. [12]

The type certificates for Metro and Merlin aircraft are currently held by M7 Aerospace.

Operational history

Several airliners of Crossair, 1981 Crossair Fairchild Swearingen SA-227AC Metro III and Tyrolean Airways Dash 7 at Zurich Airport.jpg
Several airliners of Crossair, 1981
One of the advantages of the Perimeter Aviation modifications was using a four-bladed propeller that was less susceptible to stone chips on gravel runways Perimeter Metro prop.jpg
One of the advantages of the Perimeter Aviation modifications was using a four-bladed propeller that was less susceptible to stone chips on gravel runways

Two of the original Metro model were delivered in 1972 to Societe Miniere de Bakwanga (MIBA) in Kinshasa, Zaire, the first customer to put the Metro into service. The first airline to put them into service was Commuter Airlines in January 1973, [4] followed shortly after by Air Wisconsin.

At least one Metro IIA flies in Canada with Perimeter Aviation. [15] Two SA227-CCs are today registered with Canadian operator Bearskin Lake Air Service Ltd., [16] while another two are operating in New Zealand. [17] A fifth also flew with Bearskin Airlines but was destroyed in a mid-air collision in 1995. [18]

In service with Perimeter Aviation in Canada, this long-term operator of the Metro II and III made a number of modifications to suit its use in northern and remote Canadian sites where rudimentary gravel "strips" were common. Some of the many innovative changes to the design of the Metro allowed the aircraft to fly more efficiently as well as cutting down on the "noise factor" that was attributed to the early models. The airline installed Garrett engines with quieter and more efficient four-bladed Hartzell propellers. More recently in 2016, 5 blade composite propellers are being installed, further enhancing performance and reducing noise levels. Their Metros are also all equipped with modern avionics suites including recent installation of Garmin 950 glass cockpits and GPS satellite tracking.

Many of the improvements resulting in the Metro 23 came about during work to produce the military C-26B model for the United States Air Force.

A Metro III aircraft was modified for the Colombian Air Force for counternarcotics reconnaissance purposes. [19] The Colombian National Police also operates several Metro 23 aircraft for counternarcotics reconnaissance purposes. [20] [21] In addition, the Peruvian Air Force operates a Metro 23 and the Trinidad and Tobago Coast Guard operates a Metro III, both similarly configured. [22] [23] A "Regional Security System" Metro III with a large belly radome has been seen in the Caribbean. [24] [25]

In civilian service the type has proved to be popular, with sales in the 19-seat airliner market rivalled only by the Beechcraft 1900. [note 3] It is especially popular in Australia. Since the first example (a Merlin IVA) arrived in 1975, almost 20% of the fleet has operated in that country. As of December 2008, 61 Metros and Expediters are registered in Australia, more than all of its market rivals combined. [26]

Metro production ended in 1998; however by this time Regional Jets were in vogue and turboprop types were out of favour with airlines, and several airframes remained unsold at the factory. The final aircraft, Metro 23 c/n DC-904B, was not delivered (to air charter company National Jet Aviation Services of Zelienople, Pennsylvania) until 2001. [4] A total of 703 Metro, Expediter, Merlin IV series and C-26 series aircraft were built. [5] In addition, 158 other SA226 and SA227 series aircraft were built as short-fuselage Merlin IIIs, IIIAs and IIIBs. [note 4]

Variants

This Metro III was used in Sweden for Erieye/FS-890 AEW trials. Fairchild Swearingen Tp88 Metro III AEW.jpg
This Metro III was used in Sweden for Erieye/FS-890 AEW trials.
Fairchild RC-26 with a ventral radar Metroliner C-26.jpg
Fairchild RC-26 with a ventral radar

SA226 series

SA227 series

Military

Operators

In July 2019, 196 Metroliners were in airline service; airline operators with six or more aircraft were: [27]

Accidents and incidents

Metroliner schematic USAir 1493 Metroliner external illumination color.svg
Metroliner schematic

Specifications (Metro III)

One-by-one seating, the cabin does not allow standing up Fairchild Swearingen SA-227AT Merlin IVC AN1129009.jpg
One-by-one seating, the cabin does not allow standing up

Data fromThe Encyclopedia of World Aircraft. [53]

General characteristics

1,100 shp (820 kW) with alcohol-water injection

Performance

See also

Related development

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration, and era

Related lists

Related Research Articles

Northwest Airlink was the trade name of Northwest Airlines' regional airline service, which flew turboprop and regional jet aircraft from Northwest's domestic hubs in Minneapolis, Detroit, and Memphis. Service was primarily to small-to-medium-sized cities and towns where larger aircraft might not be economical to operate and also to larger markets to either provide additional capacity or more frequent flights than could be justified using mainline aircraft. Beginning in July 2009, the Northwest Airlink trade name was phased out, and replaced by the Delta Connection trade name for Delta Air Lines as part of the Delta/Northwest merger.

Air Midwest

Air Midwest, Inc., was a Federal Aviation Administration Part 121 certificated air carrier that operated under air carrier certificate number AMWA510A issued on May 15, 1965. It was headquartered in Wichita, Kansas, United States, and was a subsidiary of Mesa Air Group. Besides initially flying as an independent air carrier, it later operated code sharing feeder flights on behalf of Eastern Air Lines as Eastern Air Midwest Express, on behalf of American Airlines as American Eagle, on behalf of Trans World Airlines (TWA) as Trans World Express and on behalf of US Airways as US Airways Express. It also operated feeder flights on behalf of Braniff (1983-1990) and Ozark Air Lines in addition to flying for Mesa Airlines. Air Midwest was shut down by its parent company, Mesa Airlines, in June 2008.

Empire Airlines is a passenger and cargo airline based in Hayden, Idaho, near Coeur d'Alene. It operates over 120 scheduled cargo flights a day in 18 US states and Canada. Recently Empire also started passenger service within Hawaii, under the name "Ohana by Hawaiian". Its main base is Coeur d'Alene Airport with a hub at Spokane International Airport. The company slogan is We Can Do That.

Fairchild F-27 Regional airliner

The Fairchild F-27 and Fairchild Hiller FH-227 were versions of the Fokker F27 Friendship twin-engined turboprop passenger aircraft manufactured under license by Fairchild Hiller in the United States. The Fairchild F-27 was similar to the standard Fokker F27, while the FH-227 was an independently developed stretched version.

Flagstaff Pulliam Airport Airport in Coconino County, Arizona

Flagstaff Pulliam Airport is 5 miles south of Flagstaff, in Coconino County, Arizona. The airport is serviced by American Eagle and United Express, and is also used for general aviation. Federal Aviation Administration records say the airport had 51,765 passenger boardings (enplanements) in calendar year 2008, 66,627 in 2009 and 62,109 in 2010. The National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems for 2011–2015 called it a "primary commercial service" airport. It is the closest airport to Grand Canyon National Park with service by legacy carriers.

Beechcraft 1900 Commuter airliner and light transport aircraft

The Beechcraft 1900 is a 19-passenger, pressurized twin-engine turboprop fixed-wing aircraft that was manufactured by Beechcraft. It was designed, and is primarily used, as a regional airliner. It is also used as a freight aircraft and corporate transport, and by several governmental and military organisations. With customers favoring larger regional jets, Raytheon ended production in October 2002.

Grand Canyon National Park Airport

Grand Canyon National Park Airport is a state-owned public-use airport located in Tusayan, Arizona. A CDP in unincorporated Coconino County, Arizona, United States. It is near Grand Canyon National Park, 7 miles from the South Rim of the Grand Canyon. The airport is primarily used for scenic tours and charter flights, but there is scheduled commercial service.

Fairchild C-26 Metroliner Military transport aircraft

The Fairchild C-26 "Metroliner" is the designation for the Fairchild Swearingen Metroliner series twin turboprop aircraft in the service of the United States military. It was not officially named by the US Armed Forces, but is unofficially known by the same name as its civilian counterpart. The C-26A is the military version of the Model SA227-AC Metro III; the C-26B is the military version of the Model SA227-BC Metro III and Model SA227-DC Metro 23; and UC-26C is the military designation for the Model SA227-AT Merlin IVC.

Perimeter Aviation

Perimeter Aviation is an airline with its head office on the property of Winnipeg James Armstrong Richardson International Airport in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Perimeter Aviation operates 32 aircraft on scheduled, charter, and medevac service. It was established and started operations in 1960. It operates scheduled passenger services from Winnipeg to 23 destinations, freight and MEDEVAC services. Its main base is Winnipeg International Airport.

Key Lime Air is a United States airline with corporate headquarters at Centennial Airport in Englewood, Colorado, within the Denver metropolitan area. Established in 1997, Key Lime Air operates scheduled air service, various types of public and private charter, and United Parcel Service cargo feeder operations.

Merlin Express Airline of Puerto Rico

Merlin Express was a Part 135/121 cargo and passenger airline operating at its peak throughout the United States, North and South Caribbean, South America, Alaska, and Mexico. The airline began operations in 1983 as Sat-Air, a subsidiary of Fairchild Aircraft. UPS purchased 14 Merlin IV-C dedicated cargo aircraft from Fairchild and as part of the agreement, Fairchild agreed to provide crew and maintenance services for the aircraft. Similar contracts were signed with the United States Air Force for C-26 sales, though only maintenance add on services were included. Initially, all Merlin Express aircraft provided feeder service to United Parcel Service and were painted in UPS livery. In the ensuing years, the airline began to acquire additional aircraft from its parent Fairchild, and from the open market, incorporating freight service contracts for Federal Express, DHL, and Airborne Express. By 1998, Merlin Express was operating a fleet of approximately 30 Metro III, Merlin IV-C, and Metro II aircraft. In 1996, Merlin successfully gained certification as a passenger Part 121 carrier and operated passenger service routes in Alaska under contract for Yute Air. In 1997, Fairchild Aircraft acquired Dornier Aircraft of Germany and Merlin began preparations for the addition of D-328 aircraft to its fleet. As the airline's parent company began to confront cash problems, Merlin Express, Gen-Aero FBO Services, and other subsidiary companies of Fairchild Dornier Aerospace were sold-off in order to generate needed cash. Merlin Express was purchased by Corporate Air of Billings, Montana in 2000 and renamed "Merlin Airways". Fairchild Dornier Aerospace declared bankruptcy in 2002. Under new owners, Merlin Express' original route network was shrunk and was eventually centered on the airline's remaining hubs in Miami and San Juan, Puerto Rico. Currently based at Rafael Hernández International Airport in Aguadilla, Puerto Rico. The airline still flies to some Caribbean islands, the Turks and Caicos Islands and the Dominican Republic.

Swearingen Merlin

The Swearingen Merlin or the Fairchild Aerospace Merlin is a pressurized, twin turboprop business aircraft first produced by Swearingen Aircraft, and later by Fairchild at a plant in San Antonio, Texas.

Compañía de Servicios de Transporte Aéreo Amaszonas S.A., usually shortened to Amaszonas, is an airline based in Bolivia, headquartered in La Paz. It operates scheduled and chartered short-haul passenger flights throughout the northern and northeastern regions of the country as well as to neighboring Peru, Chile and Paraguay, with its network's hub being located at El Alto International Airport.

Britt Airways

Britt Airways was a United States airline established as Vercoa Air Service in 1964 and renamed to Britt Airlines when it was purchased by William and Marilyn Britt in 1975 later on Britt Airways. It was based in Terre Haute, Indiana until 1996. It began as a commuter airline. It primarily operated turboprop aircraft but also flew British Aircraft Corporation BAC One-Eleven twinjets as an independent air carrier at one point as well. The airline evolved into a regional air carrier operating code share flights primarily for Continental Airlines.

Wings West Airlines, often referred to simply as Wings West, was an American regional airline headquartered at McChesney Field (SBP), unincorporated San Luis Obispo County, California.

Top Fly

Top Fly was a charter airline and passenger and cargo airline based in Gran Canaria, Spain.

British Aerospace Jetstream Series of regional airliner and executive transport aircraft

The British Aerospace Jetstream is a small twin-turboprop airliner, with a pressurised fuselage, developed as the Jetstream 31 from the earlier Handley Page Jetstream.

Intair was a Canada-based airline that operated between 1989 and 1991.

Nürnberger Flugdienst Flight 108 1988 aviation accident

Nürnberger Flugdienst Flight 108 was a scheduled regional flight which crashed near Essen, Germany, on 8 February 1988 with the loss of all 21 occupants. The flight was operated by Swearingen SA.227BC Metroliner III D-CABB for Nürnberger Flugdienst, from Hannover Airport to Düsseldorf Airport. It is the deadliest aviation accident involving the Swearingen Fairchild Metroliner.

Alan Kulwicki plane crash

On the evening of April 1, 1993, NASCAR champion Alan Kulwicki was killed in an aviation accident when the Swearingen Merlin III twin turboprop he was traveling in crashed near Blountville, Tennessee, while on approach to the nearby Tri-Cities Regional Airport. All four people on board, including two executives of the Hooters restaurant chain, were killed.

References

Notes

  1. This and subsequent Merlin and Metro models have a trimmable horizontal stabilizer (THS) usually used on jet aircraft, one of only a small number of turboprop aircraft to have this design feature (the competing Beechcraft Model 99 being another).
  2. The article "Final Metro Delivery" in Airways magazine Issue 64 states that Metro deliveries totalled 18. The Metro production list shows that by the end of 1974, 22 Merlins had been built.
  3. The long-fuselage SA226/SA227 series has slightly outsold the Beechcraft 1900 series but many were built as Merlin corporate aircraft. The similarly-sized de Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter has outsold both types but is a different class of aircraft.
  4. 123 SA226-Ts (of which 31 were Merlin IIIBs built with assigned C/Ns intermingled with those of Metro IIs), and Merlin IIICs and 300s (35 SA227-TTs, of which 25 were IIICs and 10 were 300s; again with assigned C/Ns intermingled with Metros, in this case Metro III/Merlin IVCs). In addition, three SA226-ATs were converted on the production line as SA226-TCs; four SA226-TCs were similarly converted as SA226-ATs; and one short-fuselage SA227-TT was converted as a long-fuselage SA227-AC. These eight aircraft each had two different constructor's numbers of various model names.
  5. The 14,500 lb (6,577 kg) model may be modified to a max weight of 15,000 lb (6,804 kg), but the landing weight for that model remains at 14,000 lb (6,350 kg).
  6. -11U-601G, -611G or -612G depending on propeller fitted

Citations

  1. "Metro production dates." Archived 2008-06-20 at the Wayback Machine fortunecity.com. Retrieved: August 21, 2011.
  2. 1 2 Fricker, John. "At the NBAA Convention, Part 2 - the turboprop types", "Metroliner." Flight International, October 16, 1969, p. 595 (online archive version). Retrieved: December 15, 2008.
  3. "Fairchild to Acquire Swearingen", "World News" (online archive version). Flight International, November 11, 1971, p. 751. Retrieved: December 15, 2008.
  4. 1 2 3 "Final Metro Delivery." Airways magazine Vol. 8, No. 4; Issue 64, June 2001, p. 32. Airways International Inc. ISSN 1074-4320.
  5. 1 2 3 "Turboprop Production Lists." Archived 2008-06-20 at the Wayback Machine fortunecity.com, August 25, 2007.
  6. 1 2 3 "Metro IV & V", Commuter Aircraft Directory,(online archive version). Flight International, May 7, 1988, p. 47. Retrieved: December 15, 2008.
  7. "SA227-CC/-DC Type Certificate." FAA. Retrieved: December 15, 2008
  8. "Aeronews." Air Progress magazine, July 1969, pp. 19–20.
  9. "Aero Engines 1970" (online archive version). Flight International, January 1, 1970, p. 15. Retrieved: December 15, 2008.
  10. "Hanover review - General-aviation postscript", Flight International, May 7, 1970, p. 761 (online archive version). Retrieved: December 15, 2008.
  11. "Swearingen production restarts, Air Transport: Light Commercial and Business (online archive version)." Flight International, March 2, 1972, p. 318. Retrieved: December 15. 2008.
  12. 1 2 "Fairchild Dornier Metro." Archived 2009-05-01 at the Wayback Machine Forecast International.com. Retrieved: December 15, 2008.
  13. "NBAA Report - Fairchild launches Metro IV and V" (online archive version). Flight International, October 17, 1987, p. 20. Retrieved: December 15, 2008.
  14. "Fairchild unveils new 25-seat Metro variant" (online archive version). Flight International, October 28, 1989, p. 16. Retrieved: December 15, 2008.
  15. "TC-343" (the Fairchild c/n of a Metro IIA formerly registered in Australia). Archived 2007-09-13 at the Wayback Machine Transport Canada Canadian civil aircraft register, online search. Retrieved: August 27, 2007.
  16. "Canadian civil aircraft register." Archived 2007-09-13 at the Wayback Machine Transport Canada, August 25, 2007.
  17. "List of SA227-CCs registered in New Zealand." caa.govt.nz. Retrieved: December 15, 2008.
  18. "Accident Report." Aviation Safety Database. Retrieved: August 26, 2007.
  19. "Picture of the Fairchild C-26A Metro III (SA-227AC) aircraft." airliners.net. Retrieved: August 21, 2011.
  20. "Picture of the Fairchild SA-227DC Metro 23 aircraft." airliners.net. Retrieved: August 21, 2011.
  21. "Picture of the Fairchild C-26B Metro 23 (SA-227DC) aircraft." airliners.net. Retrieved: August 21, 2011.
  22. "Picture of the Fairchild C-26B Metro 23 (SA-227DC) aircraft." airliners.net. Retrieved: August 21, 2011.
  23. "Picture of the Fairchild C-26A Metro III (SA-227AC) aircraft." airliners.net. Retrieved: August 21, 2011.
  24. "Picture of the Fairchild C-26A(RC) Metro III (SA-227AC) aircraft." airliners.net. Retrieved: August 21, 2011.
  25. "Drug Wars: Barbados Swearingen C-26 Tiger Shark." Barbados Free Press, January 29, 2007. Retrieved: August 21, 2011.
  26. "Search: Metros, Beech 1900s, Embraer EMB 110 Bandeirante." Archived 2007-08-28 at the Wayback Machine CASA Australian civil aircraft register. Retrieved: December 15, 2008.
  27. Thisdell and Seymour Flight International 30 July –5 August 2019, p. 45.
  28. "Air Wisconsin Flight 965." National Transportation Safety Board. Retrieved: January 1, 2010.
  29. "ASN Aircraft accident Swearingen SA226-TC Metro II N163SW Kearns, UT." Aviation Safety Net Retrieved: December 31, 2011.
  30. "Trans-Colorado Airlines, Inc., Flight 2286 Fairchild Metro III, SA227 AC, N68TC Bayfield, Colorado I, January 19, 1988." Archived 2008-02-28 at the Wayback Machine National Transportation Safety Board . Retrieved: April 11, 2008.
  31. Ranter, Harro. "D-CABB accident synopsis". aviation-safety.net. Aviation Safety Network . Retrieved January 1, 2010.
  32. "Utredningar - Olycka med flygplan OY-ARI, typ Fairchild Metroliner II, vid Örnsköldsviks flygplats i Y län". www.havkom.se (in Swedish). Retrieved 2020-08-21.
  33. Crey, Neil C. "Crew Resource Management." Transport Canada, 2005. Retrieved: February 10, 2011.
  34. Accident descriptionfor N342AE at the Aviation Safety Network . Retrieved on May 14, 2021.
  35. Canada, Government of Canada, Transportation Safety Board of (1996-04-04). "Aviation Investigation Report A95H0008". www.tsb.gc.ca. Retrieved 31 March 2018.
  36. cite web|url=https://www.atsb.gov.au/publications/investigation_reports/1995/AAIR/aair199503057.aspx
  37. http://www.tsb.gc.ca/eng/rapports-reports/aviation/1998/a98q0087/a98q0087.asp Transportation Safety Board. Retrieved: June 13, 2017.
  38. Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Swearingen SA226-AT Merlin IVA EC-GDV Columbretes Islands [Mediterranean Sea]". aviation-safety.net. Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 2020-10-26.
  39. "Summary of Australian Transport Safety Bureau accident report into the crash of Metro 23 VH-TFU". www.atsb.gov.au. Australian Transport Safety Bureau. Retrieved April 11, 2008.
  40. Price, Sarah. "15 killed in our worst air crash in 36 years". Sydney Morning Herald . Australian Transport Safety Bureau. Retrieved April 11, 2008.
  41. Kaminski-Morrow, David (2011-12-07). "Fatal Merlin crash puts spotlight back on stall recovery". Flight Global. Retrieved 2020-10-26.
  42. "LIVE - Six dead in Cork Airport plane crash." RTe/Ireland, February 10, 2011. Retrieved: February 10, 2011.
  43. Hradecky, Simon. "Accident: Crash: Aerocon SW4 at Trinidad on Sep 6th 2011, missing aircraft found destroyed, one survivor." The Aviation Herald, September 7, 2011.
  44. Hradecky, Simon. "Crash: Air Class SW4 near Flores Island on Jun 6th 2012, aircraft impacted Rio de la Plata." The Aviation Herald, June 7, 2012.
  45. "Local Newspaper". Archived from the original on 2013-11-05. Retrieved 2013-11-05.
  46. "2013 Ontario plane crash that killed 5 caused by engine failure".
  47. "Apuntan a un cambio de ruta como móvil del fatal incidente". 3 December 2013.
  48. "Carson Air Flight 66: Search resumes in Vancouver's North Shore Mountains." CBC, April 14, 2015.
  49. "ASN Aircraft accident Swearingen SA226-TC Metro II XA-UKP Querétaro Airport (QRO)". Aviation Safety Network. Flight Safety Foundation. Retrieved June 3, 2015.
  50. "French citizens killed in surveillance plane crash on Malta". BBC News . 24 October 2016. Retrieved 24 October 2016.
  51. Dearden, Lizzie (24 October 2016). "Malta plane crash latest: French customs officials killed during take-off for people smuggling mission in Libya". The Independent . Retrieved 24 October 2016.
  52. "ASN Aircraft accident Swearingen SA227-AC Metro III Albany-Southwest Georgia Regional Airport, GA (ABY/KABY)". Aviation Safety Network. Flight Safety Foundation. Retrieved December 7, 2016.
  53. Donald 1997, p. 388.
  54. Lednicer, David. "The Incomplete Guide to Airfoil Usage". m-selig.ae.illinois.edu. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
  55. "TYPE CERTIFICATE DATA SHEET NO. FA43" (PDF). UNITED KINGDOM CIVIL AVIATION AUTHORITY. UNITED KINGDOM CIVIL AVIATION AUTHORITY. March 2003. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 November 2006. Retrieved 16 November 2020.
  56. "Fairchild-Swearingen Metro / Metroliner - Specifications - Technical Data / Description". www.flugzeuginfo.net (in English and German). Retrieved 16 November 2020.

Bibliography

  • Donald, David, general editor. Encyclopedia of World Aircraft. Etobicoke, Ontario, Canada: Prospero Books, 1997. ISBN   1-85605-375-X.
  • Endes, Günter. "Fairchild (Swearingen) Metro/Merlin". The Illustrated Directory of Modern Commercial Aircraft. St. Paul, Minnesota: MBI Publishing Company, 2001. ISBN   0-7603-1125-0.
  • Ethell, Jeff. "The Tip of the Spear". Air International , Volume 34, Number 4, April 1988. pp. 163–172, 198. ISSN   0306-5634
  • "World Airliner Census". Flight International, Volume 182, Number 5355, August 28–September 3, 2012, pp. 32–54.
  • "World Airliner Census". Flight International, Volume 184, Number 5403, 13–19 August 2013, pp. 40–58.
  • Frawley, Gerard. "Fairchild Dornier Metro II, III & 23". The International Directory of Civil Aircraft. Canberra: Aerospace Publications Pty. Ltd., 1997. ISBN   1-875671-26-9.
  • Hoyle, Craig. "World Air Forces Directory". Flight International , Vol 180, No 5321, December 13–19, 2011, pp. 26–52. ISSN   0015-3710.
  • Palmer, Trisha, ed. "Swearingen Metro and Metro II/III". Encyclopedia of the World's Commercial and Private Aircraft. New York: Crescent Books, 2001. ISBN   0-517-36285-6.
  • Simpson, R.W. Airlife's General Aviation. Shrewsbury, UK: Airlife Publishing, 1991. ISBN   1-85310-194-X.
  • Thisdell, Dan and Fafard, Antoine. "World Airliner Census". Flight International, Volume 190, No. 5550, 9–15 August 2016. pp. 20–43. ISSN   0015-3710