The Last Emperor

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The Last Emperor
The Last Emperor filmposter.jpg
Theatrical release poster
Directed by Bernardo Bertolucci
Produced by Jeremy Thomas
Screenplay by
Based on From Emperor to Citizen: The Autobiography of Aisin-Gioro Puyi
by Puyi
Starring
Music by
Cinematography Vittorio Storaro
Edited by Gabriella Cristiani
Production
companies
Distributed by Columbia Pictures
Release date
  • 4 October 1987 (1987-10-04)(Tokyo)
  • 23 October 1987 (1987-10-23)(Italy)
  • 26 February 1988 (1988-02-26)(United Kingdom)
Running time
163 minutes [1]
Countries
  • United Kingdom
  • Italy
  • China
Languages
Budget$23.8 million [2]
Box office$44 million [3]

The Last Emperor (Italian : L'ultimo imperatore; Chinese :末代皇帝) is a 1987 epic biographical drama film, directed by Bernardo Bertolucci, about the life of Puyi, the last Emperor of China, whose 1964 autobiography was the basis for the screenplay written by Bertolucci and Mark Peploe. Independently produced by Jeremy Thomas, it was directed by Bertolucci and released in 1987 by Columbia Pictures. [4] Puyi's life is depicted from his ascent to the throne as a small boy to his imprisonment and political rehabilitation by the Communist Party of China.

Contents

The film stars John Lone as Puyi, with Joan Chen, Peter O'Toole, Ruocheng Ying, Victor Wong, Dennis Dun, Ryuichi Sakamoto, Maggie Han, Ric Young, Vivian Wu, and Chen Kaige. It was the first Western feature film authorized by the People's Republic of China to film in the Forbidden City in Beijing. [2] At the 60th Academy Awards it won nine Academy Awards, including Best Picture and Best Director.

Plot

In 1950, Puyi has been kept in custody for five years, since the Red Army captured him during the Soviet invasion of Manchuria at the end of World War II. In the recently established People's Republic of China, Puyi arrives as a political prisoner and war criminal at the Fushun Prison. Soon after his arrival, Puyi attempts suicide, but is quickly revived and told he must stand trial.

42 years earlier, in 1908, a toddler Puyi is summoned to the Forbidden City by the dying Empress Dowager Cixi. After telling him that the previous emperor had died earlier that day, with her last words, Cixi tells Puyi that he will be the next emperor. After his coronation, Puyi, frightened by his new surroundings, repeatedly expresses his wish to go home, which is denied. Despite having scores of palace eunuchs and maids to wait on him, his only real friend is his wet nurse, Ar Mo, who accompanied him and his father to the palace on the Empress Dowager's summons.

The next section of the film continues the series of chronological flashbacks showing Puyi's early life intermixed with his imprisonment in the 1950s. His upbringing is confined entirely to the imperial palace, which he is not allowed to leave. When he is about ten, he is visited by his younger brother, Pujie, who tells him he is no longer Emperor and that China is a republic; that same day, Ar Mo is made to leave him. In 1919, the kindly Scotsman Reginald Johnston is appointed as Puyi's tutor and gives him a Western-style education. Puyi becomes increasingly desirous to leave the Forbidden City. Johnston, wary of the courtiers' expensive lifestyle, convinces Puyi that the best way of achieving this is by marrying; Puyi subsequently weds Wanrong, with Wenxiu as a secondary consort.

Now the master of his own home, Puyi sets about reforming the Forbidden City, including expelling the thieving palace eunuchs. However, in 1924, he himself is expelled from the palace and exiled to Tientsin following the Beijing Coup. He leads a decadent life as a playboy and Anglophile, and he sides with Japan after the Mukden Incident. During this time Wenxiu divorces him, but Wanrong remains and eventually succumbs to opium addiction. In 1934 the Japanese crown him "Emperor" of their puppet state of Manchukuo, though his supposed political supremacy is undermined at every turn. Wanrong gives birth to a child, but the baby is murdered at birth by the Japanese and proclaimed stillborn. He remains nominal ruler of the region until his capture by the Red Army.

Under the "Communist re-education programme" for political prisoners, Puyi is coerced by his interrogators to formally renounce his forced collaboration with the Japanese invaders for war crimes during the Second Sino-Japanese War. Finally, after a heated discussion with the camp commandant and upon watching a film detailing the wartime atrocities committed by the Japanese, Puyi recants his previous stance and is considered rehabilitated by the government; he is subsequently set free in 1959.

The final minutes of the film show a flash-forward to 1967 during the rise of Mao Zedong's cult of personality and the beginning of the Cultural Revolution. By now, Puyi has become a simple gardener who lives a peasant proletarian existence. On his way home from work, he happens upon a Red Guard parade, complete with children playing pentatonic music on accordions en masse and dancers who dance the rejection of landlordism by the communists. His prison camp commander, who helped him greatly during his rehabilitation, is one of the political prisoners now punished as an anti-revolutionary in the parade, forced to wear a dunce cap and a sandwich board bearing punitive slogans.

Puyi later visits the Forbidden City as an ordinary tourist. He meets an assertive little boy wearing the red scarf of the Pioneer Movement. The young communist orders Puyi to step away from the throne. However, Puyi proves to the boy that he was indeed the Son of Heaven, proceeding to approach the throne. Behind it, Puyi finds a 60-year-old pet cricket that he was given by palace official Chen Baochen on his coronation day and gives it to the child. Amazed by the gift, the boy turns to talk to Puyi, but the emperor has disappeared.

In 1987, a tour guide is leading a group through the palace. Stopping in front of the throne, the guide sums up Puyi's life in a few, brief sentences, concluding that he died in 1967.

Cast

Production

Development

Bernardo Bertolucci proposed the film to the Chinese government as one of two possible projects – the other was an adaptation of La Condition humaine (Man's Fate) by André Malraux. The Chinese preferred The Last Emperor. Producer Jeremy Thomas managed to raise the $25 million budget for his ambitious independent production single-handedly. [5] At one stage, he scoured the phone book for potential financiers. [6] Bertolucci was given complete freedom by the authorities to shoot in The Forbidden City, which had never before been opened up for use in a Western film. For the first ninety minutes of the film, Bertolucci and Storaro made full use of its visual splendour. [5]

Filming

19,000 extras were needed over the course of the film. The People's Liberation Army was drafted in to accommodate. [7]

In a 2010 interview with Bilge Ebiri for Vulture.com, Bertolucci recounted the shooting of the Cultural Revolution scene:

Before shooting the parade scene, I put together four or five young directors whom I had met, [including] Chen Kaige — who also plays a part in the film, he’s the captain of the guard — and Zhang Yimou. I asked them about the Cultural Revolution. And suddenly it was like I was watching a psychodrama: They started to act out and cry, it was extraordinary. I think there is a relationship between these scenes in The Last Emperor and in 1900 . But many things changed between those two films, for me and for the world. [8]

Soundtrack

While not included on the album soundtrack, the following music was played in the film: "Am I Blue?" (1929), "Auld Lang Syne" (uncredited), and "China Boy" (1922) (uncredited). The Northeastern Cradle Song was sung by Ar Mo twice in the film.

Release

Hemdale Film Corporation acquired all North American distribution rights to the film on behalf of producer Thomas, [9] who raised a large sum of the budget himself. Hemdale, in turn, licensed theatrical rights to Columbia Pictures, who were initially reluctant to release it, and only after shooting was completed did the head of Columbia agree to distribute The Last Emperor in North America. [2] Hemdale licensed its video rights to Nelson Entertainment, which released the film on VHS and Laserdisc. [9] The film also received a Laserdisc release in Australia in 1992, through Columbia Tri-Star Video. Years later, Artisan Entertainment acquired the rights to the film and released both the theatrical and extended versions on home video. In February 2008 The Criterion Collection (under license from now-rights-holder Thomas) released a four disc Director-Approved edition, again containing both theatrical and extended versions. [10] Criterion released a Blu-ray version on 6 January 2009. [10]

The Last Emperor had an unusual run in theatres. It did not enter the weekend box office top 10 until its twelfth week in which the film reached #7 after increasing its gross by 168% from the previous week and more than tripling its theatre count (this was the weekend before it was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Picture). Following that week, the film lingered around the top 10 for 8 weeks before peaking at #4 in its 22nd week (the weekend after winning the Oscar) (increasing its weekend gross by 306% and nearly doubling its theatre count from 460 to 877) and spending 6 more weeks in the weekend box office top 10. [11] Were it not for this late push, The Last Emperor would have joined The English Patient , Amadeus , and The Hurt Locker as the only Best Picture winners to not enter the weekend box office top 5 since these numbers were first recorded in 1982.

The film was converted into 3D and shown in the Cannes Classics section at the 2013 Cannes Film Festival. [12]

Critical response

The film received critical acclaim. On Rotten Tomatoes, it has an 89% "Certified Fresh" score based on 72 reviews, with an average rating of 8.04/10. The site's consensus states: "While decidedly imperfect, Bernardo Bertolucci's epic is still a feast for the eyes." [13] Metacritic reports a 76 out of 100 rating based on 15 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews". [14]

Roger Ebert was notably enthusiastic in his praise of the film, awarding it four stars out of four; he wrote that "Bertolucci is able to make Pu Yi's imprisonment seem all the more ironic because this entire film was shot on location inside the People's Republic of China, and he was even given permission to film inside the Forbidden City — a vast, medieval complex covering some 250 acres and containing 9,999 rooms (only heaven, the Chinese believed, had 10,000 rooms). It probably is unforgivably bourgeois to admire a film because of its locations, but in the case of "The Last Emperor" the narrative cannot be separated from the awesome presence of the Forbidden City, and from Bertolucci's astonishing use of locations, authentic costumes and thousands of extras to create the everyday reality of this strange little boy." [15] Jonathan Rosenbaum, comparing The Last Emperor favourably to Steven Spielberg's Empire of the Sun , claimed that "[a]t best, apart from a few snapshots, Empire of the Sun teaches us something about the inside of one director's brain. The Last Emperor incidentally and secondarily does that too; but it also teaches us something about the lives of a billion people with whom we share this planet—and better yet, makes us want to learn still more about them." [16]

Awards

At the 60th Academy Awards, the film won all nine Oscars for which it was nominated: [17]

45th Golden Globe Awards
Other awards

Historical omissions

In Japan, the Shochiku Fuji Company edited out a thirty-second sequence from The Last Emperor depicting the Rape of Nanjing before distributing it to Japanese theatres, without Bertolucci's consent. The Rape of Nanjing — in which hundreds of thousands of Chinese civilians were brutalized and massacred by the Imperial Japanese Army — is an event disputed by some Japanese, and a stumbling block in China–Japan relations. Bertolucci was furious at Shochiku Fuji's interference with his film, calling it "revolting". The company quickly restored the scene, blaming "confusion and misunderstanding" for the edit while opining that the Rape sequence was "too sensational" for Japanese audiences. [19]

Jeremy Thomas recalled the approval process for the screenplay with the Chinese government: "It was less difficult than working with the studio system. They made script notes and made references to change some of the names, then the stamp went on and the door opened and we came." [7]

The British historian Alex von Tunzelmann wrote that the movie considerably downplays and misrepresents the emperor’s cruelty, especially during his youth. [20] As stated by Tunzelmann and Behr (author of the 1987 book The Last Emperor), Puyi engaged in sadistic abuse of palace servants and subordinates during his initial reign well in excess of what Bertolucci’s movie portrays, frequently having eunuchs beaten for mild transgressions or no reason at all; in a demonstrative example, the young emperor once conspired to force a eunuch to eat a cake full of iron filings simply to see the eunuch’s reaction, which he was talked out of by his beloved wet nurse with some difficulty. [21] [20] Tunzelmann states that most people worldwide who have heard of Puyi are likely to have an incorrect understanding of this aspect of the emperor’s reign, as the movie is much more popular globally than more accurate biographies. [20]

Alternate versions

The film's theatrical release ran 160 minutes. Deemed too long to show in a single three-hour block on television but too short to spread out over two nights, an extended version was created which runs 218 minutes. Cinematographer Vittorio Storaro and director Bernardo Bertolucci have confirmed that this extended version was indeed created as a television miniseries and does not represent a "director's cut". [22]

The Criterion Collection 2008 version of four DVDs adds commentary by Ian Buruma, composer David Byrne, and the Director's interview with Jeremy Isaacs (ASIN: B000ZM1MIW, ISBN   978-1-60465-014-3). It includes a booklet featuring an essay by David Thomson, interviews with production designer Ferdinando Scarfiotti and actor Ying Ruocheng, a reminiscence by Bertolucci, and an essay and production-diary extracts from Fabien S. Gerard.

See also

Related Research Articles

Bernardo Bertolucci Italian film director and screenwriter

Bernardo Bertolucci was an Italian director and screenwriter, whose films include The Conformist, Last Tango in Paris, 1900, The Last Emperor, The Sheltering Sky, Little Buddha, Stealing Beauty and The Dreamers.

Puyi Emperor of Qing dynasty, emperor of Manchukou, and head of the House of Aisin-Gioro

Puyi, courtesy name Yaozhi (曜之) was the last emperor of China as the eleventh and final Qing dynasty ruler. Becoming the Xuantong emperor at age two, but forced to abdicate on 12 February 1912 due to the Xinhai Revolution. He later served as the ruler of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo during World War II.

Reginald Johnston British diplomat

Sir Reginald Fleming Johnston, was a British diplomat who served as the tutor and advisor to Puyi, the last Emperor of China. He was also the last British Commissioner of Weihaiwei. Johnston's book Twilight in the Forbidden City (1934) was used as a source for Bernardo Bertolucci's film dramatization of Puyi's life The Last Emperor.

Politics of Manchukuo

Manchukuo was a puppet state set up by the Empire of Japan in Manchuria which existed from 1931 to 1945. The Manchukuo regime was established four months after the Japanese withdrawal from Shanghai with Puyi as the nominal but powerless head of state to add some semblance of legitimacy, as he was a former emperor and an ethnic Manchu.

Wenxiu Noble Consort Shu (淑妃)

Wenxiu, also known as Noble Consort Shu and Ailian (愛蓮), was a consort of Puyi, the last Emperor of China and final ruler of the Qing dynasty. She was from the Mongol Erdet (額爾德特) Clan and her family was under the Bordered Yellow Banner of the Eight Banners.

Pujie Chinese politician and younger brother of Puyi

Pujie was a Qing dynasty imperial prince of Manchu descent. He was born in the Aisin Gioro clan, the imperial clan of the Qing dynasty. Pujie was the younger brother of Puyi, the last Emperor of China. After the fall of the Qing dynasty, Pujie went to Japan, where he was educated and married to Saga Hiro, a Japanese noblewoman. In 1937, he moved to Manchukuo, where his brother ruled as Emperor under varying degrees of Japanese control during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945). After the war ended, Pujie was captured by Soviet forces, held in Soviet prison camps for five years, and then extradited back to the People's Republic of China, where he was incarcerated for about 10 years in the Fushun War Criminals Management Centre. He was later pardoned and released from prison by the Chinese government, after which he remained in Beijing where he joined the Communist Party and served in a number of positions in the party until his death in 1994.

Youlan (Gūwalgiya) Chinese princess consort

Youlan, of the Manchu Plain White Banner Gūwalgiya clan, was a consort of Zaifeng and the mother of China's last emperor Puyi.

Hiro Saga

Hiro Saga was a Japanese noblewoman and memoir writer. She was the daughter of Marquis Saneto Saga and a distant relative of Emperor Shōwa. She was married in 1937 to Pujie, the younger brother of Puyi, the last monarch of the Qing dynasty of China between 1908 and 1912 and the puppet ruler of Manchukuo between 1932 and 1945. After her marriage to Pujie, she was known as, and identified herself as, Aishin Kakura Hiro (愛新覺羅•浩) or Aixin-Jueluo Hao in Chinese.

Consort Jin Qing Dynasty imperial consort

Imperial Noble Consort Wenjing, of the Manchu Bordered Red Banner Tatara clan, was a consort of the Guangxu Emperor.

Li Yuqin Noble Lady Fu

Li Yuqin, sometimes referred to as the "Last Imperial Concubine" (末代皇娘), was the fourth wife of China's last emperor Puyi. She married Puyi when the latter was the nominal ruler of Manchukuo, a puppet state established by the Empire of Japan during the Second Sino-Japanese War.

Museum of the Imperial Palace of Manchukuo

The Museum of the Imperial Palace of Manchukuo is a museum in the northeastern corner of Changchun, Jilin province, northeast China. The palace was the official residence created by the Imperial Japanese Army for China's last emperor Puyi to live in as part of his role as Emperor of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo. In the People's Republic of China the structures are generally referred to as the Puppet Emperor's Palace & Exhibition Hall. It is classified as a AAAAA scenic area by the China National Tourism Administration.

Wanrong Empress consort of China

Wanrong, also known as Xuantong Empress, of the Manchu Bordered Plain White Banner Gobulo clan, was the wife and empress consort of Puyi, the Xuantong Emperor of China. She was titular Empress consort of the Qing dynasty from 1922 until abolition of the monarchy in 1924. She was also Empress consort of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo from 1934 until abolition of the monarchy took place in 1945. She was posthumously honoured with the title Empress Xiaokemin.

Succession to the former Chinese throne

Historically, China had no system of automatic succession such as primogeniture or a law of succession. Instead, an emperor would name an heir in a will or edict. As an emperor could have numerous sons by women of various ranks, it was not generally possible for an individual to gain recognition as an heir to a dethroned dynasty. However, Puyi, the last emperor, issued a succession law in 1937 modeled on the Japanese succession law of 1889.

Ying Ruocheng was a Chinese actor, director, playwright and vice minister of culture from 1986 to 1990. He first came to the attention of Western audiences for his portrayal of Kublai Khan in the 1982 miniseries Marco Polo. He is best known for playing the part of the governor of the detention camp in the Bernardo Bertolucci's film The Last Emperor, and the role of the Tibetan Buddhist Lama Norbu in Little Buddha. He is also well known as a theater translator, director, and actor for the Beijing People's Art Theatre, particularly for his role as Pockmark Liu in Lao She's masterpiece "Teahouse" and as Willy Loman in "Death of a Salesman" in 1983, directed by Arthur Miller.

The Forbidden City was first built in the early-15th century as the palace of the Ming emperors of China. It is located in the centre of Beijing, China, and was the Chinese imperial palace from the early-Ming dynasty in 1420 to the end of the Qing dynasty in 1912, continuing to be home of the last emperor Puyi until 1924, since when it has been a museum.

Vittorio Storaro filmography

Vittorio Storaro is an Italian cinematographer, and member of the American Society of Cinematographers (ASC) and Italian Society of Cinematographers (AIC). Storaro's early films were made in his homeland of Italy, where he began early collaborations with Italian director Bernardo Bertolucci, with whom he has continued to collaborate with throughout his career. Storaro and Bertolucci's first major project was the 1970 film The Conformist, based on the Italian novel of the same name.

Fushun War Criminals Management Centre

Fushun War Criminals Management Centre, also known as Liaodong No. 3 Prison or Liaoning No. 3 Prison, was the site of the re-education of Manchukuo, Kuomintang and Japanese prisoners of war, held by China from 1950 onwards. It was located in the Xinfu District, Fushun, Liaoning. Among the inmates were Puyi, the last emperor of China and former puppet emperor of Manchukuo, his younger brother Pujie and several other important World War II figures such as Xi Qia, Zang Shiyi and Zhang Jinghui. Part of the prison site currently remains in use, but the older section has been turned into a museum depicting the history of Fushun war criminals management centre and the life of the people who worked or were interned there.

Jin Yunying

Yunying (1913–1992), better known as Jin Yunying, was a Chinese princess of Manchu descent. She was the daughter of Zaifeng and Youlan, and a younger sister of Puyi, the Last Emperor of China. She was married to Runqi, the younger brother of Puyi's first wife, Wanrong.

Mark Peploe is an English screenwriter and film director. He is the brother of Clare Peploe, and the brother-in-law of the late director Bernardo Bertolucci.

Puyi, the last emperor of China, came from a long noble ancestry. During the course of his three terms as emperor, and during post war life, he had five wives and numerous consorts.

References

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  18. "Cronologia Dei Premi David Di Donatello". David di Donatello . Retrieved 27 June 2017.
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