|Directed by||Barry Levinson|
|Story by||Barry Morrow|
|Produced by||Mark Johnson|
|Edited by||Stu Linder|
|Music by||Hans Zimmer|
|Distributed by||MGM/UA Communications Co.|
|Box office||$354.8 million|
Rain Man is a 1988 American road drama film directed by Barry Levinson, from a screenplay written by Barry Morrow and Ronald Bass. It tells the story of abrasive, selfish young wheeler-dealer Charlie Babbitt (Tom Cruise), who discovers that his estranged father has died and bequeathed virtually all of his multimillion dollar estate to his other son, Raymond (Dustin Hoffman), an autistic savant, of whose existence Charlie was unaware. Charlie is left with only his father's beloved vintage car and rosebushes. Valeria Golino also stars as Charlie's girlfriend Susanna. Morrow created the character of Raymond after meeting Kim Peek, a real-life savant; his characterization was based on both Peek and Bill Sackter, a good friend of Morrow who was the subject of Bill (1981), an earlier film that Morrow wrote.
Rain Man premiered at the 39th Berlin International Film Festival, where it won the Golden Bear, the festival's highest prize. million, on a $25 million budget, becoming the highest-grossing film of 1988, and received a leading eight nominations at the 61st Academy Awards, winning four (more than any other film nominated); Best Picture, Best Director, Best Actor (for Hoffman), and Best Original Screenplay.It was theatrically released by MGM/UA Communications Co. in the United States on December 16, 1988, to critical and commercial success, grossing $354.8
Charlie Babbitt is in the middle of importing four grey market Lamborghinis to Los Angeles for resale. He needs to deliver the vehicles to impatient buyers who have already made down payments in order to repay the loan he took out to buy the cars, but the EPA is holding the cars at the port on account of the cars failing emission regulations. Charlie directs an employee to lie to the buyers while he stalls his creditor.
When Charlie learns that his estranged father has died, he and his girlfriend Susanna travel to Cincinnati, Ohio in order to settle the estate. He learns he is receiving the classic 1949 Buick Roadmaster convertible which he and his father fought over, but the bulk of the $3 million estate is going to an unnamed trustee. Through social engineering, he learns the money is being directed to a mental institution, where he meets his elder brother, Raymond Babbitt, of whom he was previously unaware.
Raymond is autistic, has savant syndrome, and adheres to strict routines. He has superb recall, but he shows little emotional expression except when in distress. Charlie spirits Raymond out of the mental institution and into a hotel for the night. Susanna becomes upset with the way Charlie treats his brother and leaves. Charlie asks Raymond's doctor, Dr. Gerald Bruner, for half the estate in exchange for Raymond's return, but he refuses. Charlie decides to attempt to gain custody of his brother in order to get control of the money.
After Raymond refuses to fly back to Los Angeles, they set out on a cross-country road trip together. They make slow progress because Raymond insists on sticking to his routines, which include watching The People's Court on television every day and getting to bed by 11:00 PM. He also objects to traveling on the interstate after they pass a bad accident. During the course of the journey, Charlie learns more about Raymond, including that he is a mental calculator with the ability to instantly count hundreds of objects at once, far beyond the normal range of human subitizing abilities. He also learns that Raymond actually lived with the family when Charlie was young and he realizes that the comforting figure from his childhood, whom he falsely remembered as an imaginary friend named "Rain Man", was actually Raymond. He then figures that Raymond was sent away to the institution after an incident where Raymond was believed to have accidentally nearly injured a young Charlie in a scalding hot bath. Charlie realizes that to the contrary it had been Raymond's actions which had saved himself from being scalded in that bathtub, but that Raymond had been unable to speak up for himself and undo the wrong caused by the misunderstanding.
After the Lamborghinis are seized by his creditor, Charlie finds himself $80,000 in debt and hatches a plan to return to Las Vegas, which they passed the night before, and win money at blackjack by counting cards. Though the casino bosses are skeptical that anyone can count cards with a six-deck shoe, after reviewing security footage they ask Charlie and Raymond to leave. Charlie has made over $86,000 to cover his debts and has reconciled with Susanna who rejoined them in Las Vegas.
Back in Los Angeles, Charlie meets with Dr. Bruner, who offers him $250,000 to walk away from Raymond. Charlie refuses and says that he is no longer upset about what his father left him, but he wants to have a relationship with his brother. At a meeting with a court-appointed psychiatrist, Raymond is shown to be unable to decide for himself what he wants. Charlie stops the questioning and tells Raymond he is happy to have him as his brother.
Charlie takes Raymond to the train station where he boards an Amtrak train with Dr. Bruner to return to the mental institution. Charlie promises Raymond that he will visit in two weeks.
Roger Birnbaum was the first studio executive to give the film a green light; he did so immediately after Barry Morrow pitched the story. Birnbaum received "special thanks" in the film's credits.[ citation needed ]
Agents at CAA sent the script to Dustin Hoffman and Bill Murray, envisioning Murray in the title role and Hoffman in the role eventually portrayed by Cruise.Martin Brest, Steven Spielberg and Sydney Pollack were directors also involved in the film. Mickey Rourke was also offered a role but he turned it down.
Principal photography included nine weeks of filming on location. 168–71Other portions were shot in the desert near Palm Springs, California. :
Almost all of the principal photography occurred during the 1988 Writers Guild of America strike; one key scene that was affected by the lack of writers was the film's final scene.Bass delivered his last rough cut of the script only hours before the strike started and spent no time on the set.
Rain Man debuted on December 16, 1988, and was the second highest-grossing film at the weekend box office (behind Twins ), with $7 million. It reached the first spot on the December 30 – January 2 weekend, finishing 1988 with $42 million. The film would end up as the highest-grossing U.S. film of 1988 by earning over $172 million. The film grossed over $354 million worldwide.
On review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes the film holds an approval rating of 89% based on 79 reviews, with an average rating of 7.9/10. The website's critical consensus states: "This road-trip movie about an autistic savant and his callow brother is far from seamless, but Barry Levinson's direction is impressive, and strong performances from Tom Cruise and Dustin Hoffman add to its appeal."Metacritic assigned the film a weighted average score of 65 out of 100 based on 18 critic, indicating "generally favorable reviews". Audiences polled by CinemaScore gave the film an average grade of "A" on an A+ to F scale.
Vincent Canby of The New York Times called Rain Man a "becomingly modest, decently thought-out, sometimes funny film"; Hoffman's performance was a "display of sustained virtuosity . . . [which] makes no lasting connections with the emotions. Its end effect depends largely on one's susceptibility to the sight of an actor acting nonstop and extremely well, but to no particularly urgent dramatic purpose."Canby considered the "film's true central character" to be "the confused, economically and emotionally desperate Charlie, beautifully played by Mr. Cruise."
Amy Dawes of Variety wrote that "one of the year's most intriguing film premises ... is given uneven, slightly off-target treatment"; she called the road scenes "hastily, loosely written, with much extraneous screen time," but admired the last third of the film, calling it a depiction of "two very isolated beings" who "discover a common history and deep attachment."
One of the film's harshest reviews came from New Yorker magazine critic Pauline Kael, who said, "Everything in this movie is fudged ever so humanistically, in a perfunctory, low-pressure way. And the picture has its effectiveness: people are crying at it. Of course they're crying at it—it's a piece of wet kitsch.
Roger Ebert gave the film three and a half stars out of four. He wrote, "Hoffman proves again that he almost seems to thrive on impossible acting challenges...I felt a certain love for Raymond, the Hoffman character. I don't know quite how Hoffman got me to do it."Gene Siskel also gave the film three and a half stars out of four, singling out Cruise for praise, "The strength of the film is really that of Cruise's performance...the combination of two superior performances makes the movie worth watching."
Rain Man was placed on 39 critics' "ten best" lists in 1988, based on a poll of the nation's top 100 critics.
|Academy Awards||Best Picture||Mark Johnson||Won|
|Best Director||Barry Levinson||Won|
|Best Actor||Dustin Hoffman||Won|
|Best Screenplay – Written Directly for the Screen||Ronald Bass and Barry Morrow||Won|
|Best Art Direction||Ida Random and Linda DeScenna||Nominated|
|Best Cinematography||John Seale||Nominated|
|Best Film Editing||Stu Linder||Nominated|
|Best Original Score||Hans Zimmer||Nominated|
|American Cinema Editors Awards||Best Edited Feature Film||Stu Linder||Won|
|American Society of Cinematographers Awards||Outstanding Achievement in Cinematography in Theatrical Releases||John Seale||Nominated|
|Berlin International Film Festival||Golden Bear||Barry Levinson||Won|
|Berliner Morgenpost Readers' Jury Award||Won|
|BMI Film & TV Awards||Film Music Award||Hans Zimmer||Won|
|British Academy Film Awards||Best Actor in a Leading Role||Dustin Hoffman||Nominated|
|Best Original Screenplay||Ronald Bass and Barry Morrow||Nominated|
|Best Editing||Stu Linder||Nominated|
|César Awards||Best Foreign Film||Barry Levinson||Nominated|
|Chicago Film Critics Association Awards||Best Actor||Dustin Hoffman||Nominated|
|David di Donatello Awards||Best Foreign Film||Barry Levinson||Won|
|Best Foreign Director||Nominated|
|Best Foreign Actor||Dustin Hoffman||Won|
|Best Foreign Producer||Mark Johnson||Nominated|
|Best Foreign Screenplay||Ronald Bass and Barry Morrow||Nominated|
|Directors Guild of America Awards||Outstanding Directorial Achievement in Motion Pictures||Barry Levinson||Won|
|Golden Globe Awards||Best Motion Picture – Drama||Won|
|Best Actor in a Motion Picture – Drama||Dustin Hoffman||Won|
|Best Director – Motion Picture||Barry Levinson||Nominated|
|Best Screenplay – Motion Picture||Ronald Bass and Barry Morrow||Nominated|
|Goldene Kamera (1989)||Golden Screen||Won|
|Goldene Kamera (1991)||Golden Screen with 1 Star||Won|
|Heartland Film||Truly Moving Picture Award||Barry Levinson||Won|
|Japan Academy Film Prize||Outstanding Foreign Language Film||Nominated|
|Jupiter Awards||Best International Film||Barry Levinson||Won|
|Kansas City Film Critics Circle Awards||Best Film||Won|
|Best Director||Barry Levinson||Won|
|Best Actor||Dustin Hoffman||Won|
|Best Supporting Actor||Tom Cruise||Won|
|Kinema Junpo Awards||Best Foreign Language Film||Barry Levinson||Won|
|Mainichi Film Awards||Best Foreign Language Film||Won|
|MTV Video Music Awards||Best Video from a Film||"Iko Iko" – The Belle Stars||Nominated|
|Nastro d'Argento||Best Foreign Director||Barry Levinson||Nominated|
|Best Supporting Actress||Valeria Golino||Nominated|
|National Society of Film Critics Awards||Best Actor||Dustin Hoffman||3rd Place|
|New York Film Critics Circle Awards||Best Actor||2nd Place|
|Nikkan Sports Film Awards||Best Foreign Film||Won|
|People's Choice Awards||Favorite Dramatic Motion Picture||Won|
|Turkish Film Critics Association Awards||Best Foreign Film||2nd Place|
|Writers Guild of America Awards||Best Screenplay – Written Directly for the Screen||Ronald Bass and Barry Morrow||Nominated|
|YoGa Awards||Worst Foreign Actor||Dustin Hoffman||Won|
The film is recognized by American Film Institute in these lists:
Rain Man's portrayal of the main character's condition has been seen as creating the erroneous media stereotype that people on the autism spectrum typically have savant skills, and references to Rain Man, in particular Dustin Hoffman's performance, have become a popular shorthand for autism and savantism. Conversely, Rain Man has also been seen as dispelling a number of other misconceptions about autism, and improving public awareness of the failure of many agencies to accommodate autistic people and make use of the abilities they do have, regardless of whether they have savant skills or not.
The film is also known for popularizing the misconception that card counting is illegal in the United States.
The Babbitt brothers appear in The Simpsons season 5 episode 10. The film is mentioned in numerous other films such as Miss Congeniality (2000), 21 (2008), Tropic Thunder (2008), The Hangover (2009), Escape Room (2019), and also in the television series Breaking Bad .
Raymond Babbitt was caricatured as a rain cloud in the animated episode of The Nanny , "Oy to the World". During the episode, Fran fixes up CC the Abominable Babcock with the Rain Man. He is portrayed as a cloud of rain mumbling about weather patterns and being an excellent driver.
During June 1989, at least fifteen major airlines showed edited versions of Rain Man that omitted a scene involving Raymond's refusal to fly, mentioning the crashes of American Airlines Flight 625, Delta Air Lines Flight 191, and Continental Airlines Flight 1713, except on Australia-based Qantas. Those criticizing this decision included film director Barry Levinson, co-screenwriter Ronald Bass, and George Kirgo (at the time the President of the Writers Guild of America, West). "I think it's a key scene to the entire movie," Levinson said in a telephone interview. "That's why it's in there. It launches their entire odyssey across country – because they couldn't fly." While some of those airlines cited as justification avoiding having airplane passengers feel uncomfortable in sympathy with Raymond during the in-flight entertainment, the scene was shown intact on flights of Qantas, and commentators noted that Raymond mentions it as the only airline whose planes have "never crashed".The film is credited with introducing Qantas' safety record to U.S. consumers.
Dustin Lee Hoffman is an American actor and filmmaker. He is known for his versatile portrayals of antiheroes and emotionally vulnerable characters. Actor Robert De Niro described him as "an actor with the everyman's face who embodied the heartbreakingly human". At a young age Hoffman knew he wanted to study in the arts, and entered into the Los Angeles Conservatory of Music; later he decided to go into acting, for which he trained at the Pasadena Playhouse in Los Angeles. His first theatrical performance was 1961's A Cook for Mr. General as Ridzinski. During that time he appeared in several guest roles on television in shows like Naked City and The Defenders. He then starred in the 1966 off-Broadway play Eh? where his performance garnered him both a Theatre World Award and Drama Desk Award.
John Joseph Travolta is an American actor and singer. He rose to fame during the 1970s, appearing on the television sitcom Welcome Back, Kotter (1975–1979) and starring in the box office successes Carrie (1976), Saturday Night Fever (1977), Grease (1978) and Urban Cowboy (1980). His acting career declined throughout the 1980s, but he enjoyed a resurgence in the 1990s with his role in Pulp Fiction (1994) and has since starred in the films Get Shorty (1995), Broken Arrow (1996), Phenomenon (1997), Face/Off (1997), A Civil Action (1998), Primary Colors (1998), Hairspray (2007), and Bolt (2008).
Magnolia is a 1999 American epic psychological drama film written and directed by Paul Thomas Anderson. The film stars an ensemble cast including Jeremy Blackman, Tom Cruise, Melinda Dillon, Philip Baker Hall, Philip Seymour Hoffman, Ricky Jay, William H. Macy, Alfred Molina, Julianne Moore, Michael Murphy, John C. Reilly, Jason Robards and Melora Walters, and is a mosaic of interrelated characters in search of happiness, forgiveness, and meaning in the San Fernando Valley.
Barry Lee Levinson is an American filmmaker, screenwriter, producer and actor. Levinson's best-known works are mid-budget comedy-drama and drama films such as Diner (1982); The Natural (1984); Good Morning, Vietnam (1987); Bugsy (1991); and Wag the Dog (1997). He won the Academy Award for Best Director for Rain Man (1988).
Savant syndrome is a rare condition in which someone with significant mental disabilities demonstrates certain abilities far in excess of average. The skills that savants excel at are generally related to memory. This may include rapid calculation, artistic ability, map making, or musical ability. Usually, only one exceptional skill is present.
Human calculator is a term to describe a person with a prodigious ability in some area of mental calculation.
Cocktail is a 1988 American romantic comedy-drama film directed by Roger Donaldson and written by Heywood Gould, whose screenplay was based on his book of the same name. The film tells the story of a young New York City business student, Brian Flanagan, who takes up bartending in order to make ends meet. The film stars Tom Cruise, Bryan Brown, and Elisabeth Shue.
Stephen Wiltshire is a British architectural artist and autistic savant. He is known for his ability to draw a landscape from memory after seeing it just once. His work has gained worldwide popularity.
Laurence Kim Peek was an American savant. Known as a "megasavant", he had an exceptional memory, but he also experienced social difficulties, possibly resulting from a developmental disability related to congenital brain abnormalities. He was the inspiration for the character Raymond Babbitt in the 1988 movie Rain Man. Although Peek was diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder and severe intellectual disability, he is now thought to have had FG syndrome. The Utah Film Center’s Peek Award is meant to honor his legacy.
Sphere is a 1998 American science fiction psychological thriller film directed and produced by Barry Levinson, and starring Dustin Hoffman, Sharon Stone, and Samuel L. Jackson. Sphere is based on the 1987 novel of the same name by Michael Crichton. The film was released in the United States on February 13, 1998.
Bernard Rimland was an American research psychologist, writer, lecturer, and influential person in the field of developmental disorders. Rimland's first book, Infantile Autism, sparked by the birth of a son who had autism, was instrumental in changing attitudes toward the disorder. Rimland founded and directed two advocacy groups: the Autism Society of America (ASA) and the Autism Research Institute. He promoted several since disproven theories about the causes and treatment of autism, including vaccine denial, facilitated communication, chelation therapy, and false claims of a link between secretin and autism. He also supported the ethically controversial practice of using aversives on autistic children.
"$pringfield ", simply known as "$pringfield", is the tenth episode of the fifth season of the American animated television series, The Simpsons, and the 91st episode overall. It originally aired on the Fox network in the United States on December 16, 1993. In the episode, Springfield legalizes gambling to revitalize its economy. Mr. Burns opens a casino where Homer is hired as a blackjack dealer. Marge develops a gambling addiction, Bart opens a casino in his treehouse, and Burns' appearance and mental state deteriorate in a parody of Howard Hughes.
Born on the Fourth of July is a 1989 American biographical anti-war drama film based on the eponymous 1976 autobiography by Ron Kovic. Directed by Oliver Stone, and written by Stone and Kovic, it stars Tom Cruise, Kyra Sedgwick, Raymond J. Barry, Jerry Levine, Frank Whaley, and Willem Dafoe. The film depicts the life of Kovic (Cruise) over a 20-year period, detailing his childhood, his military service and paralysis during the Vietnam War, and his transition to anti-war activism. It is the second installment in Stone's trilogy of films about the Vietnam War, following Platoon (1986) and preceding Heaven & Earth (1993).
Ruth Christ Sullivan is an organizer and advocate for education for people with autism.
Mark Johnson is an American film and television producer. Johnson won the Best Picture Academy Award for producing the 1988 drama movie Rain Man, starring Dustin Hoffman and Tom Cruise. The film, winner of four Oscars, also captured a Golden Globe for Best Picture.
William Sackter was an American man with an intellectual disability whose fame as the subject of two television movies and a feature-length documentary helped change national attitudes on persons with disabilities.
Barry Morrow is an American screenwriter and producer. He wrote the story and co-wrote the screenplay for Rain Man. He is the father of Emmy Award-winning animator, writer, and storyboard artist, Clayton Morrow, and father-in-law of animator and storyboard artist, Cindy Morrow.
American actor Dustin Hoffman began his career by appearing in an episode of Naked City in 1961. His first theatrical performance was 1961's Shmem needs a shink as Ridzinski. Following several guest appearances on television, he starred in the 1966 play Eh?; his performance garnered him both a Theatre World Award and Drama Desk Award. Hoffman made his film debut in 1967 when he appeared in the comedy The Tiger Makes Out. In the same year, his breakthrough role as Benjamin "Ben" Braddock, the title character in Mike Nichols' comedy-drama The Graduate, led to Hoffman achieving star status and his first Academy Award nomination. He then acted in the play Jimmy Shine as the eponymous character and the comedy film Madigan's Millions. In 1969, he starred alongside Jon Voight in the Academy Award for Best Picture winner Midnight Cowboy, which Hoffman was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actor a second time.
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