Rain Man

Last updated

Rain Man
Rain Man poster.jpg
Theatrical release poster by John Alvin
Directed by Barry Levinson
Screenplay by
Story byBarry Morrow
Produced by Mark Johnson
Starring
Cinematography John Seale
Edited by Stu Linder
Music by Hans Zimmer
Production
companies
Distributed by MGM/UA Communications Co.
Release date
  • December 16, 1988 (1988-12-16)
Running time
134 minutes [1]
CountryUnited States [1]
LanguageEnglish
Budget$25 million [2]
Box office$354.8 million [2]

Rain Man is a 1988 American road drama film directed by Barry Levinson, from a screenplay written by Barry Morrow and Ronald Bass. It tells the story of abrasive, selfish young wheeler-dealer Charlie Babbitt (Tom Cruise), who discovers that his estranged father has died and bequeathed virtually all of his multimillion dollar estate to his other son, Raymond (Dustin Hoffman), an autistic savant, of whose existence Charlie was unaware. Charlie is left with only his father's beloved vintage car and rosebushes. Valeria Golino also stars as Charlie's girlfriend Susanna. Morrow created the character of Raymond after meeting Kim Peek, a real-life savant; his characterization was based on both Peek and Bill Sackter, a good friend of Morrow who was the subject of Bill (1981), an earlier film that Morrow wrote. [3]

Contents

Rain Man premiered at the 39th Berlin International Film Festival, where it won the Golden Bear, the festival's highest prize. [4] It was theatrically released by MGM/UA Communications Co. in the United States on December 16, 1988, to critical and commercial success, grossing $354.8 million, on a $25 million budget, becoming the highest-grossing film of 1988, and received a leading eight nominations at the 61st Academy Awards, winning four (more than any other film nominated); Best Picture, Best Director, Best Actor (for Hoffman), and Best Original Screenplay. [5]

Plot

Charlie Babbitt is in the middle of importing four grey market Lamborghinis to Los Angeles for resale. He needs to deliver the vehicles to impatient buyers who have already made down payments in order to repay the loan he took out to buy the cars, but the EPA is holding the cars at the port on account of the cars failing emission regulations. Charlie directs an employee to lie to the buyers while he stalls his creditor.

When Charlie learns that his estranged father has died, he and his girlfriend Susanna travel to Cincinnati, Ohio in order to settle the estate. He learns he is receiving the classic 1949 Buick Roadmaster convertible which he and his father fought over, but the bulk of the $3 million estate is going to an unnamed trustee. Through social engineering, he learns the money is being directed to a mental institution, where he meets his elder brother, Raymond Babbitt, of whom he was previously unaware.

Raymond is autistic, has savant syndrome, and adheres to strict routines. He has superb recall, but he shows little emotional expression except when in distress. Charlie spirits Raymond out of the mental institution and into a hotel for the night. Susanna becomes upset with the way Charlie treats his brother and leaves. Charlie asks Raymond's doctor, Dr. Gerald Bruner, for half the estate in exchange for Raymond's return, but he refuses. Charlie decides to attempt to gain custody of his brother in order to get control of the money.

After Raymond refuses to fly back to Los Angeles, they set out on a cross-country road trip together. They make slow progress because Raymond insists on sticking to his routines, which include watching The People's Court on television every day and getting to bed by 11:00 PM. He also objects to traveling on the interstate after they pass a bad accident. During the course of the journey, Charlie learns more about Raymond, including that he is a mental calculator with the ability to instantly count hundreds of objects at once, far beyond the normal range of human subitizing abilities. He also learns that Raymond actually lived with the family when Charlie was young and he realizes that the comforting figure from his childhood, whom he falsely remembered as an imaginary friend named "Rain Man", was actually Raymond. He then figures that Raymond was sent away to the institution after an incident where Raymond was believed to have accidentally nearly injured a young Charlie in a scalding hot bath. Charlie realizes that to the contrary it had been Raymond's actions which had saved himself from being scalded in that bathtub, but that Raymond had been unable to speak up for himself and undo the wrong caused by the misunderstanding.

After the Lamborghinis are seized by his creditor, Charlie finds himself $80,000 in debt and hatches a plan to return to Las Vegas, which they passed the night before, and win money at blackjack by counting cards. Though the casino bosses are skeptical that anyone can count cards with a six-deck shoe, after reviewing security footage they ask Charlie and Raymond to leave. Charlie has made over $86,000 to cover his debts and has reconciled with Susanna who rejoined them in Las Vegas.

Back in Los Angeles, Charlie meets with Dr. Bruner, who offers him $250,000 to walk away from Raymond. Charlie refuses and says that he is no longer upset about what his father left him, but he wants to have a relationship with his brother. At a meeting with a court-appointed psychiatrist, Raymond is shown to be unable to decide for himself what he wants. Charlie stops the questioning and tells Raymond he is happy to have him as his brother.

Charlie takes Raymond to the train station where he boards an Amtrak train with Dr. Bruner to return to the mental institution. Charlie promises Raymond that he will visit in two weeks.

Cast

Production

A now-abandoned gas station and general store in Cogar, Oklahoma was used in a scene from the film. The Colvert sign has since been removed, revealing the full name of the business. Cogar Kelly.jpg
A now-abandoned gas station and general store in Cogar, Oklahoma was used in a scene from the film. The Colvert sign has since been removed, revealing the full name of the business.

Roger Birnbaum was the first studio executive to give the film a green light; he did so immediately after Barry Morrow pitched the story. Birnbaum received "special thanks" in the film's credits.[ citation needed ]

Agents at CAA sent the script to Dustin Hoffman and Bill Murray, envisioning Murray in the title role and Hoffman in the role eventually portrayed by Cruise. [3] Martin Brest, Steven Spielberg and Sydney Pollack were directors also involved in the film. [6] Mickey Rourke was also offered a role but he turned it down. [7]

Principal photography included nine weeks of filming on location. [8] Other portions were shot in the desert near Palm Springs, California. [9] :168–71

Almost all of the principal photography occurred during the 1988 Writers Guild of America strike; one key scene that was affected by the lack of writers was the film's final scene. [3] Bass delivered his last rough cut of the script only hours before the strike started and spent no time on the set. [6]

Release

Box office

Rain Man debuted on December 16, 1988, and was the second highest-grossing film at the weekend box office (behind Twins ), with $7 million. [10] It reached the first spot on the December 30 – January 2 weekend, finishing 1988 with $42 million. [11] The film would end up as the highest-grossing U.S. film of 1988 by earning over $172 million. The film grossed over $354 million worldwide. [2]

Critical reception

On review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes the film holds an approval rating of 89% based on 79 reviews, with an average rating of 7.9/10. The website's critical consensus states: "This road-trip movie about an autistic savant and his callow brother is far from seamless, but Barry Levinson's direction is impressive, and strong performances from Tom Cruise and Dustin Hoffman add to its appeal." [12] Metacritic assigned the film a weighted average score of 65 out of 100 based on 18 critic, indicating "generally favorable reviews". [13] Audiences polled by CinemaScore gave the film an average grade of "A" on an A+ to F scale. [14]

Vincent Canby of The New York Times called Rain Man a "becomingly modest, decently thought-out, sometimes funny film"; Hoffman's performance was a "display of sustained virtuosity . . . [which] makes no lasting connections with the emotions. Its end effect depends largely on one's susceptibility to the sight of an actor acting nonstop and extremely well, but to no particularly urgent dramatic purpose." [15] Canby considered the "film's true central character" to be "the confused, economically and emotionally desperate Charlie, beautifully played by Mr. Cruise." [15]

Amy Dawes of Variety wrote that "one of the year's most intriguing film premises ... is given uneven, slightly off-target treatment"; she called the road scenes "hastily, loosely written, with much extraneous screen time," but admired the last third of the film, calling it a depiction of "two very isolated beings" who "discover a common history and deep attachment." [8]

One of the film's harshest reviews came from New Yorker magazine critic Pauline Kael, who said, "Everything in this movie is fudged ever so humanistically, in a perfunctory, low-pressure way. And the picture has its effectiveness: people are crying at it. Of course they're crying at it—it's a piece of wet kitsch. [16]

Roger Ebert gave the film three and a half stars out of four. He wrote, "Hoffman proves again that he almost seems to thrive on impossible acting challenges...I felt a certain love for Raymond, the Hoffman character. I don't know quite how Hoffman got me to do it." [17] Gene Siskel also gave the film three and a half stars out of four, singling out Cruise for praise, "The strength of the film is really that of Cruise's performance...the combination of two superior performances makes the movie worth watching." [18]

Rain Man was placed on 39 critics' "ten best" lists in 1988, based on a poll of the nation's top 100 critics. [19]

Accolades

AwardCategoryNominee(s)Result
Academy Awards [5] Best Picture Mark Johnson Won
Best Director Barry Levinson Won
Best Actor Dustin Hoffman Won
Best Screenplay – Written Directly for the Screen Ronald Bass and Barry Morrow Won
Best Art Direction Ida Random and Linda DeScenna Nominated
Best Cinematography John Seale Nominated
Best Film Editing Stu Linder Nominated
Best Original Score Hans Zimmer Nominated
American Cinema Editors Awards Best Edited Feature Film Stu LinderWon
American Society of Cinematographers Awards [20] Outstanding Achievement in Cinematography in Theatrical Releases John SealeNominated
Berlin International Film Festival [21] Golden Bear Barry LevinsonWon
Berliner Morgenpost Readers' Jury AwardWon
BMI Film & TV Awards Film Music AwardHans ZimmerWon
British Academy Film Awards [22] Best Actor in a Leading Role Dustin HoffmanNominated
Best Original Screenplay Ronald Bass and Barry MorrowNominated
Best Editing Stu LinderNominated
César Awards [23] Best Foreign Film Barry LevinsonNominated
Chicago Film Critics Association Awards [24] Best Actor Dustin HoffmanNominated
David di Donatello Awards Best Foreign Film Barry LevinsonWon
Best Foreign Director Nominated
Best Foreign Actor Dustin HoffmanWon
Best Foreign Producer Mark JohnsonNominated
Best Foreign Screenplay Ronald Bass and Barry MorrowNominated
Directors Guild of America Awards [25] Outstanding Directorial Achievement in Motion Pictures Barry LevinsonWon
Golden Globe Awards [26] Best Motion Picture – Drama Won
Best Actor in a Motion Picture – Drama Dustin HoffmanWon
Best Director – Motion Picture Barry LevinsonNominated
Best Screenplay – Motion Picture Ronald Bass and Barry MorrowNominated
Goldene Kamera (1989)Golden ScreenWon
Goldene Kamera (1991)Golden Screen with 1 StarWon
Heartland FilmTruly Moving Picture AwardBarry LevinsonWon
Japan Academy Film Prize Outstanding Foreign Language Film Nominated
Jupiter Awards Best International FilmBarry LevinsonWon
Kansas City Film Critics Circle Awards [27] Best FilmWon
Best DirectorBarry LevinsonWon
Best ActorDustin HoffmanWon
Best Supporting Actor Tom Cruise Won [lower-alpha 1]
Kinema Junpo Awards Best Foreign Language FilmBarry LevinsonWon
Mainichi Film Awards Best Foreign Language Film Won
MTV Video Music Awards Best Video from a Film "Iko Iko" – The Belle Stars Nominated
Nastro d'Argento Best Foreign DirectorBarry LevinsonNominated
Best Supporting Actress Valeria Golino Nominated
National Society of Film Critics Awards [28] Best Actor Dustin Hoffman3rd Place
New York Film Critics Circle Awards [29] Best Actor 2nd Place
Nikkan Sports Film Awards Best Foreign Film Won
People's Choice Awards Favorite Dramatic Motion PictureWon
Turkish Film Critics Association Awards Best Foreign Film2nd Place
Writers Guild of America Awards [30] Best Screenplay – Written Directly for the Screen Ronald Bass and Barry MorrowNominated
YoGa AwardsWorst Foreign ActorDustin HoffmanWon

The film is recognized by American Film Institute in these lists:

Rain Man's portrayal of the main character's condition has been seen as creating the erroneous media stereotype that people on the autism spectrum typically have savant skills, and references to Rain Man, in particular Dustin Hoffman's performance, have become a popular shorthand for autism and savantism. Conversely, Rain Man has also been seen as dispelling a number of other misconceptions about autism, and improving public awareness of the failure of many agencies to accommodate autistic people and make use of the abilities they do have, regardless of whether they have savant skills or not. [31]

The film is also known for popularizing the misconception that card counting is illegal in the United States. [32]

The Babbitt brothers appear in The Simpsons season 5 episode 10. The film is mentioned in numerous other films such as Miss Congeniality (2000), 21 (2008), Tropic Thunder (2008), The Hangover (2009), Escape Room (2019), and also in the television series Breaking Bad .

Raymond Babbitt was caricatured as a rain cloud in the animated episode of The Nanny , "Oy to the World". During the episode, Fran fixes up CC the Abominable Babcock with the Rain Man. He is portrayed as a cloud of rain mumbling about weather patterns and being an excellent driver.

Qantas and airline controversy

During June 1989, at least fifteen major airlines showed edited versions of Rain Man that omitted a scene involving Raymond's refusal to fly, mentioning the crashes of American Airlines Flight 625, Delta Air Lines Flight 191, and Continental Airlines Flight 1713, except on Australia-based Qantas. Those criticizing this decision included film director Barry Levinson, co-screenwriter Ronald Bass, and George Kirgo (at the time the President of the Writers Guild of America, West). "I think it's a key scene to the entire movie," Levinson said in a telephone interview. "That's why it's in there. It launches their entire odyssey across country – because they couldn't fly." While some of those airlines cited as justification avoiding having airplane passengers feel uncomfortable in sympathy with Raymond during the in-flight entertainment, the scene was shown intact on flights of Qantas, and commentators noted that Raymond mentions it as the only airline whose planes have "never crashed". [33] [34] The film is credited with introducing Qantas' safety record to U.S. consumers. [35] [36]

See also

Related Research Articles

Dustin Hoffman American actor and director

Dustin Lee Hoffman is an American actor and filmmaker. He is known for his versatile portrayals of antiheroes and emotionally vulnerable characters. Actor Robert De Niro described him as "an actor with the everyman's face who embodied the heartbreakingly human". At a young age Hoffman knew he wanted to study in the arts, and entered into the Los Angeles Conservatory of Music; later he decided to go into acting, for which he trained at the Pasadena Playhouse in Los Angeles. His first theatrical performance was 1961's A Cook for Mr. General as Ridzinski. During that time he appeared in several guest roles on television in shows like Naked City and The Defenders. He then starred in the 1966 off-Broadway play Eh? where his performance garnered him both a Theatre World Award and Drama Desk Award.

John Travolta American actor and singer

John Joseph Travolta is an American actor and singer. He rose to fame during the 1970s, appearing on the television sitcom Welcome Back, Kotter (1975–1979) and starring in the box office successes Carrie (1976), Saturday Night Fever (1977), Grease (1978) and Urban Cowboy (1980). His acting career declined throughout the 1980s, but he enjoyed a resurgence in the 1990s with his role in Pulp Fiction (1994) and has since starred in the films Get Shorty (1995), Broken Arrow (1996), Phenomenon (1997), Face/Off (1997), A Civil Action (1998), Primary Colors (1998), Hairspray (2007), and Bolt (2008).

<i>Magnolia</i> (film) 1999 film by Paul Thomas Anderson

Magnolia is a 1999 American epic psychological drama film written and directed by Paul Thomas Anderson. The film stars an ensemble cast including Jeremy Blackman, Tom Cruise, Melinda Dillon, Philip Baker Hall, Philip Seymour Hoffman, Ricky Jay, William H. Macy, Alfred Molina, Julianne Moore, Michael Murphy, John C. Reilly, Jason Robards and Melora Walters, and is a mosaic of interrelated characters in search of happiness, forgiveness, and meaning in the San Fernando Valley.

Barry Levinson American screenwriter, film director, actor, and producer

Barry Lee Levinson is an American filmmaker, screenwriter, producer and actor. Levinson's best-known works are mid-budget comedy-drama and drama films such as Diner (1982); The Natural (1984); Good Morning, Vietnam (1987); Bugsy (1991); and Wag the Dog (1997). He won the Academy Award for Best Director for Rain Man (1988).

Savant syndrome Medical condition

Savant syndrome is a rare condition in which someone with significant mental disabilities demonstrates certain abilities far in excess of average. The skills that savants excel at are generally related to memory. This may include rapid calculation, artistic ability, map making, or musical ability. Usually, only one exceptional skill is present.

Mental calculator

Human calculator is a term to describe a person with a prodigious ability in some area of mental calculation.

<i>Cocktail</i> (1988 film) 1988 film by Roger Donaldson

Cocktail is a 1988 American romantic comedy-drama film directed by Roger Donaldson and written by Heywood Gould, whose screenplay was based on his book of the same name. The film tells the story of a young New York City business student, Brian Flanagan, who takes up bartending in order to make ends meet. The film stars Tom Cruise, Bryan Brown, and Elisabeth Shue.

Stephen Wiltshire British architectural artist and autistic savant

Stephen Wiltshire is a British architectural artist and autistic savant. He is known for his ability to draw a landscape from memory after seeing it just once. His work has gained worldwide popularity.

Kim Peek American savant, model for the protagonist of the film "Rain Man"

Laurence Kim Peek was an American savant. Known as a "megasavant", he had an exceptional memory, but he also experienced social difficulties, possibly resulting from a developmental disability related to congenital brain abnormalities. He was the inspiration for the character Raymond Babbitt in the 1988 movie Rain Man. Although Peek was diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder and severe intellectual disability, he is now thought to have had FG syndrome. The Utah Film Center’s Peek Award is meant to honor his legacy.

<i>Sphere</i> (1998 film) 1998 American science fiction psychological thriller film by Barry Levinson

Sphere is a 1998 American science fiction psychological thriller film directed and produced by Barry Levinson, and starring Dustin Hoffman, Sharon Stone, and Samuel L. Jackson. Sphere is based on the 1987 novel of the same name by Michael Crichton. The film was released in the United States on February 13, 1998.

Bernard Rimland

Bernard Rimland was an American research psychologist, writer, lecturer, and influential person in the field of developmental disorders. Rimland's first book, Infantile Autism, sparked by the birth of a son who had autism, was instrumental in changing attitudes toward the disorder. Rimland founded and directed two advocacy groups: the Autism Society of America (ASA) and the Autism Research Institute. He promoted several since disproven theories about the causes and treatment of autism, including vaccine denial, facilitated communication, chelation therapy, and false claims of a link between secretin and autism. He also supported the ethically controversial practice of using aversives on autistic children.

"$pringfield ", simply known as "$pringfield", is the tenth episode of the fifth season of the American animated television series, The Simpsons, and the 91st episode overall. It originally aired on the Fox network in the United States on December 16, 1993. In the episode, Springfield legalizes gambling to revitalize its economy. Mr. Burns opens a casino where Homer is hired as a blackjack dealer. Marge develops a gambling addiction, Bart opens a casino in his treehouse, and Burns' appearance and mental state deteriorate in a parody of Howard Hughes.

<i>Born on the Fourth of July</i> (film) 1989 film directed by Oliver Stone

Born on the Fourth of July is a 1989 American biographical anti-war drama film based on the eponymous 1976 autobiography by Ron Kovic. Directed by Oliver Stone, and written by Stone and Kovic, it stars Tom Cruise, Kyra Sedgwick, Raymond J. Barry, Jerry Levine, Frank Whaley, and Willem Dafoe. The film depicts the life of Kovic (Cruise) over a 20-year period, detailing his childhood, his military service and paralysis during the Vietnam War, and his transition to anti-war activism. It is the second installment in Stone's trilogy of films about the Vietnam War, following Platoon (1986) and preceding Heaven & Earth (1993).

Ruth C. Sullivan

Ruth Christ Sullivan is an organizer and advocate for education for people with autism.

Mark Johnson (producer) American film and television producer (born 1945)

Mark Johnson is an American film and television producer. Johnson won the Best Picture Academy Award for producing the 1988 drama movie Rain Man, starring Dustin Hoffman and Tom Cruise. The film, winner of four Oscars, also captured a Golden Globe for Best Picture.

William Sackter was an American man with an intellectual disability whose fame as the subject of two television movies and a feature-length documentary helped change national attitudes on persons with disabilities.

Barry Morrow is an American screenwriter and producer. He wrote the story and co-wrote the screenplay for Rain Man. He is the father of Emmy Award-winning animator, writer, and storyboard artist, Clayton Morrow, and father-in-law of animator and storyboard artist, Cindy Morrow.

Dustin Hoffman filmography

American actor Dustin Hoffman began his career by appearing in an episode of Naked City in 1961. His first theatrical performance was 1961's Shmem needs a shink as Ridzinski. Following several guest appearances on television, he starred in the 1966 play Eh?; his performance garnered him both a Theatre World Award and Drama Desk Award. Hoffman made his film debut in 1967 when he appeared in the comedy The Tiger Makes Out. In the same year, his breakthrough role as Benjamin "Ben" Braddock, the title character in Mike Nichols' comedy-drama The Graduate, led to Hoffman achieving star status and his first Academy Award nomination. He then acted in the play Jimmy Shine as the eponymous character and the comedy film Madigan's Millions. In 1969, he starred alongside Jon Voight in the Academy Award for Best Picture winner Midnight Cowboy, which Hoffman was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actor a second time.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 "Rain Man (1988)". AFI Catalog of Feature Films . Archived from the original on November 5, 2018. Retrieved November 5, 2018.
  2. 1 2 3 Rain Man at Box Office Mojo
  3. 1 2 3 Barry Morrow's audio commentary for Rain Man from the DVD release.
  4. "Berlinale: 1989 Prize Winners". berlinale.de. Archived from the original on June 9, 2019. Retrieved March 13, 2011.
  5. 1 2 "The 61st Academy Awards (1989) Nominees and Winners". oscars.org. Archived from the original on May 2, 2019. Retrieved July 31, 2011.
  6. 1 2 Bass' audio commentary for Rain Man from the DVD release.
  7. "Mickey Rourke: a life in film". Time Out . Archived from the original on May 9, 2018. Retrieved September 10, 2015.
  8. 1 2 Rain Man Archived February 28, 2009, at the Wayback Machine , Variety, December 14, 1988
  9. Niemann, Greg (2006). Palm Springs Legends: creation of a desert oasis. San Diego, CA: Sunbelt Publications. p. 286. ISBN   978-0-932653-74-1. OCLC   61211290. (here for Table of Contents Archived March 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine )
  10. "Weekend Box Office: December 16–18, 1988". Box Office Mojo . Archived from the original on September 9, 2017. Retrieved April 20, 2020.
  11. "Weekend Box Office: December 30 – January 2, 1988". Box Office Mojo . Archived from the original on September 24, 2018. Retrieved April 20, 2020.
  12. "Rain Man (1988)". Rotten Tomatoes . Fandango Media. Archived from the original on June 5, 2020. Retrieved March 1, 2020.
  13. "Rain Man Reviews". Metacritic . CBS Interactive. Archived from the original on March 11, 2018. Retrieved March 1, 2018.
  14. "Cinemascore :: Movie Title Search". December 20, 2018. Archived from the original on December 20, 2018. Retrieved July 27, 2020.
  15. 1 2 "December 1988 review from The New York Times".
  16. Kael, Pauline. Rain Man at Metacritic , The New Yorker (Feb. 1989)
  17. Rain Man review Archived January 20, 2021, at the Wayback Machine Ebert, Roger
  18. Siskel, Gene (December 16, 1988). "CRUISE'S PERFORMANCE GIVES 'RAIN MAN' STRENGTH". Chicago Tribune . Retrieved February 21, 2021.
  19. "100 Film Critics Can't Be Wrong, Can They? : The critics' consensus choice for the 'best' movie of '88 is . . . a documentary!". Los Angeles Times. January 8, 1989. Archived from the original on March 8, 2021. Retrieved May 9, 2020.
  20. "The ASC Awards for Outstanding Achievement in Cinematography". Archived from the original on August 8, 2011.
  21. "PRIZES & HONOURS 1989". Berlin International Film Festival . Retrieved July 10, 2021.
  22. "BAFTA Awards: Film in 1990". BAFTA . 1990. Retrieved September 16, 2016.
  23. "The 1990 Caesars Ceremony". César Awards . Retrieved July 10, 2021.
  24. "Chicago Film Critics Awards – 1988–97". Chicago Film Critics Association. Archived from the original on April 22, 2016. Retrieved July 21, 2015.
  25. "41st DGA Awards". Directors Guild of America Awards . Retrieved July 10, 2021.
  26. "Rain Man – Golden Globes". HFPA . Retrieved July 10, 2021.
  27. "KCFCC Award Winners – 1980-89" . Retrieved July 10, 2021.
  28. "Past Awards". National Society of Film Critics . Retrieved July 5, 2021.
  29. "1988 New York Film Critics Circle Awards". Mubi . Retrieved July 10, 2021.
  30. "Awards Winners". wga.org. Writers Guild of America. Archived from the original on December 5, 2012. Retrieved June 6, 2010.
  31. Treffert, Darold. "Rain Man, the Movie/Rain Man, Real Life". Archived from the original on August 27, 2015. Retrieved September 29, 2014.
  32. Rose, I. Nelson; Loeb, Robert A. (1999). Blackjack and the Law. Rge Pub. ISBN   978-0-910575-08-9.
  33. "Airlines Cut Scene From 'Rain Man'". The New York Times . June 29, 1989. Archived from the original on June 13, 2015. Retrieved June 6, 2015.
  34. Weinstein, Steve (June 29, 1989). "Uneasy Airlines Get Final Cut on 'Rain Man'". Los Angeles Times . Archived from the original on June 16, 2015. Retrieved June 6, 2015.
  35. Kamenev, Marina (November 24, 2010). "Qantas: Airline Safety's Golden Child No More?". Time . Archived from the original on May 24, 2015. Retrieved June 6, 2015.
  36. "Is Qantas still the world's safest airline?". News.com.au. January 7, 2014. Archived from the original on January 7, 2014. Retrieved June 6, 2015.