Beechcraft Model 18

Last updated
Model 18
Beechcraft AT-7 advanced training plane (00910460 026).jpg
Instructor and pilot in an AT-7 doing navigation training at Kelly Field, Texas
Role Trainer and utility aircraft
National originUnited States
Manufacturer Beech Aircraft Corporation
First flightJanuary 15, 1937
Introduction1937
Primary users United States Army Air Forces
United States Navy
Royal Air Force
Royal Canadian Air Force
Produced1937–1970
Number built9,000+
Unit cost
D18S: US$78,050 in 1952 [1]

The Beechcraft Model 18 (or "Twin Beech", as it is also known) is a 6- to 11-seat, [2] twin-engined, low-wing, tailwheel light aircraft manufactured by the Beech Aircraft Corporation of Wichita, Kansas. Continuously produced from 1937 to November 1969 (over 32 years, a world record at the time), over 9,000 were built, making it one of the world's most widely used light aircraft. Sold worldwide as a civilian executive, utility, cargo aircraft, and passenger airliner on tailwheels, nosewheels, skis, or floats, it was also used as a military aircraft. [3] [4] [5]

Light aircraft aircraft with a gross weight of 12,500 lb (5670 kg) or less

A light aircraft is an aircraft that has a maximum gross takeoff weight of 12,500 lb (5,670 kg) or less.

Beechcraft is a brand of Textron Aviation since 2014. Originally, it was a brand of Beech Aircraft Corporation, an American manufacturer of general aviation, commercial, and military aircraft, ranging from light single-engined aircraft to twin-engined turboprop transports, business jets, and military trainers. Beech later became a division of Raytheon and later Hawker Beechcraft before a bankruptcy sale turned its assets over to Textron.

Contents

During and after World War II, over 4,500 Beech 18s were used in military service—as light transport, light bomber (for China), aircrew trainer (for bombing, navigation, and gunnery), photo-reconnaissance, and "mother ship" for target drones—including United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) C-45 Expeditor, AT-7 Navigator, and AT-11 Kansan; and United States Navy (USN) UC-45J Navigator,SNB-1 Kansan, and others. In World War II, over 90% of USAAF bombardiers and navigators trained in these aircraft. [3] [4] [6]

World War II 1939–1945, between Axis and Allies

World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from more than 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 70 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.

United States Army Air Forces aerial warfare branch of the United States army from 1941 to 1947

The United States Army Air Forces, officially known as the Army Air Forces, was the aerial warfare service component of the United States Army during and immediately after World War II (1939/41–1945), successor to the previous United States Army Air Corps and the direct predecessor of the United States Air Force of today, one of the five uniformed military services. The AAF was a component of the United States Army, which on 2 March 1942 was divided functionally by executive order into three autonomous forces: the Army Ground Forces, the Services of Supply, and the Army Air Forces. Each of these forces had a commanding general who reported directly to the Army Chief of Staff.

United States Navy Naval warfare branch of US Armed Forces

The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. It is the largest and most capable navy in the world and it has been estimated that in terms of tonnage of its active battle fleet alone, it is larger than the next 13 navies combined, which includes 11 U.S. allies or partner nations. It has the highest combined battle fleet tonnage and the world's largest aircraft carrier fleet, with eleven in service, and two new carriers under construction. With 336,978 personnel on active duty and 101,583 in the Ready Reserve, the U.S. Navy is the third largest of the U.S. military service branches in terms of personnel. It has 290 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft as of June 2019, making it the third-largest air force in the world, after the United States Air Force and the United States Army.

In the early postwar era, the Beech 18 was the pre-eminent "business aircraft" and "feeder airliner". Besides carrying passengers, its civilian uses have included aerial spraying, sterile insect release, fish seeding, dry-ice cloud seeding, aerial firefighting, air-mail delivery, ambulance service, numerous movie productions, skydiving, freight, weapon- and drug-smuggling, engine testbed, skywriting, banner towing, and stunt aircraft. Many are now privately owned, around the world, with 240 in the U.S. still on the FAA Aircraft Registry in August 2017. [3] [5] [7] [8]

Agricultural aircraft aircraft for supporting agriculture, primarily through aerial spraying

An agricultural aircraft is an aircraft that has been built or converted for agricultural use – usually aerial application of pesticides or fertilizer ; in these roles they are referred to as "crop dusters" or "top dressers". Agricultural aircraft are also used for hydroseeding.

Sterile insect technique Method of biological control

The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a method of biological insect control, whereby overwhelming numbers of sterile insects are released into the wild. The released insects are preferably male, as this is more cost-effective and the females may in some situations cause damage by laying eggs in the crop, or, in the case of mosquitoes, taking blood from humans. The sterile males compete with wild males to mate with the females. Females that mate with a sterile male produce no offspring, thus reducing the next generation's population. Sterile insects are not self-replicating and, therefore, cannot become established in the environment. Repeated release of sterile males over low population densities can further reduce and in cases of isolation eliminate pest populations, although cost-effective control with dense target populations is subjected to population suppression prior to the release of the sterile males.

Cloud seeding form of weather modification

Cloud seeding is a type of weather modification that aims to change the amount or type of precipitation that falls from clouds by dispersing substances into the air that serve as cloud condensation or ice nuclei, which alter the microphysical processes within the cloud. The usual intent is to increase precipitation, but hail and fog suppression are also widely practised in airports where harsh weather conditions are experienced.

Design and development

Beech 18 on floats in Manitoba, 1986 Beech18C-FSFHonFloats.JPG
Beech 18 on floats in Manitoba, 1986
Beechcraft AT-11 over the West Texas prairies, around 1944 Beechcraft AT-11 out over the West Texas prairies (00910460 103).jpg
Beechcraft AT-11 over the West Texas prairies, around 1944
Private Beech H18 with the optional tricycle undercarriage visiting Lannion, France Beech 18h.jpg
Private Beech H18 with the optional tricycle undercarriage visiting Lannion, France

By the late 1930s, Beechcraft management speculated that a demand would exist for a new design dubbed the Model 18, which would have a military application, and increased the main production facilities. The design was mainly conventional for the time, including twin radial engines, all-metal semimonocoque construction with fabric-covered control surfaces, and tailwheel undercarriage. Less conventional was the twin-tailfin configuration. The Model 18 can be mistaken for the larger Lockheed Electra series of airliners, which closely resemble it. Early production aircraft were powered either by two 330-hp (250-kW) Jacobs L-6s or 350-hp (260-kW) Wright R-760Es. The 450-hp (336-kW) Pratt & Whitney R-985 became the definitive engine from the prewar C18S onwards. The Beech 18 prototype first flew on January 15, 1937.

Semi-monocoque monocoque

The term semi-monocoque refers to a stressed shell structure that is similar to a true monocoque, but which derives at least some of its strength from conventional reinforcement. Semi-monocoque construction is used for, among other things, aircraft fuselages, car bodies and motorcycle frames.

Landing gear aircraft part which supports the aircraft while not in the air

Landing gear is the undercarriage of an aircraft or spacecraft and may be used for either takeoff or landing. For aircraft it is generally both. It was also formerly called alighting gear by some manufacturers, such as the Glenn L. Martin Company.

The Lockheed Model 10 Electra is an American twin-engined, all-metal monoplane airliner developed by the Lockheed Aircraft Corporation in the 1930s to compete with the Boeing 247 and Douglas DC-2. The type gained considerable fame as one was flown by Amelia Earhart on her ill-fated around-the-world expedition in 1937.

The aircraft has used a variety of engines and has had a number of airframe modifications to increase gross weight and speed. At least one aircraft was modified to a 600-hp (447-kW) Pratt & Whitney R-1340 powerplant configuration. With the added weight of about 200 lb (91 kg) per engine, the concept of a Model 18 fitted with R-1340 engines was deemed unsatisfactory due to the weakest structural area of the aircraft being the engine mounts. Nearly every airframe component has been modified.

In 1955, deliveries of the Model E18S commenced; the E18S featured a fuselage that was extended 6 in (150 mm) higher for more headroom in the passenger cabin. All later Beech 18s (sometimes called Super 18s) featured this taller fuselage, and some earlier models (including one AT-11) have been modified to this larger fuselage. The Model H18, introduced in 1963, featured optional tricycle undercarriage. Unusually, the undercarriage was developed for earlier-model aircraft under an STC by Volpar, and installed in H18s at the factory during manufacture. A total of 109 H18s was built with tricycle undercarriage, and another 240 earlier-model aircraft were modified with this. [9] [10]

Fuselage aircraft main body which is the primary carrier of crew, passengers, and payload

The fuselage is an aircraft's main body section. It holds crew, passengers, and cargo. In single-engine aircraft it will usually contain an engine, as well, although in some amphibious aircraft the single engine is mounted on a pylon attached to the fuselage, which in turn is used as a floating hull. The fuselage also serves to position control and stabilization surfaces in specific relationships to lifting surfaces, which is required for aircraft stability and maneuverability.

Construction of the Beechcraft Model 18 ended in 1970 with a final Model H18 going to Japan Airlines. Through the years, 32 variations of the basic design had flown, over 200 improvement modification kits were developed, and almost 8,000 aircraft were built. In one case, the aircraft was modified to a triple tail, trigear, humpbacked configuration and appeared similar to a miniature Lockheed Constellation. Another distinctive conversion was carried out by Pacific Airmotive as the PacAero Tradewind. This featured a lengthened nose to accommodate the tricycle nosewheel, and the Model 18's twin tailfins were replaced by a single fin. [11]

Lockheed Constellation Family of four-engine propeller-driven airliners

The Lockheed Constellation ("Connie") is a propeller-driven, four-engine airliner built by Lockheed Corporation between 1943 and 1958 at Burbank, California. Lockheed built 856 in numerous models—all with the same triple-tail design and dolphin-shaped fuselage. Most were powered by four 18-cylinder Wright R-3350 Duplex-Cyclones. The Constellation was used as a civil airliner and as a military and civilian air transport, seeing service in the Berlin and the Biafran airlifts. The Constellation series was the first pressurized-cabin civil airliner series to go into widespread use. Its pressurized cabin enabled large numbers of commercial passengers to fly well above most bad weather for the first time, thus significantly improving the general safety and ease of air travel. Three of them served as the presidential aircraft for Dwight D. Eisenhower.

Operational history

Beechcraft 18 on floats Beech18 on floats.jpg
Beechcraft 18 on floats

Production got an early boost when Nationalist China paid the company US$750,000 for six M18R light bombers, [12] but by the time of the U.S. entry into World War II, only 39 Model 18s had been sold, of which 29 were for civilian customers. [9] [13] Work began in earnest on a variant specifically for training military pilots, bombardiers, and navigators. The effort resulted in the Army AT-7 and Navy SNB. Further development led to the AT-11 and SNB-2 navigation trainers and the C-45 military transport. The United States Air Force (USAF) Strategic Air Command had Model 18 variants (AT-11 Kansans, C-45 Expeditors, F-2 Expeditors (the "F" standing for "Fotorecon", short for "photographic reconnaissance"), and UC-45 Expeditors) from 1946 until 1951. From 1951 to 1955, the USAF had many of its aircraft remanufactured with new fuselages, wing center sections, and undercarriages to take advantage of the improvements to the civil models since the end of World War II. Eventually, 900 aircraft were remanufactured to be similar to the then-current Model D18S and given new designations, constructor's numbers, and Air Force serial numbers. [14] The USN had many of its surviving aircraft remanufactured, as well, these being redesignated as SNB-5s and SNB-5Ps.[ citation needed ] The C-45 flew in USAF service until 1963, the USN retired its last SNB in 1972, while the U.S. Army flew its C-45s until 1976. In later years, the military called these aircraft "bug smashers" in reference to their extensive use supplying mandatory flight hours for desk-bound aviators in the Pentagon. [15]

Beech 18s were used extensively by Air America during the Vietnam War; initially more-or-less standard ex-military C-45 examples were used, but then the airline had 12 aircraft modified by Conrad Conversions in 1963 and 1964 to increase performance and load-carrying capacity. The modified aircraft were known as Conrad Ten-Twos, as the maximum takeoff weight (MTOW) was increased to 10,200 lb (4,600 kg). [16] [17] The increase was achieved by several airframe modifications, including increased horizontal stabilizer angle-of-incidence, redesigned undercarriage doors, and aerodynamically improved wingtips. Air America then had Volpar convert 14 aircraft to turboprop power, fitted with Garrett AiResearch TPE-331 engines; modified aircraft were called Volpar Turbo Beeches, and also had a further increase in MTOW to 10,286 lb (4,666 kg). [16]

Spar problems

The wing spar of the Model 18 was fabricated by welding an assembly of tubular steel. The configuration of the tubes in combination with drilled holes from aftermarket STC modifications on some of these aircraft have allowed the spar to become susceptible to corrosion and cracking while in service. [18] This prompted the FAA to issue an Airworthiness Directive in 1975, mandating the fitting of a spar strap to some Model 18s. This led, in turn, to the retirement of a large number of STC-modified Model 18s when owners determined the aircraft were worth less than the cost of the modifications. The corrosion on unmodified spars was not a problem; it occurred due to the additional exposed surface area created through the STC hole-drilling process. Further requirements have been mandated by the FAA and other national airworthiness authorities, including regular removal of the spar strap to allow the strap to be checked for cracks and corrosion and the spar to be X-rayed. In Australia, the airworthiness authority has placed a life limit on the airframe, beyond which aircraft are not allowed to fly. [19] [20] [21]

Variants

Manufacturer models

Unless otherwise noted, the engines fitted are Pratt & Whitney R-985 radials.

Model 18A
First production model with seating for two pilots and seven or eight passengers, fitted with Wright R-760E-2 engines of 350 horsepower (260 kW), MTOW: 6,700 lb (3,000 kg) [22] [23]
Version of Model 18A capable of being fitted with skis or Edo 55-7170 floats; MTOW: 7,200 lb (3,300 kg) [23]
Model 18B
Improved model with increased range and useful load, fitted with 285 hp (213 kW) Jacobs L-5 engines [22] [24] [25]
Version of Model 18B capable of being fitted with skis or floats.
Model 18D
Variant with seating for two pilots and nine passengers, fitted with Jacobs L-6 engines of 330 horsepower (250 kW), MTOW: 7,200 lb (3,300 kg). [26]
Version of Model 18D capable of being fitted with skis or Edo 55-7170 floats, MTOW: 7,170 lb (3,250 kg) [13] [26]
Model A18D
Variant of 18D with MTOW increased by 300 lb (140 kg) to 7,500 lb (3,400 kg), fitted with Pratt and Whitney R-985 engines with 450 hp each [26]
Seaplane version of Model A18D, but same MTOW as S18D, fitted with Edo 55-7170 floats [26]
Model A18A
Version fitted with Pratt and Whitney R-985 engines of 450 horsepower (340 kW), MTOW: 7,500 lb (3,400 kg) [26]
Seaplane version of Model A18A, fitted with Edo 55-7170 floats, MTOW: 7,170 lb (3,250 kg) [26]
Model 18R
Model with Pratt and Whitney R-985-A1 engines with dual-stage blower for increased power at higher operating altitudes, 450 horsepower (340 kW), seven built, one to Sweden as an air ambulance, six to Nationalist China as M18R light bombers [12] [22]
Model 18S
Nine-passenger pre-World War II civil variant, served as basis for USAAF C-45C [2]
Model B18S
Nine-passenger pre-World War II civil variant, served as basis for USAAF F-2 [2]
Model C18S
Variant of B18S with seating for eight passengers, and equipment and minor structural changes [27]
Model D18S
First post-World War II variant introduced in 1945, with seating for eight passengers and MTOW of 8,750 lb (3,970 kg), 1,035 built [28] [29]
Model D18C
Variant with Continental R9-A engines of 525 horsepower (391 kW) and MTOW of 9,000 lb (4,100 kg), introduced in 1947, 31 built. [28] [30]
Model E18S
Variant with redesigned wing and MTOW of 9,300 lb (4,200 kg); 403 built [28]
Model E18S-9700
Variant of E18S with MTOW of 9,700 lb (4,400 kg); 57 built [28]
Model G18S
A Model G18S arrives at the 2016 RIAT, England Beech Model 18 (reg N45CF) arrives Fairford 7Jul2016 arp.jpg
A Model G18S arrives at the 2016 RIAT, England
Superseded E18S, MTOW of 9,700 lb (4,400 kg); 155 built [28] [29]
Model G18S-9150
Lightweight version of G18, MTOW of 9,150 lb (4,150 kg); one built [28] [29]
Model H18
Last production version, fitted with optional tricycle undercarriage developed by Volpar and MTOW of 9,900 lb (4,500 kg); 149 built, of which 109 were manufactured with tricycle undercarriage [9] [28] [29]

Military versions

USAAC/USAAF Designations

C-45
Six-seat staff transport based on C18S; [27] 11 built [31] [32]
C-45A
Eight-seat utility transport based on C18S; [27] 20 built [31]
RC-45A
Redesignation of all surviving F-2, F-2A, and F-2B aircraft by the USAF in 1948
C-45B
Based on C18S, but with modified internal layout; 223 ordered, redesignated UC-45B in 1943 [27] [32]
C-45C
Two Model 18S aircraft impressed into the USAAF, redesignated UC-45C in January 1943 [2] [22] [33]
C-45D
Designation given to two AT-7 aircraft converted as passenger transports during manufacture, redesignated UC-45D in January 1943 [33] [34]
C-45F at the Barksdale Global Power Museum Barksdale Global Power Museum September 2015 18 (Beechcraft C-45F Expeditor).jpg
C-45F at the Barksdale Global Power Museum
C-45H/AT-7 CAF, Platte Valley Airpark, Hudson, CO, June 2007 C45HcafAT7.JPG
C-45H/AT-7 CAF, Platte Valley Airpark, Hudson, CO, June 2007
C-45E
Designation given to two AT-7 and four AT-7B aircraft converted as passenger transports during manufacture, redesignated UC-45E in January 1943 [33] [34]
C-45F
Standardized seven-seat version based on C18S, with longer nose than preceding models; [27] 1,137 ordered, redesignated UC-45F [32]
C-45G
AT-7s and AT-11s remanufactured in the early 1950s for the USAF to similar standard as civil D18S with autopilot and R-985-AN-3 engines; 372 aircraft rebuilt [14] [35]
TC-45G
Multiengine crew trainer variant of C-45G; AT-7s and AT-11s remanufactured in the early 1950s for the USAF to similar standard as civil D18S, 96 aircraft rebuilt [14] [35]
C-45H
AT-7s and AT-11s remanufactured in the early 1950s for the USAF to similar standard as civil D18S, with no autopilot and R-985-AN-14B engines; 432 aircraft rebuilt [14] [36]
TC-45H [28]
RC-45J [28]
In 1962, all surviving U.S. Navy SNB-5Ps were redesignated RC-45J.
TC-45J [28]
In 1962 all surviving U.S. Navy SNB-5s were redesignated TC-45J.
UC-45J [28]
AT-11 at the Barksdale Global Power Museum Barksdale Global Power Museum September 2015 21 (Beechcraft AT-11 Kansan).jpg
AT-11 at the Barksdale Global Power Museum
AT-7 Navigator
Navigation trainer based on C18S, [27] with an astrodome and positions for three students, powered by 450-hp Pratt & Whitney R-985-25 engines; 577 built [31] [32]
AT-7A
Floatplane version of AT-7; six built [31]
AT-7B
Winterised AT-7; nine built [31]
AT-7C
Based on C18S [27] with R-985-AN3 engines; 549 built [31]
AT-11 Kansan
Bombing and gunnery trainer for USAAF derived from AT-7, fuselage had small, circular cabin windows, bombardier position in nose, and bomb bay; gunnery trainers were also fitted with two or three .30-caliber machine guns, early models (the first 150 built) had a single .30-cal AN-M2 in a Beechcraft-manufactured top turret, later models used a Crocker Wheeler twin .30-cal top turret, a bottom tunnel gun was used for tail gunner training, 1,582 built for USAAF orders, with 24 ordered by Netherlands repossessed by USAAF and used by the Royal Netherlands Military Flying School at Jackson, Mississippi. [37] [38]
AT-11A
Conversion of AT-11 as navigation trainer; 36 converted [38]
CQ-3
Conversion of UC-45F, modified to act as drone control aircraft, redesignated as DC-45F in June 1948[ citation needed ]
F-2s in Alaska, 1941 Beechcraft F-2s in Alaska June 1941.png
F-2s in Alaska, 1941
F-2
Photo-reconnaissance version based on B18 [2]
F-2A
Improved version
F-2B

US Navy Designations

SNB-1 Kansan Beechcraft SNB-1 Kansan front quarter view.jpg
SNB-1 Kansan
SNB-2 Navigator Beechcraft SNB-2 Navigator in flight.jpg
SNB-2 Navigator
JRB-1
Photographic aircraft, based on the C18S, [27] fitted with fairing over cockpit for improved visibility, 11 built [39]
JRB-2
Light transport, based on the C18S; [27] 15 built [39]
JRB-3
Photographic version, similar to C-45B; 23 built [39]
JRB-4
Utility transport version, equivalent to UC-45F'; 328 built. [39]
JRB-6 [28]
SNB-1
Similar to AT-11; [40] 110 built [41]
SNB-2
Navigation trainer [40] similar to AT-7, 299 built
SNB-2C
Navigation trainer [40]
SNB-2H
Ambulance conversion [40]
SNB-2P
Photo-reconnaissance trainer [40]
SNB-3
Navigation trainer
SNB-3Q
Electronic counter-measures trainer
SNB-5 [28]
SNB-2s and SNB-2Cs were remanufactured, and designated SNB-5.
SNB-5P [28]
Photo-reconnaissance trainer

RAF/RCAF Lend-lease Designations

Expeditor I
C-45Bs supplied to the RAF under Lend-Lease.
Expeditor II
C-45Fs supplied to the RAF and Royal Navy under Lend-Lease
Expeditor III
C-45Fs supplied to the RCAF under Lend-Lease

Post-war RCAF designations

C-45Ds delivered between 1951 and 1952. [42]

Expeditor 3N
navigation trainer - 88 built [43]
Expeditor 3NM
navigational trainer that could be converted to a transport - 59 built [44]
Expeditor 3NMT
3NM converted to a transport aircraft - 67 built [45]
Expeditor 3NMT(Special)
navigation trainer/personnel transport - 19 built [46]
Expeditor 3TM
transport with fittings so it could be converted to a navigation trainer - 44 built [43]
Expeditor 3TM(Special)
modified RCAF Expeditors used overseas in conjunction with Project WPB6 - three built. [47]

Conversions

PacAero Tradewind Beech E-18.jpg
PacAero Tradewind
Conrad 9800
Modification increasing the gross weight to 9,800 pounds with a single piece windshield [48]
Dumod I
Executive conversion with Volpar tricycle landing gear, new wing tips, enlarged fight deck and refurbished 6–7 seat cabin with larger windows. Originally named Infinité I. 37 converted by 1966. [49]
Dumod Liner
Stretched airliner conversion. Similar to Dumod I but with forward fuselage stretched by 6 feet 3 inches (1.91 m), allowing up to 15 passengers to be carried. Originally named Infinité II. [49]
Hamilton HA-1
conversion of a TC-45J aircraft
Hamilton Little Liner
Modification of D18S with aerodynamic improvements and new, retractable tailwheel, capable of carrying 11 seats [50]
Hamilton Westwind
Turboprop conversions with various engines
Hamilton Westwind III conversion at an airfield in Tennessee N432U.JPG
Hamilton Westwind III conversion at an airfield in Tennessee
Hamilton Westwind II STD
Stretched conversion powered by two 840-hp PT6As, and with accommodation for up to 17 passengers. [51]
Hamilton Westwind III
two 579-hp PT6A-20s or 630-hp PT6A-27s or 630-hp Lycoming LTS101s.
Hamilton Westwind IV
two 570-hp Lycoming LTP101s or 680-hp PT6A-28s or 750-hp PT6A-34s or 1020-hp PT6A-45s
PacAero Tradewind
Conversion of Beech D18S/C-45 to five- to 11-seat executive transport with single fin by Pacific Airmotive
SFERMA-Beechcraft PD.18S
Modification of Beech 18S powered by two Turboméca Bastan turboprops. [52]
Volpar (Beechcraft) Model 18
Conversion of Model 18 with nosewheel undercarriage [53] [54]
Volpar (Beechcraft) Super 18
Volpar (Beechcraft) Turbo 18
Beech Model 18s fitted with the Volpar MkIV tricycle undercarriage and powered by two 705-hp Garrett TPE331-1-101B turboprop engines, flat-rated to 605 hp (451 kW), driving Hartzell HC-B3TN-5 three-bladed, reversible-pitch, constant-speed feathering propellers [54]
Volpar (Beechcraft) Super Turbo 18
2x 705 hp (526 kW) Garrett TPE331
Volpar (Beechcraft) C-45G
C-45G aircraft modified with tricycle undercarriage
Volpar (Beechcraft) Turboliner
15-passenger version of the Turbo 18 with extended fuselage, powered by 2 705-hp Garrett TPE331-1-101Bs [55]
Volpar (Beechcraft) Turboliner II
Turboliners modified to meet SFAR 23 [55]

Operators

Civil

As of 2012, the Beechcraft Model 18 remains popular with air charter companies and small feeder airlines worldwide.

Military

Military Model 18 operators World operators of the Beechcraft Model 18.png
Military Model 18 operators
Argentine Navy C-45 Beechcraft C45 4-G-14.jpg
Argentine Navy C-45
Beechcraft C-45 Expeditor in RCAF Air Transport Command markings Beech18RCAF.JPG
Beechcraft C-45 Expeditor in RCAF Air Transport Command markings
C-45 as used by the Swiss Air Force for civilian aerial photography missions Swiss Air Force Beechcraft Model 18.jpg
C-45 as used by the Swiss Air Force for civilian aerial photography missions
ROC Air Force AT-11 ROCAF Beech AT-11 in Military Airplanes Display Area 20111015.jpg
ROC Air Force AT-11
Beech 18/C-45 at the National Museum of the United States Air Force Beech C-45H Expeditor USAF.jpg
Beech 18/C-45 at the National Museum of the United States Air Force
Beechcraft UC-45F in flight Beechcraft UC-45F 00910460 118.jpg
Beechcraft UC-45F in flight
Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force SNB-4 SNB-4(6428).JPG
Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force SNB-4
Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina
Flag of Bolivia.svg  Bolivia
Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil
Canadian Red Ensign (1921-1957).svg  Canada
Flag of Chile.svg  Chile
Flag of Colombia.svg  Colombia
Flag of Costa Rica.svg  Costa Rica
Flag of Cote d'Ivoire.svg  Côte d'Ivoire
Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg  Dominican Republic
Flag of Ecuador.svg  Ecuador
Flag of El Salvador.svg  El Salvador
Flag of France.svg  France
Flag of Guatemala.svg  Guatemala
Flag of Haiti.svg  Haiti
Flag of Honduras.svg Honduras
Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia
Flag of Iran.svg  Iran
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy
Flag of Japan.svg  Japan
Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands
Flag of Nicaragua.svg  Nicaragua
Flag of Niger.svg  Niger
Flag of Nigeria.svg  Nigeria
Flag of Paraguay.svg  Paraguay
Flag of Peru.svg  Peru
Flag of the Philippines (navy blue).svg  Philippines
Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal
Flag of Somalia.svg  Somalia
Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa
Flag of South Vietnam.svg  South Vietnam
Flag of Spain.svg  Spain
Flag of Sri Lanka.svg  Sri Lanka
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden
Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland
Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Taiwan
Flag of Thailand.svg  Thailand
Flag of Tonga.svg  Tonga
Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Flag of Uruguay.svg  Uruguay
Flag of Venezuela.svg  Venezuela
Flag of Zaire.svg  Zaire

Aircraft on display

Argentina

Australia

Belgium

Brazil

Canada

Chile

India

Italy

Malta

Netherlands

New Zealand

Portugal

Spain

Turkey

United Kingdom

United States

Notable appearances in media

Specifications (UC-45 Expeditor)

Beech C45 Silh 110kB.png

Data fromJane's Fighting Aircraft of World War II. [134]

General characteristics

Performance

See also

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

Related lists

Related Research Articles

Sikorsky H-19 Chickasaw Family of utility helicopters

The Sikorsky H-19 Chickasaw was a multi-purpose helicopter used by the United States Army and United States Air Force. It was also license-built by Westland Aircraft as the Westland Whirlwind in the United Kingdom. United States Navy and United States Coast Guard models were designated HO4S, while those of the U.S. Marine Corps were designated HRS. In 1962, the U.S. Navy, U.S. Coast Guard and U.S. Marine Corps versions were all redesignated as H-19s like their U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force counterparts.

Lockheed Model 18 Lodestar American passenger transport aircraft of the World War II era

The Lockheed Model 18 Lodestar is a passenger transport aircraft of the World War II era.

Vultee BT-13 Valiant family of military training aircraft

The Vultee BT-13 Valiant was an American World War II-era basic trainer aircraft built by Vultee Aircraft for the United States Army Air Corps, and later US Army Air Forces. A subsequent variant of the BT-13 in USAAC/USAAF service was known as the BT-15 Valiant, while an identical version for the US Navy was known as the SNV and was used to train naval aviators for the US Navy and its sister services, the US Marine Corps and US Coast Guard.

Avro Canada CF-100 Canuck Interceptor aircraft in service 1952-1981

The Avro Canada CF-100 Canuck was a Canadian twinjet interceptor/fighter designed and produced by aircraft manufacturer Avro Canada. It has the distinction of being the only Canadian-designed fighter to enter mass production.

Beechcraft L-23 Seminole


The Beechcraft L-23 Seminole was the United States Armed Forces designation for the Beechcraft Twin Bonanza and Queen Air aircraft in its inventory.

Beechcraft Model 17 Staggerwing family of utility transport aircraft

The Beechcraft Model 17 Staggerwing is an American biplane with an atypical negative wing stagger. It first flew in 1932.

Fairchild C-119 Flying Boxcar American military transport aircraft built 1948–55

The Fairchild C-119 Flying Boxcar was an American military transport aircraft developed from the World War II-era Fairchild C-82 Packet, designed to carry cargo, personnel, litter patients, and mechanized equipment, and to drop cargo and troops by parachute. The first C-119 made its initial flight in November 1947, and by the time production ceased in 1955, more than 1,100 C-119s had been built. Its cargo-hauling ability and unusual twin-boom design earned it the nickname "Flying Boxcar".

Piasecki H-21 military transport helicopter family

The Piasecki H-21 Workhorse/Shawnee is an American helicopter, the fourth of a line of tandem rotor helicopters designed and built by Piasecki Helicopter. Commonly called "the flying banana", it was a multi-mission helicopter, utilizing wheels, skis, or floats.

Sikorsky H-34 helicopter

The Sikorsky H-34 is a piston-engined military helicopter originally designed by American aircraft manufacturer Sikorsky as an anti-submarine warfare (ASW) aircraft for the United States Navy. It has seen extended use when adapted to turbine power by the British licensee as the Westland Wessex and Sikorsky as the later S-58T.

Yankee Air Museum Aviation museum in Michigan, United States

The Yankee Air Museum is an aviation museum located at Willow Run Airport in Van Buren Township, Michigan. The museum has a small fleet of flying aircraft and a collection of static display aircraft outdoors.

Ryan PT-22 Recruit

The Ryan PT-22 Recruit, the main military version of the Ryan ST, is a military trainer aircraft used by the United States Army Air Corps during WWII for primary pilot training.

Palm Springs Air Museum Aviation museum in Palm Springs, California

The Palm Springs Air Museum (PSAM), is a non-profit educational institution in Palm Springs, Riverside County, California. The Museum's mission is to exhibit, educate and eternalize the role of the World War II combat aircraft and the role the pilots and American citizens had in winning the war. In addition to flying aircraft, related artifacts, artwork, and library sources are used to perpetuate American history. It contains one of the world's largest collections of flying World War II warplanes, many of which were built in Southern California. Many of these aircraft have been used by motion picture companies in movies set during the second world war.

Stinson L-5 Sentinel military aircraft

The Stinson L-5 Sentinel was a World War II era liaison aircraft used by all branches of the U.S. military and by the British Royal Air Force. It was produced by the Stinson Aircraft Company. Along with the Stinson L-1 Vigilant, the L-5 was the only other American liaison aircraft of World War II that was purpose-built for military use and had no civilian counterpart. All other military liaison airplanes adopted during World War II were lightly modified "off-the-shelf" civilian models.

Bell H-13 Sioux series of military helicopters

The Bell H-13 Sioux was a single-engine single-rotor light helicopter built by Bell Helicopter. Westland Aircraft manufactured the Sioux under license for the British military as the Sioux AH.1 and HT.2.

Naval Air Station Wildwood Aviation Museum Aviation museum in Lower Township, New Jersey

The Naval Air Station Wildwood Aviation Museum is an aviation museum located at the Cape May Airport in Lower Township, in Cape May County, New Jersey, United States.

Vintage Flying Museum Aviation museum in Fort Worth, Texas

The Vintage Flying Museum is a non-profit aviation museum located at Meacham International Airport, Fort Worth, Texas. The primary mission of the museum is to preserve America's flying heritage in word, deed and action.

Chico Air Museum

The Chico Air Museum is a nonprofit aviation museum located at the Chico Municipal Airport in Chico, California. Its mission statement is to "collect, preserve, document and display aircraft, and aviation and space artifacts. The museum’s primary purpose is to educate and inspire people of all ages about aviation and the history of flight".

References

Notes

  1. "Aircraft Exhibits". Beechcraft Heritage Museum. Retrieved August 5, 2017.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 "Beech B18 Series Type Certificate." Federal Aviation Administration. Retrieved: August 8, 2008.
  3. 1 2 3 "Beechcraft D18S Twin Beech." National Air and Space Museum of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Retrieved: December 17, 2014.
  4. 1 2 "Fact Sheet: Beech C-45H Expeditor." National Museum of the U.S. Air Force , Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio. Retrieved: August 5, 2017.
  5. 1 2 "Twin Beech: The 1930's airplane that set Beech Aircraft Corporation on a course towards 50 years of success" Flying Magazine , February 1982, pp. 26-30, Retrieved: August 5, 2017
  6. "Fact Sheet: Beech AT-11 Kansan." National Museum of the U.S. Air Force , Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio. Retrieved: August 5, 2017.
  7. Bauschspies, James S. and William E. Simpson, "Research and Technology Program Perspectives for General Aviation and Commuter Aircraft", NASA Contract NASW-3554 for NASA, Sept. 1982, N83-17454#. Retrieved: Dec. 18, 2014. (In particular, see: Table 2.4 "COMMUTER CARGO FLEET IN 1981 - TOP TEN AIRCRAFT MODELS - NUMBER IN FLEET," which notes Beech 18 units are more than the next two aircraft combined (Convair 500/680 and Douglas DC-3), and more than the next three general aviation aircraft combined.
  8. "Beech 18" FAA Aircraft Registry. Federal Aviation Administration . Retrieved: August 5, 2017.
  9. 1 2 3 "Model 18 Specifications." Beechcraft Heritage Museum. Retrieved: August 24, 2008.
  10. "Some of the Differences Between the Models and Modifications of the Beech 18". twinbeech.com. September 30, 2006. Retrieved August 5, 2017.
  11. "Beechcraft 3NMT Expeditor." Canadian Museum of Flight. Retrieved: August 13, 2012.
  12. 1 2 "Beechcraft page." Aerofiles. Retrieved: August 12, 2008.
  13. 1 2 "S18D." Beechcraft Heritage Museum. Retrieved: August 12, 2008.
  14. 1 2 3 4 "C-45H." Beechcraft Heritage Museum. Retrieved: August 24, 2008.
  15. O'Rourke, G.G, CAPT USN. "Of Hosenoses, Stoofs, and Lefthanded Spads." United States Naval Institute Proceedings, July 1968.
  16. 1 2 "Air America: Beech/Volpar Turbo Beech 18". University of Texas at Dallas, 2006. Retrieved: August 5, 2017.
  17. Deakin, John. "Pelican's Perch #75:Those Dreadful POHs (Part 1)". AVweb, November 9, 2003. Retrieved: August 12, 2008.
  18. Ramey, Taigh. "Spar concerns." Twinbeech.com. Retrieved: December 17, 2014.
  19. Ramey, Taigh. "Vintage Aircraft: Things to Consider when Buying a Twin Beech Project." Twinbeech.com, Stockton, California. Retrieved: August 24, 2008.
  20. "FAA Airworthiness Directive No. AD 75-27-09. Federal Aviation Administration. Retrieved: August 24, 2008
  21. "CASA Airworthiness Directive No. AD/BEECH 18/17." Archived 2008-08-01 at the Wayback Machine CASA. Retrieved: August 24, 2008.
  22. 1 2 3 4 "USA Warplanes C-45 page." uswarplanes.net. Retrieved 24 August 2008.
  23. 1 2 "Beech 18A Series Type Certificate." Federal Aviation Administration. Retrieved: August 9, 2008.
  24. "Beech 18 (C-45F)." Archived 2009-01-14 at the Wayback Machine AircraftWorldDirectory.com. Retrieved 28 August 2008.
  25. McKillop, Jack. "Beech JRB Expedition (sic), Beech SNB Kansan and Navigator". microworks.ne. Retrieved: August 28, 2008.
  26. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Beech 18D/A18 Series Type Certificate." Federal Aviation Administration.Retrieved: August 8, 2008.
  27. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 "Beech C18S Type Certificate." Federal Aviation Administration. Retrieved: August 12, 2008.
  28. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 FAA Beech D18/E18/G18/H18 Series Type Certificate.. Retrieved 8 August 2008.
  29. 1 2 3 4 "Aircraft Serial Number Lists 1945–2008." Archived 2009-04-11 at the Wayback Machine Hawker Beechcraft. Retrieved: August 8, 2008.
  30. "Beech 18". Airliners.net. Retrieved: August 8, 2008.
  31. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Donald 1995, p. 7.
  32. 1 2 3 4 Swanborough and Bowers 1963, p. 36.
  33. 1 2 3 Baugher, Joe. "USAAF 1942 Serial Number List." [ permanent dead link ]USAAS-USAAC-USAAF-USAF Aircraft Serial Numbers–1908 to Present. Retrieved: June 11, 2011.
  34. 1 2 Baugher, Joe. "USAAF 1943 Serial Number List." [ permanent dead link ]USAAS-USAAC-USAAF-USAF Aircraft Serial Numbers–1908 to Present. Retrieved: June 11, 2011.
  35. 1 2 Baugher, Joe. "USAF 1951 Serial Number List." [ permanent dead link ]USAAS-USAAC-USAAF-USAF Aircraft Serial Numbers–1908 to Present. Retrieved 11 June 2011.
  36. Baugher, Joe. "USAF 1952 Serial Number List." [ permanent dead link ]USAAS-USAAC-USAAF-USAF Aircraft Serial Numbers–1908 to Present. Retrieved: August 24, 2008.
  37. Donald 1995, pp. 7–8.
  38. 1 2 Swanborough and Bowers 1963, p. 37.
  39. 1 2 3 4 Swanborough and Bowers 1976, p. 41.
  40. 1 2 3 4 5 Swanborough and Bowers 1976, p. 42.
  41. Swanborough and Bowers 1976, p. 44.
  42. "RCAF Data Record Cards 1426 CA-1 to 1594 CA-280"". RCAF.
  43. 1 2 "FAA Type Certificate A-765 (Beech D18/E18/G18/H18 Series)." Federal Aviation Administration, p. 48.
  44. For the particular breakdown of each model for the RCAF, Refer to RCAF Data Record Cards CA-1 to CA-280.
  45. "EO 05-45B-6A/130." RCAF, March 10, 1959.
  46. "EO 05-45B-2 Description and Maintenance Instructions Expeditor 3." RCAF', September 12, 1967, p. I-1.
  47. "EO 05-45B-1 Aircraft Operating Instructions." RCAF, September 26, 1966, Supplement B, p. 2.
  48. Sweeney, Richard (December 1960). "Conrad 9800". Flying. pp. 48, 49, 102.
  49. 1 2 Taylor 1967, p. 250.
  50. Taylor 1965, p. 280.
  51. Taylor 1976, p. 300.
  52. Taylor 1982, p. 67.
  53. Taylor 1965, p. 316.
  54. 1 2 Taylor 1982, p. 483.
  55. 1 2 Taylor 1982, p. 484.
  56. 1 2 Bridgman 1951, p. 3a.
  57. "AVIONES DE TRANSPORTE DE LA AVIACION NAVAL - "BEECHCRAFT AT11"". Histarmar - Historia y Arqueologia Marítima (in Spanish). Fundación Histarmar. Retrieved 2 May 2015.
  58. 1 2 Bridgman 1951, p. 4a.
  59. Griffin 1969, pp. 5–6.
  60. Pettipas 1986, pp. 42–43.
  61. Bridgman 1951, p. 6a.
  62. Bridgman 1951, p. 7a.
  63. Bridgman 1951, p. 17a.
  64. 1 2 Bridgman 1951, p. 11a.
  65. Bridgman 1951, p. 12a.
  66. "Italian Air Force." aeroflight. Retrieved: December 17, 2014.
  67. Bridgman 1951, p. 14a.
  68. 1 2 Bridgman 1951, p. 16a.
  69. Mesko 1981, p. 1.
  70. Bridgman 1951, p. 19a.
  71. 1 2 Bridgman 1951, p. 20a.
  72. "Airframe Dossier - Beech AT-11A Kansan, s/n E-110 FAA, c/n 3495". Aerial Visuals. AerialVisuals.ca. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
  73. "Airframe Dossier - Beech C-45H Expeditor, s/n 52-10629 USAF, c/n 5621, c/r LV-WEX {1}". Aerial Visuals. AerialVisuals.ca. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
  74. "Airframe Dossier - Beech C-45H Expeditor, s/n A-216 ANdU, c/n AF-555, c/r LV-WEX {2}". Aerial Visuals. AerialVisuals.ca. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
  75. "Airframe Dossier - Beech H18S, c/n BA-752, c/r LV-JFH". Aerial Visuals. AerialVisuals.ca. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
  76. "BEECH E18S N3781B C/N BA-81)". Queensland Air Museum Inc. Retrieved 16 October 2016.
  77. "Rallye, Tomahawk en Beech 18 in Pairi Daiza" [Rallye, Tomahawk and Beech 18 in Pairi Daiza]. luchtvaarterfgoed.be (in Dutch). 3 March 2014. Retrieved 16 October 2016.
  78. "KANSAN - BEECHCRAFT AT-11 - BEECH AIRCRAFT CORPORATION". Museu Aerospacial. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
  79. "Airframe Dossier - Beech 18, s/n 1371 FABr, c/n 4615". Aerial Visuals. AerialVisuals.ca. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
  80. "EXECUTIVE - BEECHCRAFT D18S (C-45) - BEECH AIRCRAFT CORPORATION". Museu Aeroespacial. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
  81. "Airframe Dossier - Beech UC-45F Expeditor, s/n 2856 FABr, c/n 2856". Aerial Visuals. AerialVisuals.ca. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
  82. "Beech C-45 CF-MJY". Canadian Bushplane Heritage Centre. Canadian Bushplane Heritage Centre. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
  83. "Airframe Dossier - Beech C-45H Expeditor, s/n 52-10632 USAF, c/n 459, c/r CF-MJY". Aerial Visuals. AerialVisuals.ca. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
  84. "Airframe Dossier - Beech Expeditor 3TM, s/n 1421 RCAF, c/n 8034, c/r C-FUWE". Aerial Visuals. AerialVisuals.ca. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
  85. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Goodall, Geoff. "PART 2: BEECH D18S/ D18C & RCAF EXPEDITER Mk.3" (PDF). Geoff Goodall's Aviation History Site. Geoffrey Goodall. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
  86. "Beechcraft-18 Expeditor". Bomber Command Museum of Canada. Retrieved 21 March 2016.
  87. "BEECHCRAFT EXPEDITOR". Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum. Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum. Retrieved 7 July 2015.
  88. "Beech Expeditor, RCAF 1477". Royal Aviation Museum of Western Canada. Royal Aviation Museum of Western Canada. Archived from the original on 27 September 2016. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
  89. "Beechcraft 18-s". North Atlantic Aviation Museum. North Atlantic Aviation Museum. Retrieved 7 July 2015.
  90. "Beechcraft 3NMT Expeditor". The Canadian Museum of Flight. Canadian Museum of Flight. Retrieved 7 July 2015.
  91. "Airframe Dossier - Beech Expeditor 3NMT, s/n 2307 RCAF, c/n A-0782, c/r CF-CKT". Aerial Visuals. AerialVisuals.ca. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
  92. Leeuw, Ruud. "Bushplanes at Ignace, Ontario". RuudLeeuw.com. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
  93. "Beech D18S-3NM Expeditor (1952)". Alberta Aviation Museum. Archived from the original on 7 July 2015. Retrieved 7 July 2015.
  94. "BEECHCRAFT D-18S". Museo Nacional Aeronáutico y del Espacio. Archived from the original on 7 July 2015. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
  95. "Aerial Visuals - Airframe Dossier - Beech D18S, s/n 465 FACh, c/n A-1024". Aerial Visuals. AerialVisuals.ca. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
  96. "Beech 18 in Bhubaneswar". Warbirds of India. Warbirds of India. Retrieved 31 March 2016.
  97. 1 2 3 4 5 Goodall, Geoff. "PREWAR CIVIL BEECH 18 PRODUCTION and CIVILIANISED WWII MILITARY PRODUCTION ( AT-7/ AT-11 / C-45 / SNB- / JRB- / Expediter )" (PDF). Geoff Goodall's Aviation History Site. Geoffrey Goodall. Retrieved 31 March 2016.
  98. "I-SARE Project - Flying Again". YouTube. Retrieved 31 March 2016.
  99. "Beechcraft 18S N495F". Malta Aviation Museum. Malta Aviation Museum Foundation. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
  100. "Airframe Dossier - Beech C-45H Expeditor, s/n 52-10958 USAAF, c/n 8304, c/r N495F". Aerial Visuals. AerialVisuals.ca. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
  101. "Airframe Dossier - Beech C-45G Expeditor, s/n 51-11665 USAAF, c/n AF-222, c/r G-BKRG". Aerial Visuals. AerialVisuals.ca. Retrieved 31 March 2016.
  102. Wesley, Richard. "Beechcraft AT-11 Kansan". MOTAT Aircraft Collection. Blogger. Retrieved 31 March 2016.
  103. "Beechcraft C-45". Fundación Infante de Orleans (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 3 July 2016. Retrieved 31 March 2016.
  104. "Hava Kuvvetleri Muzesi Komutanligi (Turkish Air Force Museum) - Yesilkoy - Istanbul - Turkey". aviationmuseum.eu. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
  105. "Beech E-18S". National Museums Scotland. National Museums Scotland. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
  106. "Airframe Dossier - Beech E18S, c/n BA-111, c/r N575C". Aerial Visuals. AerialVisuals.ca. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
  107. "Beech AT-11 Kansan". National Museum of the US Air Force. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
  108. "AIRCRAFT, DRONES AND MISSILES AT THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF THE U.S. AIR FORCE" (PDF). National Museum of the US Air Force. Retrieved 31 March 2016.
  109. "Outdoor Exhibits - AT-11 "Kansan"". Travis Heritage Center. Travis Heritage Center. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
  110. "Aerial Visuals - Airframe Dossier - Beech AT-11 Kansan, s/n 42-36887 USAAF, c/n 3267, c/r N3983C". Aerial Visuals. AerialVisuals.ca. Retrieved 9 April 2016.
  111. "Aircraft Status". Lone Star Flight Museum. Archived from the original on 5 November 2014. Retrieved 31 March 2016.
  112. "Airframe Dossier - Beech AT-11 Kansan, s/n 42-37240 USAAF, c/r N81Y". Aerial Visuals. AerialVisuals.ca. Retrieved 31 March 2016.
  113. "1943 UC-45 Expeditor". Wings Over the Rockies Air & Space Museum. Wings Over the Rockies Air & Space Museum. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
  114. "1944 Beechcraft 18S S/N 7728 AFSN 44-4734 N1047B". Alaska Aviation Museum. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
  115. "Airframe Dossier - Beech UC-45F Expeditor, s/n 44-47342 USAAF, c/n 7728, c/r N1047B". Aerial Visuals. AerialVisuals.ca. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
  116. "Expeditor at the museum in Marathon FL". Travel for Aircraft. Wordpress. Retrieved 13 January 2019.
  117. "FAA REGISTRY". Federal Aviation Administration. U.S. Department of Transportation. Retrieved 7 July 2015.
  118. "Beech C-45H Expeditor". The Museum of Flight. The Museum of Flight. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
  119. "C-45G Expeditor". Air Mobility Command Museum. AMC Museum Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
  120. "Beech Aircraft Company C-45G Expeditor (USA)". Castle Air Museum. Castle Air Museum Foundation, Inc. Archived from the original on 6 January 2013. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
  121. "Airframe Dossier - Beech RC-45H Expeditor, s/n 51-11897 USAF, c/n 4340, c/r N87681". Aerial Visuals. AerialVisuals.ca. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
  122. "C-45H". National Warplane Museum. National Warplane Museum. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
  123. "Airframe Dossier - Beech C-45H Expeditor, s/n 52-10539 USAF, c/n AF-469, c/r N45GC". Aerial Visuals. AerialVisuals.ca. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
  124. "Outdoor Exhibits - C-45H "Expeditor"". Travis Heritage Center. Travis Heritage Center. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
  125. "Airframe Dossier - Beech 18, s/n 52-10865 USAF". Aerial Visuals. AerialVisuals.ca. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
  126. "Beech C-45H Expeditor". National Museum of the US Air Force. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
  127. "Beechcraft SNB Specifications". Tennessee Museum of Aviation. Archived from the original on 8 July 2015. Retrieved 31 March 2016.
  128. "Airframe Dossier - Beech RC-45J Expeditor, s/n 51233 USN, c/n 5560, c/r N145J". Aerial Visuals. AerialVisuals.ca. Retrieved 31 March 2016.
  129. "C-45 - Central Texas Wing". centraltexaswing.org. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
  130. "Beech UC-45J Expediter". Aerospace Museum of California. Aerospace Museum of California. Archived from the original on 28 March 2016. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
  131. "BEECHCRAFT C-45 "EXPEDITOR"". Minnesota Air National Guard Museum. Minnesota Air National Guard Museum. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
  132. 1 2 3 4 "Unique & Rare Artifacts". Beechcraft Heritage Museum. Beechcraft Heritage Museum. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
  133. "Airframe Dossier - Beech H18, c/n BA-670, c/r N954". Aerial Visuals. AerialVisuals.ca. Retrieved 31 March 2016.
  134. Bridgeman 1946, p. 205.

Bibliography

  • Bridgeman, Leonard, ed. “The Beechcraft Expeditor.” Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War II. London: Studio, 1946. ISBN   1-85170-493-0.
  • Bridgeman, Leonard. Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1951–52. London: Samson Low, Marston & Company, Ltd., 1951.
  • Donald, David, ed.American Warplanes of World War II. London: Aerospace, 1995. ISBN   1-874023-72-7.
  • Griffin, John A. Canadian Military Aircraft Serials & Photographs 1920 - 1968. Ottawa: Queen's Printer, Publication No. 69-2, 1969.
  • Mesko, Jim. "The Rise...and Fall of the Vietnamese AF". Air Enthusiast , August–November 1981, No. 16. pp. 1–12, 78–80. ISSN   0143-5450.
  • Mondey, David. American Aircraft of World War II (Hamlyn Concise Guide). London: Bounty Books, 2006. ISBN   978-0-7537-1461-4.
  • Ogden, Bob. Aviation Museums and Collections of North America. Tonbridge, Kent, UK: Air-Britain (Historians) Ltd., 2007. ISBN   0-85130-385-4.
  • Pettipas, Leo. Canadian Naval Aviation 1945-1968. L. Pettipas/Canadian Naval Air Group, Winnipeg: 1986. ISBN   0-9692528-0-3
  • Swanborough, F. Gordon and Peter M. Bowers. United States Military Aircraft since 1909. London: Putnam, 1963.
  • Swanborough, Gordon and Peter M. Bowers. United States Navy Aircraft since 1911. London: Putnam, 1976. ISBN   0-370-10054-9.
  • Taylor, John W. R. Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1961–62. London: Sampson Low, Marston & Company, 1961.
  • Taylor, John W. R. Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1965–66. London: Sampson Low, Marston & Company, 1965.
  • Taylor, John W. R. Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1967–68. London: Sampson Low, Marston & Company, 1967.
  • Taylor, John W. R. Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1976–77. London: Jane's Yearbooks, 1976. ISBN   0-354-00538-3.
  • Taylor, John W. R. Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1982-83. London: Jane's Publishing Company, 1982. ISBN   0-7106-0748-2.
  • United States Air Force Museum Guidebook. Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio: Air Force Museum Foundation, 1975.