Berlin International Film Festival

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Berlin International Film Festival
Berlin International Film Festival logo.svg
Location Berlin, Germany
Founded1951
Awards Golden Bear, Silver Bear
Artistic director Carlo Chatrian
No. of films441 (945 screenings) in 2014
Website berlinale.de

The Berlin International Film Festival (German : Internationale Filmfestspiele Berlin), usually called the Berlinale, is a film festival held annually in Berlin, Germany. [1] Founded in West Berlin in 1951, [2] the festival has been held every February since 1978 and is one of the "Big Three" alongside the Venice Film Festival in Italy and the Cannes Film Festival in France. [3] [4] Since 2019, Mariette Rissenbeek serves as the executive director of the festival, while Carlo Chatrian is the artistic director. [5]

Contents

With around 300,000 tickets sold and 500,000 admissions each year, it has the largest public attendance of any annual film festival. [6] Up to 400 films are shown in several sections across cinematic genres. Around twenty films compete for the festival's top awards, called the Golden Bear and several Silver Bears. [6]

The European Film Market (EFM), a film trade fair held simultaneously to the Berlinale, is a major industry meeting for the international film circuit. [7] The trade fair serves distributors, film buyers, producers, financiers and co-production agents. The Berlinale Talents, a week-long series of lectures and workshops, is a gathering of young filmmakers held in partnership with the festival. [8]

The film festival, EFM, and other satellite events are attended by around 20,000 professionals from over 130 countries every year. [9] More than 4,200 journalists produce media coverage in over 110 countries. [10] At some high-profile feature film premieres held during the festival, movie stars and celebrities are present and photographed on a red carpet. [11]

History

During the peak of the Cold War in 1950, Oscar Martay, a film officer of the Information Service Branch of the American High Commissioner for Germany stationed in Berlin, proposed the idea of a film festival in Berlin. [12] [13] [14] [2] The proposal was put through a committee including members of the Senate of Berlin and people from the German film industry on 9 October 1950. [2] Through his efforts and influence, the American military administration was persuaded to assist and to give loans for the first years of the Berlin International Film Festival, which commenced in June 1951 [2] [12] [15] with film historian Dr. Alfred Bauer as its first director, a position he would hold until 1976. [16] Alfred Hitchcock's Rebecca opened the first festival at the Titiana-Palast in Steglitz on 6 June 1951. [17] The first festival ran from 6–17 June [17] with Waldbühne being another festival venue. [17] [2]

The winners of the first awards in 1951 were determined by a West German panel, and there were five winners of the Golden Bear, divided by categories and genres. [18] Cinderella , which won the Golden Bear for a Music Film, [19] also won the audience award. [17] The FIAPF (Fédération Internationale des Associations de Producteurs de Films) banned the awarding of jury prizes at the festival [17] so between 1952 and 1955, the winners of the Golden Bear were determined by the audience members. [20] In 1956, FIAPF formally accredited the festival [17] and since then the Golden Bear has been awarded by an international jury. [20]

During the Cold War, a selection of the films were also screened in East Berlin. [21]

The 20th edition of the festival in 1970 was cut short and awards not issued following controversy over the showing of Michael Verhoeven's film o.k. . [17] The following year, the festival was reformed and a new International Forum for New Cinema was created. [17]

Bauer was succeeded by film journalist Wolf Donner in 1976, [22] who gave German films higher priority. [17] After his first Berlinale in June 1977, he successfully negotiated the shift of the festival from the June to February (22 February – 5 March 1978), a change which has remained ever since. [23] That festival, the 28th edition, saw the jury award the Golden Bear to Spain for its contribution to the festival rather than a specific film. [17] The three Spanish films which were screened at the festival and won it were short film Ascensor directed by Tomás Muñoz and feature films La palabras de Max by Emilio Martínez Lázaro and Las truchas by José Luis García Sánchez. [24] The 1978 festival also saw the start of the European Film Market. [17]

After only three years in the role, Donner was followed by Moritz de Hadeln who held the position from 1980 [25] until director Dieter Kosslick took over in 2001. [26]

In 2000, the Theater am Potsdamer Platz, known as the Berlinale Palast during the festival, became the festival's principal venue. [17] Since 2009, Friedrichstadt-Palast has also been used.

In June 2018, it was announced that Mariette Rissenbeek would serve as the new executive director alongside artistic director Carlo Chatrian. They assumed their posts after Kosslick's final edition in 2019. Rissenbeek became the first woman to lead the Berlinale. [27] [28]

A shortened 71st festival took place virtually in March 2021 due to the COVID-19 pandemic. [29] [30]

Festival programme

Venues of the festival are spread throughout the central city districts Berlin night.jpg
Venues of the festival are spread throughout the central city districts
The Berlinale Palast is the venue for the competition premieres Berlinale2007.jpg
The Berlinale Palast is the venue for the competition premieres

The festival is composed of seven different film sections. [31] Films are chosen in each category by a section director with the advice of a committee of film experts. Categories include:

Competition: comprises feature-length films yet to be released outside their country of origin. Films in the Competition section compete for several prizes, including the top Golden Bear for the best film and a series of Silver Bears for acting, writing and production. [32]

Encounters: comprises independent film that aims to foster aesthetically and structurally daring works from innovative filmmakers. Its goal is to support new perspectives in cinema and to give more room to diverse narrative and documentary forms in the official selection. Conceived as a counterpoint and a complement to Competition, Encounters is a competitive section devoted to new cinematic visions. The films selected will challenge traditional forms and ask viewers to reconsider their positions in relation to them. Being a mirror of the different ways of production that have developed in the 21st century and reflecting this vibrant energy, Encounters will become a meeting point for filmmakers and producers, programmers and film critics, cinephiles and festival lovers. [33]

Panorama: comprises new independent and arthouse films that deal with "controversial subjects or unconventional aesthetic styles". Films in the category are intended to provoke discussion, and have historically involved themes such as LGBT issues. [34]

Forum: comprises experimental and documentary films from around the world with a particular emphasis on screening works by younger filmmakers. There are no format or genre restrictions, and films in the Forum do not compete for awards. [35]

Generation: comprises a mixture of short and feature-length films aimed at children and youths. Films in the Generation section compete in two sub-categories: Generation Kplus (aimed at those aged four and above) and Generation 14plus (aimed at those aged fourteen and above). Awards in the section are determined by three separate juries—the Children's Jury, the Youth Jury and an international jury of experts—, whose decisions are made independently of one another. [36]

Perspektive Deutsches Kino: comprises a wide variety of German films, with an emphasis on highlighting current trends in German cinema. There are few entry requirements, enabling emerging filmmakers to display their work to domestic and international audiences. [37]

Berlinale Shorts: comprises domestic and international short films, especially those that demonstrate innovative approaches to filmmaking. Films in the category compete for the Golden Bear for the best short film, as well as a jury-nominated Silver Bear. [38]

Retrospective: comprises classic films previously shown at the Berlinale, with films collated from the Competition, Forum, Panorama and Generation categories. Each year, the Retrospective section is dedicated to important themes or filmmakers. The special Homage series similarly examines past cinema, with a focus on honouring the life work of directors and actors. [39]

In addition to the seven sections, the Berlinale also contains several linked "curated special series", including the Berlinale Special, Gala Special, Forum Expanded, and the Homage. [31] In 2020, Culinary Cinema was dropped while a new section called Encounters was established. [40] Since 2002, a 50-second trailer opens the performances in all sections of the festival with the exception of the Retrospective.[ citation needed ]

Main competition jury presidents

Since 1956, the jury of the Festival has been chaired by an internationally recognized personality of cinema. [41]

YearPresidentProfessionNationality
1956 Marcel Carné DirectorFrance
1957 Jay CarmodyFilm CriticUnited States
1958 Frank Capra DirectorUnited States
1959 Robert Aldrich DirectorUnited States
1960 Harold Lloyd ActorUnited States
1961 James Quinn Film AdministratorUnited Kingdom
1962 King Vidor DirectorUnited States
1963 Wendy Toye DancerUnited Kingdom
1964 Anthony Mann Director, ActorUnited States
1965 John Gillett Film CriticUnited Kingdom
1966 Pierre Braunberger Film ProducerFrance
1967 Thorold Dickinson DirectorUnited Kingdom
1968 Luis García Berlanga DirectorSpain
1969 Johannes Schaaf DirectorGermany
1970 George Stevens DirectorUnited States
1971 Bjørn RasmussenPoetDenmark
1972 Eleanor Perry ScreenwriterUnited States
1973 David Robinson Film CriticUnited Kingdom
1974 Rodolfo Kuhn DirectorArgentina
1975 Sylvia Syms ActressUnited Kingdom
1976 Jerzy Kawalerowicz DirectorPoland
1977 Senta Berger ActressAustria
1978 Patricia Highsmith WriterUnited States
1979 Jörn Donner DirectorFinland
1980 Ingrid Thulin ActressSweden
1981 Jutta Brückner Director, ScreenwriterGermany
1982 Joan Fontaine ActressUnited States
1983 Jeanne Moreau ActressFrance
1984 Liv Ullmann ActressNorway
1985 Jean Marais ActorFrance
1986 Gina Lollobrigida ActressItaly
1987 Klaus Maria Brandauer ActorAustria
1988 Guglielmo Biraghi Film CriticItaly
1989 Rolf Liebermann ComposerSwitzerland
1990 Michael Ballhaus CinematographerGermany
1991 Volker Schlöndorff Director, ScreenwriterGermany
1992 Annie Girardot ActressFrance
1993 Frank Beyer DirectorGermany
1994 Jeremy Thomas Film ProducerUnited Kingdom
1995 Lia van Leer Film Programmer, Film ArchivistIsrael
1996 Nikita Mikhalkov Actor, DirectorRussia
1997 Jack Lang PoliticianFrance
1998 Ben Kingsley ActorUnited Kingdom
1999 Ángela Molina ActressSpain
2000 Gong Li ActressChina
2001 Bill Mechanic Film ProducerUnited States
2002 Mira Nair DirectorIndia
2003 Atom Egoyan DirectorCanada
2004 Frances McDormand ActressUnited States
2005 Roland Emmerich DirectorGermany
2006 Charlotte Rampling ActressUnited Kingdom
2007 Paul Schrader Director, ScreenwriterUnited States
2008 Costa-Gavras DirectorFrance
2009 Tilda Swinton ActressUnited Kingdom
2010 Werner Herzog Director, ScreenwriterGermany
2011 Isabella Rossellini ActressItaly
2012 Mike Leigh Director, ScreenwriterUnited Kingdom
2013 Wong Kar-wai DirectorHong Kong
2014 James Schamus ScreenwriterUnited States
2015 Darren Aronofsky Director, ScreenwriterUnited States
2016 Meryl Streep ActressUnited States
2017 Paul Verhoeven Director, ScreenwriterNetherlands
2018 Tom Tykwer Director, ScreenwriterGermany
2019 Juliette Binoche ActressFrance
2020 Jeremy Irons ActorUnited Kingdom

In 2021, the directors of six previous Golden-Bear-winning films will determine the awards for the Competition of the 71st Berlinale. There will not be a President of the Jury this year. The jury members are Mohammad Rasulof, Nadav Lapid, Adina Pintilie, Ildikó Enyedi, Gianfranco Rosi and Jasmila Žbanić. [42]

Awards

A Golden Bear statue Golden Bear, Berlin film frestival 340387674 5ec4f68a7d.jpg
A Golden Bear statue
The Silver Bear statue. Silverbjornen - Filmfestivalen i Berlin.jpg
The Silver Bear statue.
Jafar Panahi holds his Silver Bear statue at the 2006 festival Jafar Panahi (Berlin Film Festival 2006) revised.jpg
Jafar Panahi holds his Silver Bear statue at the 2006 festival

The Golden Bear (German: Goldener Bär) is the highest prize awarded for the best film at the Berlin International Film Festival.

Golden Bear (Goldener Bär)

Silver Bear (Silberner Bär)

The Silver Bear was introduced in 1956 as an award for individual achievements in direction and acting, and for best short film.[ citation needed ]

In 1965 a special film award for the runner-up to the Golden Bear was introduced. Although its official name was the Special Jury Prize from 1965 to 1999, and has been the Jury Grand Prix since 2000, it is commonly known as the Silver Bear (just like the awards for individual achievements) as it is regarded as a second place award after the Golden Bear.[ citation needed ]

Other awards at the Berlin International Film Festival

Former awards at the Berlin International Film Festival

European Film Market

The European Film Market takes place at the Martin-Gropius-Bau Gropius Bau Berlin 1.jpg
The European Film Market takes place at the Martin-Gropius-Bau

The European Film Market (EFM) is one of three largest movie markets in the world. [44] Started in 1978, [17] it is the business centre during the time of the Berlinale. The EFM is the major venue for film producers, buyers, financiers, sales agents, and distributors. Being the first Film Market of the year together with the Marché du Film in Cannes in May and the American Film Market in November, the EFM is one of the three major meetings of the film industry.

It is a professional trade event, therefore it is open to registered industry insiders. In 2020, 971 screenings of 732 registered movies took place with 525 films celebrating their premiere. [45]

The EFM is the follow-up event of the Filmmesse, which was led by Aina Bellis from 1980 to 1987. In 1988, Aina Bellis was succdeeded by Beki Probst. From 2014 to October 2020, Matthijs Wouter Knol took over the position with long-standing EFM-director Beki Probst by his side. In November 2020, Dennis Ruh became the director of the EFM. [46]

The trade fair provides exhibition space for companies presenting their current line-up. It organizes over 1000 screenings of new films, which take place at movie theatres around Potsdamer Platz. In 2007, the CinemaxX and CineStar were used to showcase new productions. In 2010, the Astor Film Lounge showed market screenings in three dimensions using digital RealD technology.

The Berlinale Co-Production Market is a three-day networking platform for producers and financiers, as well as broadcasting and funding representatives who are participating in international co-productions. At the Berlinale Co-Production Market, producers can introduce selected projects and find co-production partners and/or financiers in one-on-one meetings.

Berlinale Talents

Wim Wenders attended the Talent Campus as a lecturer Wendersinterview.JPG
Wim Wenders attended the Talent Campus as a lecturer

Commencing in 2003, the Berlinale has partnered with the Berlinale Talents (previously Berlinale Talent Campus), which is a winter school for "up-and-coming filmmakers" that takes place at the same time as the festival. The Talent Campus accepts about 250 applicants each year; the attendees come from around the world, and represent all of the filmmaking professions. [47]

The event runs six days during the Berlinale and features lectures and panel discussions with well-known professionals addressing issues in filmmaking. Workshops, excursions, personal tutoring, coaching, and training of participants from different fields of work are part of the programme.

The proceedings include presentations by distinguished experts, [48] who have included Park Chan-wook, Frances McDormand, Stephen Frears, Dennis Hopper, Jia Zhangke, Walter Murch, Shah Rukh Khan, Joshua Oppenheimer, Anthony Minghella, Charlotte Rampling, Walter Salles, Ridley Scott, Raoul Peck, Tom Tykwer, Mike Leigh, Tilda Swinton, and Wim Wenders.[ citation needed ] Many of these presentations and lectures are archived, both as video recordings and as transcripts, on the Talent Campus' website.

See also

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