|Industry||Aircraft; aircraft parts and equipment; data processing and preparation; search and navigation equipment; truck and bus bodies; electrical equipment and supplies|
|Founded||December 6, 1929|
|Defunct||April 4, 1994|
|Fate||Merged with Northrop|
Number of employees
The Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation, later Grumman Aerospace Corporation, was a 20th century American producer of military and civilian aircraft. Founded on December 6, 1929, by Leroy Grumman and his business partners, it merged in 1994 with Northrop Corporation to form Northrop Grumman.
Leroy Grumman worked for the Loening Aircraft Engineering Corporation beginning in 1920. In 1929, Keystone Aircraft Corporation bought Loening Aircraft and moved its operations from New York City to Bristol, Pennsylvania. Grumman and three other ex-Loening Aircraft employees,(Edmund Ward Poor, William Schwendler, and Jake Swirbul) started their own company in an old Cox-Klemin Aircraft Co. factory in Baldwin on Long Island, New York.
The company registered as a business on December 6, 1929, and officially opened on January 2, 1930. While maintaining the business by welding aluminum tubing for truck frames, the company eagerly pursued contracts with the US Navy.Grumman designed the first practical floats with a retractable landing gear for the Navy, and this launched Grumman into the aviation market. The first Grumman aircraft was also for the Navy, the Grumman FF-1, a biplane with retractable landing gear developed at Curtiss Field in 1931. This was followed by a number of other successful designs.
During World War II, Grumman became known for its "Cats" (Navy fighter aircraft): the F4F Wildcat and F6F Hellcat, the Grumman F7F Tigercat and Grumman F8F Bearcat,and also for its torpedo bomber, the Grumman TBF Avenger. Grumman ranked 22nd among United States corporations in the value of wartime production contracts. Grumman's first jet aircraft was the F9F Panther; it was followed by the upgraded F9F/F-9 Cougar, and the F-11 Tiger in the 1950s. The company's big postwar successes came in the 1960s with the A-6 Intruder and E-2 Hawkeye and in the 1970s with the Grumman EA-6B Prowler and F-14 Tomcat. Grumman products were prominent in several feature movies including The Final Countdown in 1980, Top Gun in 1986, and Flight of the Intruder in 1990. The U.S. Navy still employs the Hawkeye as part of Carrier Air Wings on board aircraft carriers, while the U.S. Marine Corps, the last branch of service to fly the Prowler, retired it on March 8, 2019.
Grumman was the chief contractor on the Apollo Lunar Module, the first spacecraft to land humans on the Moon.The firm received the contract on November 7, 1962, and built 13 lunar modules. Six of them successfully landed on the Moon, with one serving as a lifeboat on Apollo 13, after an explosion crippled the main Apollo spacecraft. LM-2, a test article which never flew in space, is displayed permanently in the Smithsonian Institution. As the Apollo program neared its end, Grumman was one of the main competitors for the contract to design and build the Space Shuttle, but lost to Rockwell International.
In 1969, the company changed its name to Grumman Aerospace Corporation,and in 1978 it sold the Grumman-American Division to Gulfstream Aerospace. That same year, it acquired the bus manufacturer Flxible. The company built the Grumman LLV (Long Life Vehicle), a light transport mail truck designed for and used by the United States Postal Service. The LLV was produced from 1987 until 1994. Its intended service life was 24 years, but some of them were still in service in 2020. In 1983, Grumman sold Flxible for $40 million to General Automotive Corporation of Ann Arbor.
In the 1950s, Grumman began production of Gulfstream business aircraft, starting with the Gulfstream I turboprop (Grumman model G-159) and the Gulfstream II jet (Grumman model G-1159). Gulfstream aircraft were operated by many companies, private individuals, and government agencies including various military entities and NASA. In addition, the Gulfstream I was operated by several regional airlines in scheduled passenger services. The Gulfstream I-C (Grumman model G-159C) version was "stretched" to carry 37 passengers.
In 1978, Grumman sold Gulfstream to American Jet Industries, which adopted the Gulfstream name. Since 1999, Gulfstream has been a wholly owned subsidiary of General Dynamics.
For much of the Cold War period, Grumman was the largest corporate employer on Long Island.Grumman's products were considered so reliable and ruggedly built that the company was often referred to as the "Grumman Iron Works".
As the company grew, it moved to Valley Stream, New York, then Farmingdale, New York, finally to Bethpage, New York, with the testing and final assembly at the 6,000-acre (24 km2) Naval Weapons Station in Calverton, New York, all located on Long Island. At its peak in 1986 it employed 23,000 people on Long Island and occupied 6,000,000 square feet (560,000 m2) in structures on 105 acres (0.42 km2) it leased from the U.S. Navy in Bethpage.
The end of the Cold War at the beginning of the 1990s reduced defense spending and led to a wave of mergers as aerospace companies shrank in number; in 1994 Northrop bought Grumman for $2.1 billion to form Northrop Grumman,after Northrop topped a $1.9 billion offer from Martin Marietta.
The new company closed almost all of its facilities on Long Island and converted the Bethpage plant to a residential and office complex, with its headquarters becoming the corporate headquarters for Cablevision and the Calverton plant being turned into a business/industrial complex. Former aircraft hangars have become Grumman Studios, a film and television production center. A portion of the airport property has been used for the Grumman Memorial Park.
|Model name||First flight||Number built||Type|
|Grumman FF||1931||116||Single piston engine naval fighter|
|Grumman JF Duck||1933||48||Single piston engine floatplane observation airplane|
|Grumman F2F||1933||55||Single piston engine naval fighter|
|Grumman F3F||1935||147||Single piston engine naval fighter|
|Grumman XSBF||1936||1||Prototype single piston engine dive bomber|
|Grumman J2F Duck||1936||254||Single piston engine floatplane observation airplane|
|Grumman G-21 Goose||1937||345||Twin piston engine flying boat|
|Grumman F4F Wildcat||1937||2,605||Single piston engine naval fighter|
|Grumman G-44 Widgeon||1940||276||Twin piston engine flying boat|
|Grumman XF5F Skyrocket||1940||1||Prototype twin piston engine naval fighter|
|Grumman XP-50||1941||1||Prototype twin piston engine fighter|
|Grumman TBF Avenger||1941||2,290||Single piston engine torpedo bomber|
|Grumman F6F Hellcat||1942||12,275||Single piston engine naval fighter|
|Grumman F7F Tigercat||1943||364||Twin piston engine naval fighter|
|Grumman G-63 Kitten I||1944||1||Prototype single piston engine airplane|
|Grumman G-72 Kitten II||1944||1||Prototype single piston engine airplane|
|Grumman F8F Bearcat||1944||1,265||Single piston engine naval fighter|
|Grumman G-65 Tadpole||1944||1||Prototype single piston engine flying boat|
|Grumman AF Guardian||1945||389||Single piston engine anti-submarine warfare airplane|
|Grumman G-73 Mallard||1946||59||Twin piston engine flying boat|
|Grumman HU-16 Albatross||1947||466||Twin piston engine flying boat|
|Grumman F9F Panther||1947||1,382||Single jet engine naval fighter|
|Grumman F9F-6 Cougar||1951||1,988||Single jet engine naval fighter|
|Grumman XF10F Jaguar||1952||1||Prototype single jet engine naval fighter|
|Grumman S-2 Tracker||1952||1,184 or 1,185||Twin piston engine anti-submarine warfare airplane|
|Grumman F11F Tiger||1954||200||Single jet engine naval fighter|
|Grumman C-1 Trader||1955||87||Twin piston engine cargo airplane|
|Grumman F11F-1F Super Tiger||1956||1||Prototype single jet engine naval fighter|
|Grumman E-1 Tracer||1956||88||Twin piston engine airborne early warning airplane|
|Grumman G-164 Ag Cat||1957||402||Single piston engine agricultural airplane|
|Grumman G-159 Gulfstream I||1958||200||Twin turboprop engine business airplane|
|Grumman OV-1 Mohawk||1959||380||Twin turboprop engine observation airplane|
|Grumman A-6 Intruder||1960||693||Twin jet engine attack airplane|
|Grumman E-2 Hawkeye||1960||122||Twin turboprop engine airborne early warning airplane|
|Grumman C-2 Greyhound||1964||56||Twin turboprop engine cargo airplane|
|General Dynamics–Grumman F-111B||1965||7||Prototype twin jet engine naval fighter|
|Grumman G-1159 Gulfstream II||1966||256||Twin jet engine business airplane|
|Grumman EA-6B Prowler||1968||170||Twin jet engine electronic warfare airplane|
|Grumman F-14 Tomcat||1970||712||Twin jet engine naval fighter|
|Grumman American GA-7 Cougar||1974||~1||Twin piston engine civil airplane|
|General Dynamics–Grumman EF-111A Raven||1977||42||Twin jet engine electronic warfare airplane|
|Grumman X-29||1984||2||Experimental single jet engine airplane|
|Grumman XJL||N/A||0||Single piston engine floatplane observation airplane|
|Grumman American AA-1||1820||Single piston engine civil airplane|
|Grumman American AA-5||3282||Single piston engine civil airplane|
General Dynamics Corporation (GD) is an American publicly traded, aerospace and defense corporation headquartered in Reston, Virginia. As of 2020, it was the fifth-largest defense contractor in the world by arms sales, and 5th largest in the United States by total sales. The company is a Fortune 100 company, and was ranked No. 83 in 2020.
Bethpage is a hamlet and census-designated place (CDP) located within the Town of Oyster Bay in Nassau County, on Long Island, in New York, United States. The population was 16,429 at the 2010 United States Census.
Calverton is a hamlet and census-designated place (CDP) on eastern Long Island in Suffolk County, New York, United States. The population was 6,510 at the 2010 census.
Northrop Grumman Corporation is an American multinational aerospace and defense technology company. With 90,000 employees and an annual revenue in excess of $30 billion, it is one of the world's largest weapons manufacturers and military technology providers. The firm ranks No. 101 on the 2022 Fortune 500 list of America's largest corporations.
The Robert J. Collier Trophy is an annual aviation award administered by the U.S. National Aeronautic Association (NAA), presented to those who have made "the greatest achievement in aeronautics or astronautics in America, with respect to improving the performance, efficiency, and safety of air or space vehicles, the value of which has been thoroughly demonstrated by actual use during the preceding year."
Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation is an American aircraft company and a wholly owned subsidiary of General Dynamics. Gulfstream designs, develops, manufactures, markets, and services business jet aircraft. Gulfstream has produced more than 2,000 aircraft since 1958. Gulfstream's current range consists of the G280, G550, G500/G600, and G650/G650ER/G700/G800.
The Iven C. Kincheloe Award recognizes outstanding professional accomplishment in the conduct of flight testing. It was established in 1958 by the Society of Experimental Test Pilots in memory of test pilot and Korean War ace Iven C. Kincheloe, United States Air Force, who died during flight testing.
Leroy Randle "Roy" Grumman was an American aeronautical engineer, test pilot, and industrialist. In 1929, he co-founded Grumman Aircraft Engineering Co., later renamed Grumman Aerospace Corporation, and now part of Northrop Grumman.
Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems (NGES) was a business segment of Northrop Grumman from 1996 to 2015 until a reorganization on January 1, 2016 merged other Northrop Grumman businesses into NGES to form a new segment called Mission Systems. NGES had originally been created by Northrop Grumman's acquisition of Westinghouse Electronic Systems Group in 1996. The Electronic Systems sector was a designer, developer, and manufacturer of a wide variety of advanced defense electronics and systems. The division had 120 locations worldwide, including 72 international offices, and approximately 24,000 employees. Accounting for 20% of company sales in 2005.
The NASA Shaped Sonic Boom Demonstration, also known as the Shaped Sonic Boom Experiment, was a two-year program that used a Northrop F-5E with a modified fuselage to demonstrate that the aircraft's shock wave, and accompanying sonic boom, can be shaped, and thereby reduced. The program was a joint effort between NASA's Langley Research Center, Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base, California and Northrop Grumman.
The Gulfstream II (G-II) is an American twin engine business jet designed and built by Grumman and then in succession, Grumman American and finally Gulfstream American. Its Grumman model number is G-1159 and its US military designation is C-11A. It has been succeeded by the Gulfstream III. The first Gulfstream II flew on October 2, 1966.
The Cradle of Aviation Museum is an aerospace museum located in Garden City, New York on Long Island, established to commemorate Long Island's part in the history of aviation. It is located on land once part of Mitchel Air Force Base which, together with nearby Roosevelt Field and other airfields on the Hempstead Plains, was the site of many historic flights. So many seminal flights had occurred in the area that, by the mid-1920s, the cluster of airfields was already dubbed the "Cradle of Aviation", the origin of the museum's name.
Long Island is one of the world’s most urbanized and highly developed islands. As of 2019, Long Island had a population of 2.8 million people and a gross domestic product of $197 billion. Between 2014 and 2019, Long Island experienced a 4.3% growth in jobs. Median income on the island is $112,000 and the median home price is $450,000. Among those over the age of 25, 42.6% hold a college degree or higher educationally.
John Cocks (Jack) Bierwirth was an American lawyer and businessman. Bierwirth was an attorney by education, and a banking and financial expert by trade. He was best known as the CEO of Grumman during the 1970s and 1980s, a period of considerable reduction and downsizing in defense- and space-related industries.
Naval Weapons Industrial Reserve Plant, Calverton (NWIRP) was a government-owned, contractor-operated (GOCO) facility which had the mission of designing, fabricating, and testing prototype aircraft from 1956 until 1996, in Riverhead, New York, United States.
Grumman Studios is a sound stage complex in Bethpage, New York, United States, that offers 160,000 square feet with seven sound stages and 30 acres of paved outdoor space.
Naval Weapons Industrial Reserve Plant, Bethpage (NWIRP) -- also known as 'Northrop Grumman Site Facility' -- was a United States government-owned, contractor-operated (GOCO) facility established in 1941, with the mission to design, fabricate, and test prototype aircraft for the US Navy and the NASA in the town of Oyster Bay in Bethpage, New York. Two groundwater plumes of toxic chemicals, mostly volatile organic compounds migrating from the property were discovered in 1986 and in 2009, affecting the water district well fields. The site is subject to state Superfund cleanup plans. Special water treatment plants were established in the early 2000s.
Bethpage Energy Center is a power station in Bethpage, New York, United States, consisting of two combined cycle plants opened in 1989 and 2005, and one gas turbine peaking plant opened in 2002. The original plant was commissioned by Grumman Aerospace for its Bethpage complex because it was deemed more cost-effective than purchasing power from electric utilities. It was acquired by Calpine in 1998, which expanded the facility with two more plants.