Aladdin (1992 Disney film)

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Aladdin
Aladdinposter.jpg
Theatrical release poster by John Alvin
Directed by Ron Clements
John Musker
Produced byRon Clements
John Musker
Screenplay byRon Clements
John Musker
Ted Elliott
Terry Rossio
Story by
Based on Aladdin and the Magic Lamp from One Thousand and One Nights (added to the collection by Antoine Galland, who acquired the tale from the writer and storyteller Hanna Diyab.) [lower-alpha 1]
Starring
Music by Alan Menken
Edited byMark A. Hester
H. Lee Peterson
Production
companies
Distributed by Buena Vista Pictures
Release date
  • November 25, 1992 (1992-11-25)
Running time
90 minutes
CountryUnited States
LanguageEnglish
Budget$28 million [4]
Box office$504 million [4]

Aladdin is a 1992 American animated musical fantasy film produced by Walt Disney Feature Animation and released by Walt Disney Pictures. The film is the 31st Disney animated feature film, and was the fourth produced during the Disney film era known as the Disney Renaissance. It was produced and directed by Ron Clements and John Musker, and is based on the Arabic folktale of the same name from the One Thousand and One Nights . The voice cast features Scott Weinger, Robin Williams, Linda Larkin, Jonathan Freeman, Frank Welker, Gilbert Gottfried and Douglas Seale. The film follows Aladdin, an Arabian street urchin, who finds a magic lamp containing a genie. In order to hide the lamp from the Grand vizier, he disguises himself as a wealthy prince, and tries to impress the Sultan and his daughter.

Animation Method of creating moving pictures

Animation is a method in which pictures are manipulated to appear as moving images. In traditional animation, images are drawn or painted by hand on transparent celluloid sheets to be photographed and exhibited on film. Today, most animations are made with computer-generated imagery (CGI). Computer animation can be very detailed 3D animation, while 2D computer animation can be used for stylistic reasons, low bandwidth or faster real-time renderings. Other common animation methods apply a stop motion technique to two and three-dimensional objects like paper cutouts, puppets or clay figures.

Musical film film genre

Musical film is a film genre in which songs sung by the characters are interwoven into the narrative, sometimes accompanied by dancing.

Fantasy film film genre

Fantasy films are films that belong to the fantasy genre with fantastic themes, usually magic, supernatural events, mythology, folklore, or exotic fantasy worlds. The genre is considered a form of speculative fiction alongside science fiction films and horror films, although the genres do overlap. Fantasy films often have an element of magic, myth, wonder, escapism, and the extraordinary.

Contents

Lyricist Howard Ashman first pitched the idea, and the screenplay went through three drafts before then-Disney Studios president Jeffrey Katzenberg agreed to its production. The animators based their designs on the work of caricaturist Al Hirschfeld, and computers were used for both finishing the artwork and creating some animated elements. The musical score was written by Alan Menken and features six songs with lyrics written by both Ashman and Tim Rice, who took over after Ashman's death.

Howard Ashman American playwright and lyricist

Howard Elliott Ashman was an American playwright and lyricist. He collaborated with Alan Menken on several works and is most widely known for several animated feature films for Disney, for which Ashman wrote the lyrics and Menken composed the music. Ashman and Menken began their collaboration with the musical God Bless You, Mr. Rosewater (1979), for which Ashman directed and wrote both book and lyrics. Their next musical, Little Shop of Horrors (1982) for which Ashman again directed and wrote both book and lyrics, became a long-running success and led to a 1986 feature film. The partnership's first Disney film was The Little Mermaid (1989), followed by Beauty and the Beast (1991). After his death, some of Ashman's songs were included in another Disney film, Aladdin (1992).

Jeffrey Katzenberg American film producer

Jeffrey Katzenberg is an American film executive, film producer and media proprietor.

Al Hirschfeld American caricaturist

Albert Hirschfeld was an American caricaturist best known for his black and white portraits of celebrities and Broadway stars.

Aladdin was released on November 25, 1992, to critical and commercial success, becoming the highest-grossing film of 1992 with an earn of over $504 million in worldwide box office revenue. Upon release, it became the first animated feature to reach the half–billion dollar mark, and was the highest-grossing animated film of all time until it was surpassed by The Lion King . Aladdin garnered two Academy Awards, as well as other accolades for its soundtrack which had the first and only number from a Disney feature to earn a Grammy Award for Song of the Year for the film's theme song. The film's home video VHS release also set a sales record and grossed about $500 million in the United States. Aladdin's success led to various derived works and other material inspired by the film, including two direct-to-video sequels, The Return of Jafar (1994) and Aladdin and the King of Thieves (1996); an animated television series of the same name; and a Broadway adaptation. A live-action film adaptation directed by Guy Ritchie was released on May 24, 2019.

<i>The Lion King</i> 1994 American animated musical film produced by Walt Disney Feature Animation

The Lion King is a 1994 American animated musical film produced by Walt Disney Feature Animation and released by Walt Disney Pictures. It is the 32nd Disney animated feature film, and the fifth animated film produced during a period known as the Disney Renaissance. The Lion King was directed by Roger Allers and Rob Minkoff, produced by Don Hahn, and has a screenplay credited to Irene Mecchi, Jonathan Roberts, and Linda Woolverton. Its original songs were written by composer Elton John and lyricist Tim Rice, with a score by Hans Zimmer. The film features an ensemble voice cast that includes Matthew Broderick, James Earl Jones, Jeremy Irons, Jonathan Taylor Thomas, Moira Kelly, Nathan Lane, Ernie Sabella, Rowan Atkinson, Robert Guillaume, Madge Sinclair, Whoopi Goldberg, Cheech Marin, and Jim Cummings. The story takes place in a kingdom of lions in Africa and was influenced by the lives of Joseph and Moses, from the Christian Bible, and William Shakespeare's Hamlet.

Academy Awards American awards given annually for excellence in cinematic achievements

The Academy Awards, also officially and popularly known as the Oscars, are awards for artistic and technical merit in the film industry. Given annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), the awards are an international recognition of excellence in cinematic achievements as assessed by the Academy's voting membership. The various category winners are awarded a copy of a golden statuette, officially called the "Academy Award of Merit", although more commonly referred to by its nickname "Oscar". The statuette depicts a knight rendered in Art Deco style.

The Grammy Award for Song of the Year is an honor presented at the Grammy Awards, a ceremony that was established in 1958 and originally called the Gramophone Awards. The Song of the Year award is one of the four most prestigious categories at the awards presented annually since the 1st Grammy Awards in 1959. According to the 54th Grammy Awards description guide, the award is presented:

to honor artistic achievement, technical proficiency and overall excellence in the recording industry, without regard to album sales or chart position.

Plot

Jafar, the Royal Vizier of the fictional city of Agrabah, placed near the Jordan River, and his parrot Iago seek a lamp hidden within the Cave of Wonders. They are told that only one person is worthy to enter: "the diamond in the rough", whom Jafar later identifies as Aladdin, an Agrabah street urchin. Princess Jasmine of Agrabah, upset that the law requires her to marry a prince instead of one she loves, escapes the palace and meets Aladdin and his pet monkey, Abu. The palace guards capture Aladdin on Jafar's orders. Jasmine confronts Jafar to demand Aladdin's release, but he lies and says that Aladdin has been executed.

Jordan River river in West Asia flowing to the Dead Sea

The Jordan River or River Jordan is a 251-kilometre-long (156 mi) river in the Middle East that flows roughly north to south through the Sea of Galilee and on to the Dead Sea. Jordan and the Golan Heights border the river to the east, while the West Bank and Israel lie to its west. Both Jordan and the West Bank take their names from the river.

Street children Homeless children living on the street

Street children are poor or homeless children who live on the streets of a city, town, or village. Homeless youth are often called street kids or street child; the definition of street children is contested, but many practitioners and policymakers use UNICEF's concept of boys and girls, aged under 18 years, for whom "the street" has become home and/or their source of livelihood, and who are inadequately protected or supervised.

Disguised as an old man, Jafar frees Aladdin and Abu and brings them to the cave, ordering them to retrieve the lamp. Inside, Aladdin finds a magic carpet and obtains the lamp. Defying Aladdin's instruction to touch nothing but the lamp, Abu grabs a jewel. Aladdin, Abu, and the carpet rush to escape the cave as it collapses. Aladdin gives the lamp to Jafar, who throws both Aladdin and Abu back into the cave, though not before Abu steals the lamp back. Trapped, Aladdin rubs the lamp and meets the Genie who lives inside it. The Genie grants Aladdin three wishes. Aladdin tricks the Genie into freeing them all from the cave without using a wish. He uses his first wish to assume the identity of a prince to woo Jasmine, and promises to use his third wish to free the Genie from servitude.

Magic carpet legendary carpet used for transportation

A magic carpet, also called a flying carpet, is a legendary carpet, and common trope in fantasy fiction. They are typically used as a form of transportation, and can quickly or instantaneously carry users to their destination.

At Iago's suggestion, Jafar plots to become Sultan by marrying Jasmine. Aladdin, as "Prince Ali Ababwa", arrives in Agrabah with a large host, but Jasmine becomes angry when he discusses her fate with her father the Sultan and Jafar without her. As a means of apologizing, Aladdin takes Jasmine on a ride on the magic carpet. When she deduces his true identity, he convinces her that he only dresses as a peasant to escape the stresses of royal life. After Aladdin brings Jasmine home, the palace guards capture Aladdin on Jafar's behest and throw him into the sea. The Genie appears, intuits that the unconscious Aladdin would want to use his second wish to be rescued, and saves him. Aladdin returns to the palace and exposes Jafar's evil plot. Jafar flees after spotting the lamp and thus discovering Aladdin's true identity.

Peasant member of a traditional class of farmers

A peasant is a pre-industrial agricultural laborer or farmer with limited land ownership, especially one living in the Middle Ages under feudalism and paying rent, tax, fees, or services to a landlord. In Europe, peasants were divided into three classes according to their personal status: slave, serf, and free tenant. Peasants either hold title to land in fee simple, or hold land by any of several forms of land tenure, among them socage, quit-rent, leasehold, and copyhold.

Fearing that he will lose Jasmine if the truth is revealed, Aladdin breaks his promise and refuses to free the Genie. Iago steals the lamp, and Jafar becomes the Genie's new master. He uses his first two wishes to become Sultan and the world's most powerful sorcerer. He then exposes Aladdin's identity and exiles him, Abu, and the carpet to a frozen wasteland. They escape and return to the palace. Jasmine tries to help Aladdin steal the lamp back, but Jafar notices and overpowers the heroes with his magic. Aladdin taunts Jafar for being less powerful than the Genie, tricking Jafar into using his last wish to become an all-powerful genie himself. Now bound to his new lamp, Jafar ends up trapped inside it, taking Iago with him.

With Agrabah returned to normal, the Genie banishes Jafar's lamp and advises Aladdin use his third wish to regain his royal title so the law will allow him to stay with Jasmine. Aladdin decides instead to keep his promise and free the Genie. Realizing Aladdin and Jasmine's love, the Sultan changes the law to allow Jasmine to marry whom she chooses. The Genie leaves to explore the world, while Aladdin and Jasmine start their new life together.

Cast

Production

Script and development

In 1988, lyricist Howard Ashman pitched the idea of an animated musical adaptation of Aladdin. Ashman had written a 40-page film treatment remaining faithful to the plot and characters of the original story, but envisioned as a campy 1930s-style musical with a Cab Calloway/Fats Waller-like Genie. [13] Along with partner Alan Menken, Ashman conceived several songs and added Aladdin's friends named Babkak, Omar, and Kasim to the story. [14] [15] However, the studio was dismissive of Ashman's treatment and removed the project from development. Ashman and Menken were later recruited to compose songs for Beauty and the Beast . [16] Linda Woolverton, who had also worked on Beauty and the Beast, used their treatment and developed a draft with inspired elements from The Thief of Bagdad such as a villain named Jaf'far, an aged sidekick retired human thief named Abu, and a human handmaiden for the princess. [17] [18] Then, directors Ron Clements and John Musker joined the production, picking Aladdin out of three projects offered, which also included an adaptation of Swan Lake and King of the Jungle – that eventually became The Lion King . [19] Before Ashman's death in March 1991, Ashman and Menken had composed "Prince Ali" and his last song, "Humiliate the Boy". [20]

Musker and Clements wrote a draft of the screenplay, and then delivered a story reel to studio chief Jeffrey Katzenberg in April 1991. [15] Katzenberg thought the script "didn't engage", and on a day known by the staff as "Black Friday," demanded that the entire story be rewritten without rescheduling the film's November 25, 1992 release date. [21] Among the changes Katzenberg requested from Clements and Musker were to not be dependent on Ashman's vision, [14] and the removal of Aladdin's mother, remarking, "Eighty-six the mother. The mom's a zero." [22] Screenwriting duo Ted Elliott and Terry Rossio were brought in to rework the story, [15] and the changes they made included the removal of Aladdin's mother, the strengthening of the character of Princess Jasmine, and the deletion of several of the Ashman-Menken songs. [23] Aladdin's personality was rewritten to be "a little rougher, like a young Harrison Ford," [15] [24] and the parrot Iago, originally conceived as an uptight British archetype, was reworked into a comic role after the filmmakers saw Gilbert Gottfried in Beverly Hills Cop II , who was then cast for the role. [25] By October 1991, Katzenberg was satisfied with the new version of Aladdin. [13] As with Woolverton's screenplay, several characters and plot elements were based on the 1940 version of The Thief of Bagdad, [26] [27] though the location of the film was changed from Baghdad to the fictional Arabian city of Agrabah. [28]

Design and animation

Style guide depicting the main characters. The animators designed each character based on a different geometrical shape. Aladdin Disney lg.gif
Style guide depicting the main characters. The animators designed each character based on a different geometrical shape.

The design for most characters was based on the work of caricaturist Al Hirschfeld, [30] which production designer Richard Vander Wende also considered appropriate to the theme, due to similarities to the flowing and swooping lines found in Arabic calligraphy. [31] Jafar's design was not based on Hirschfeld's work because Jafar's supervising animator, Andreas Deja, wanted the character to be contrasting. [32] Each character was animated alone, with the animators consulting each other to make scenes with interrelating characters. Since Aladdin's animator Glen Keane was working in the California branch of Walt Disney Feature Animation, and Jasmine's animator Mark Henn was in the Florida one at Disney-MGM Studios, they had to frequently phone, fax or send designs and discs to each other. [31] The animators filmed monkeys at the San Francisco Zoo to study their movements for Abu's character. [9] Iago's supervising animator Will Finn tried to incorporate some aspects of Gottfried's appearance into Iago's design, especially his semi-closed eyes and the always-appearing teeth. [9] Some aspects of the Sultan were inspired by the Wizard of Oz, to create a bumbling authority figure. [9] Andreas Deja, Jafar's supervising animator, tried to incorporate Jonathan Freeman's facial expressions and gesturing into the character. [30] Animator Randy Cartwright described working on the Magic Carpet as challenging, since it is only a rectangular shape, that expresses itself through pantomime – "It's sort of like acting by origami". [31] Cartwright kept folding a piece of cloth while animating to see how to position the Carpet. [31] After the character animation was done, the carpet's surface design was applied digitally. [30]

"In early screenings, we played with him being a little bit younger, and he had a mother in the story. [...] In design he became more athletic-looking, more filled out, more of a young leading man, more of a teen-hunk version than before."

–John Musker on Aladdin's early design [33]

Designed by a team led by supervising animator Glen Keane, Aladdin was initially going to be as young as thirteen, and was originally made to resemble actor Michael J. Fox. During production, it was decided that the design was too boyish and wasn't "appealing enough," so the character was made eighteen and redesigned to add elements derived from actor Tom Cruise and Calvin Klein models. [33] [34]

For the scenery design, various architectural elements seen in 19th-century orientalist paintings and photographs of the Arab world were used for guidance. [35] Other inspirations for design were Disney's animated films from the 1940s and 50s and the 1940 film The Thief of Bagdad . [31] The coloring was done with the computerized CAPS process, and the color motifs were chosen according to the personality – the protagonists use light colors such as blue, the antagonists darker ones such as red and black, and Agrabah and its palace use the neutral color yellow. [9] [30] Computer animation was used for some elements of the film, such as the tiger entrance of the Cave of Wonders and the scene where Aladdin tries to escape the collapsing cave. [30]

Musker and Clements created the Genie with Robin Williams in mind; even though Katzenberg suggested actors such as John Candy, Steve Martin, and Eddie Murphy, Williams was approached and eventually accepted the role. Williams came for voice recording sessions during breaks in the shooting of two other films he was starring in at the time, Hook and Toys . Unusually for an animated film, much of Williams' dialogue was ad-libbed: for some scenes, Williams was given topics and dialogue suggestions, but allowed to improvise his lines. [30] It was estimated that Williams improvised 52 characters. [36] Eric Goldberg, the supervising animator for the Genie, then reviewed Williams' recorded dialogue and selected the best gags and lines that his crew would create character animation to match. [30]

The producers added many in-jokes and references to Disney's previous works in the film, such as a "cameo appearance" from directors Clements and Musker and drawing some characters based on Disney workers. [12] Beast, Sebastian from The Little Mermaid , and Pinocchio make brief appearances, [9] and the wardrobe of the Genie at the end of the film—Goofy hat, Hawaiian shirt, and sandals—are a reference to a short film that Robin Williams did for the Disney-MGM Studios tour in the late 1980s. [12]

Robin Williams' conflicts with the studio

Initially, Robin Williams voiced Genie under the condition that his voice not be used for excessive marketing or merchandising. Robin Williams 1996.jpg
Initially, Robin Williams voiced Genie under the condition that his voice not be used for excessive marketing or merchandising.

In gratitude for his success with Touchstone Pictures' Good Morning, Vietnam , Robin Williams voiced the Genie for SAG scale pay—$75,000—instead of his asking fee of $8 million, on condition that his name or image not be used for marketing, and his (supporting) character not take more than 25% of space on advertising artwork, since Williams' film Toys was scheduled for release one month after Aladdin's debut. For financial reasons, the studio went back on the deal on both counts, especially in poster art by having the Genie in 25% of the image, but having other major and supporting characters portrayed considerably smaller. The Disney Hyperion book Aladdin: The Making of an Animated Film listed both of Williams' characters "The Peddler" and "The Genie" ahead of main characters, but was forced to refer to him only as "the actor signed to play the Genie". [34] [37] [38]

Disney, while not using Williams's name in commercials as per the contract, used his voice for the Genie in the commercials and used the Genie character to sell toys and fast food tie-ins, without having to pay Williams additional money; Williams unhappily quipped at the time, "The only reason Mickey Mouse has three fingers is because he can't pick up a check." Williams explained to New York magazine that his previous Mork & Mindy merchandising was different because, "the image is theirs. But the voice, that's me; I gave them myself. When it happened, I said, 'You know I don't do that.' And they [Disney] apologized; they said it was done by other people." [39] Disney attempted to assuage Williams by sending him a Pablo Picasso painting worth more than $1 million at the time, but this move failed to repair the damaged relationship, as the painting was a self-portrait of the artist as Vincent van Gogh which apparently really "clashed" with the Williams' wilder home decor. [40] Williams refused to sign on for The Return of Jafar so it was Dan Castellaneta that voiced the Genie. When Jeffrey Katzenberg was replaced by Joe Roth as Walt Disney Studios chairman, Roth organized a public apology to Williams. [41] Williams would, in turn, reprise the role in the 1996 direct-to-video sequel Aladdin and the King of Thieves . [42]

Music

The third—after The Little Mermaid and Beauty and the Beast—and final Disney film score the duo would work on, Alan Menken and Howard Ashman began writing the Academy Award winning score together, with Tim Rice taking over as lyricist after Ashman died of AIDS-related complications part way through the production of Aladdin in early 1991. [43] Although fourteen songs were written for Aladdin, only six are featured in the movie, three by each lyricist. [44] Composer Alan Menken and songwriters Howard Ashman and Tim Rice were praised for creating a soundtrack that is "consistently good, rivaling the best of Disney's other animated musicals from the '90s." [45] The DVD Special Edition released in 2004 includes four songs in early animation tests, and a music video of one, "Proud of Your Boy", performed by Clay Aiken, [46] which also appears on the album DisneyMania 3 . [47] The version of the song "A Whole New World" performed by Peabo Bryson and Regina Belle, which plays over the end credits, holds the distinction of being the first and, so far, only Disney song to win a Grammy Award for Song of the Year.

Themes

"The original story was sort of a winning the lottery kind of thing ... Like having anything you could wish for would be the greatest thing in the world and having it taken away from you is bad, but having it back is great. We didn't really want that to be the message of the movie."

–Ron Clements [31]

The filmmakers thought the moral message of the original tale was inappropriate, and decided to "put a spin on it" by making the fulfillment of wishes seem like a great solution, but eventually becoming a problem. [31] Another major theme was avoiding an attempt to be what the person is not – both Aladdin and Jasmine get into trouble pretending to be different people, [9] and the Prince Ali persona fails to impress Jasmine, who only falls for Aladdin when she finds out who he truly is. [48] Being "imprisoned" is also presented, a fate that occurs to most of the characters – Aladdin and Jasmine are limited by their lifestyles, Genie is attached to his lamp, and Jafar to the Sultan – and is represented visually by the prison-like walls and bars of the Agrabah palace, and the scene involving caged birds which Jasmine later frees. [9] Jasmine is also depicted as a different Disney Princess, being rebellious against the royal life and the social structure. [49]

Release

Box office

A large promotion campaign preceded Aladdin's debut in theaters, with the film's trailer being attached to most Disney VHS releases, and numerous tie-ins and licensees being released. [50] After a limited release on November 13, 1992, [51] Aladdin debuted in 1131 theaters on November 25, 1992, grossing $19.2 million in its opening weekend – number two at the box office, behind Home Alone 2: Lost in New York . [52] It took eight weeks for the film to reach number one at the US box office, breaking the record for the week between Christmas and New Year's Eve with $32.2 million. [53] The film held the top spot five times during its 22-week run. [54] Aladdin was the most successful film of 1992 grossing $217 million in the United States and over $504 million worldwide. [4] It was the biggest gross for an animated film until The Lion King two years later, and was the first full-length animated film to gross $200 million in North America. [55]

Outside of North America, the film grossed $200 million in 1993, [56] and $250 million by January 1994. [57] By 2002, the film had grossed $287 million overseas and $504 million worldwide. [58] As of January 2014, it is the thirtieth highest grossing animated film and the third highest-grossing traditionally-animated feature worldwide, behind The Lion King and The Simpsons Movie . [59] It sold an estimated 52,442,300 tickets in the United States, [60] where its domestic gross is equivalent to $477,749,800 adjusted for inflation in 2018. [61]

Home media

The film was first released in VHS on October 1, 1993, as part of the Walt Disney Classics line. In its first week of availability, Aladdin sold over 10.6 million copies, [62] grossing about $265 million in the United States. [63] In less than three weeks, the VHS release of Aladdin sold over 16 million units and grossed over $400 million in the United States. [64] By December 1993, it had topped 21 million sales and grossed about $500 million in the United States. [65] By 1994, it went on to sell over 25 million units in total (a record only broken by the later release of The Lion King). [66] This VHS edition entered moratorium on April 30, 1994. [67] A THX-certified widescreen LaserDisc was issued in Autumn 1994, [68] and a Spanish-dubbed VHS for the American market was released on April 14, 1995. [69] In Japan, 2.2 million home video units were sold by 1995. [70] [71]

On October 5, 2004, Aladdin was rereleased onto VHS and for the first time released onto DVD, as part of Disney's Platinum Edition line. The DVD release featured retouched and cleaned-up animation, prepared for Aladdin's planned but ultimately cancelled IMAX reissue in 2003, [72] and a second disc with bonus features. Accompanied by a $19 million marketing campaign, [73] the DVD sold about 3 million units in its first month. [74] The film's soundtrack was available in its original Dolby 5.1 track or in a new Disney Enhanced Home Theater Mix. [46] The DVD went into moratorium in January 2008, along with its sequels. [75]

According to an insert in the Lady and the Tramp Diamond Edition release case, Aladdin was going to be released on Blu-ray Disc as a Diamond Edition in Spring 2013. [76] Instead, Peter Pan was released on Blu-ray as a Diamond Edition on February 5, 2013 to celebrate its 60th anniversary. [77] [78] A non-Diamond Edition Blu-ray was released in a few select European countries in March 2013. The Belgian edition (released without advertisements, commercials or any kind of fanfare) comes as a 1-disc version with its extras ported over from the Platinum Edition DVD. The same disc was released in the United Kingdom on April 14, 2013. [79] Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment released the film on a Diamond Edition Blu-ray on October 13, 2015. The film was released on Digital HD on September 29, 2015. [80] [81] [82] Upon its first week of release on home media in the U.S., the film topped the Blu-ray Disc sales chart and debuted at number 2 at the Nielsen VideoScan First Alert chart, which tracks overall disc sales behind the disaster film San Andreas . [83] The film's Blu-Ray release in the United States sold 1.81 million units and grossed $39 million, as of 2017. [84]

Reception

Critical reception

The review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes reported that 94% of critics gave the film a positive review based on a sample of 71 reviews, with an average rating of 8.14/10. The site's consensus reads, "A highly entertaining entry in Disney's renaissance era, Aladdin is beautifully drawn, with near-classic songs and a cast of scene-stealing characters." [85] On Metacritic, the film has a weighted average score of 86 out of 100 based on 25 critics, indicating "universal acclaim". [86]

Most critics' praise went to Robin Williams' performance as Genie, [85] with Janet Maslin of The New York Times declaring that children "needn't know precisely what Mr. Williams is evoking to understand how funny he is." [87] Warner Bros. Cartoons director Chuck Jones even called the film "the funniest feature ever made." [15] Furthermore, English-Irish comedian Spike Milligan considered it to be the greatest film of all time. [88] James Berardinelli gave it 3.5 out of 4 stars, praising the "crisp visuals and wonderful song-and-dance numbers." [89] Peter Travers of Rolling Stone said the comedy made the film accessible to both children and adults, [90] a vision shared with Desson Howe of The Washington Post , who also said "kids are still going to be entranced by the magic and adventure." [91] Brian Lowry of Variety praised the cast of characters, describing the expressive magic carpet as "its most remarkable accomplishment" and considered that "Aladdin overcomes most story flaws thanks to sheer technical virtuosity." [92]

Some aspects of the film were widely criticized. Ed Gonzalez of Slant Magazine wrote a negative review, describing the film as racist, ridiculous, and a "narcissistic circus act" from Robin Williams. [93] Roger Ebert, who generally praised the film in his review, considered the music inferior to its predecessors The Little Mermaid and Beauty and the Beast, and claimed Aladdin and Jasmine were "pale and routine." He criticized what he saw as the film's use of ethnic stereotypes, writing: "Most of the Arab characters have exaggerated facial characteristics – hooked noses, glowering brows, thick lips – but Aladdin and the princess look like white American teenagers." [94]

Accolades

Aladdin also received many award nominations, mostly for its music. It won two Academy Awards, Best Original Score and Best Original Song for "A Whole New World" and receiving nominations for Best Song ("Friend Like Me"), Best Sound Editing (Mark A. Mangini), and Best Sound (Terry Porter, Mel Metcalfe, David J. Hudson and Doc Kane). [95] At the Golden Globes, Aladdin won Best Original Song ("A Whole New World") and Best Original Score, as well as a Special Achievement Award for Robin Williams, with a nomination for Best Motion Picture – Musical or Comedy. [96] Other awards included the Annie Award for Best Animated Feature, [97] a MTV Movie Award for Best Comedic Performance to Robin Williams, [98] Saturn Awards for Best Fantasy Film, Performance by a Younger Actor to Scott Weinger and Supporting Actor to Robin Williams, [99] the Best Animated Feature by the Los Angeles Film Critics Association, [100] and four Grammy Awards, Best Soundtrack Album, and Song of the Year, Best Pop Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocal and Best Song Written Specifically for a Motion Picture or for Television for "A Whole New World". [101]

The film is recognized by American Film Institute in these lists:

2004: AFI's 100 Years...100 Songs:

Controversies

One of the verses of the opening song "Arabian Nights" was altered following complaints from the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee (ADC). The lyrics were changed in July 1993 from "Where they cut off your ear if they don't like your face," in the original release to "Where it's flat and immense and the heat is intense," with the change first appearing on the 1993 video release. [102] The original lyric was intact on the initial CD soundtrack release, but the re-releases use the edited lyric. The Broadway adaptation also uses the edited line. [103] The rerecording has the original voice on all other lines and then a noticeably deeper voice says the edited line. The subsequent line however, "It's barbaric, but hey, it's home," was left intact. Entertainment Weekly ranked Aladdin in a list of the most controversial films in history, due to this incident. [104] The number has been described in reviews as "simultaneously glamorizing and barbarizing the Arab world." [105] The ADC also complained about the portrayal of the lead characters Aladdin and Jasmine. They criticized the characters' Anglicized features and Anglo-American accents, in contrast to the other characters in the film, which have foreign accents, grotesque facial features, and appear villainous or greedy. [102]

Concerns were also raised to another scene. When Aladdin is threatened by the tiger Rajah on the palace balcony, Aladdin quietly says a line that some people reported hearing as "Good teenagers, take off your clothes," [106] which they considered a subliminal reference to promiscuity. However, according to the commentary track on the 2004 DVD, while Musker and Clements did admit Scott Weinger ad-libbed during the scene, they claimed "we did not record that, we would not record that," and said the line was "Good tiger, take off and go..." and the word "tiger" is overlapped by Rajah's snarl. [107] After the word tiger, a second voice can be heard which has been suggested was accidentally grafted onto the soundtrack. Because of the controversy, Disney removed the line on the DVD release. [108]

Animation enthusiasts have noticed similarities between Aladdin and Richard Williams' unfinished film The Thief and the Cobbler (also known as The Princess and the Cobbler under Allied Filmmakers and Arabian Knight under Miramax Films). These similarities include a similar plot, similar characters, scenes and background designs, and the antagonist Zig-Zag's resemblance in character design and mannerisms to Genie and Jafar. [109] [110] Though Aladdin was released prior to The Thief and the Cobbler, The Thief and the Cobbler initially began production much earlier in the 1960s, and was mired in difficulties including financial problems, copyright issues, story revisions and late production times caused by separate studios trying to finish the film after Richard Williams was fired from the project for lack of finished work. [111] The late release, coupled with Miramax purchasing and re-editing the film, has sometimes resulted in The Thief and the Cobbler being labeled a rip-off of Aladdin. [110]

Live-action adaptations

Live-action prequel spin-off

On July 15, 2015, the studio announced the development of a live-action comedy adventure prequel called Genies. The film was being written by Mark Swift and Damian Shannon, while Tripp Vinson was on board to produce via his Vinson Films banner. It was intended to serve as a lead to the live-action Aladdin film. [112] On November 8, Disney revealed it had originally planned to use Robin Williams' unused lines from the 1991–92 recording sessions for the film, but his will prohibited the studio from using his likeness for twenty-five years after his death. [113]

Live-action film

In October 2016, it was reported that Disney was developing a live-action adaptation of Aladdin with Guy Ritchie signed on to direct the film. John August is writing the script, which will reportedly retain the musical elements of the original film, while Dan Lin is attached as producer. [114] Lin revealed that they were looking for a diverse cast. [115] In April 2017, Will Smith entered talks to play the Genie. [116] The following month, Jade Thirlwall entered talks to portray the role of Jasmine. [117] Alan Menken said filming was slated to begin August 2017. [118] Production had originally been scheduled to begin in July, but was delayed due to Disney having trouble finding the right people to play Aladdin and Jasmine. British actress Naomi Scott and Indian actress Tara Sutaria were being considered to play Jasmine. For the role of Aladdin, British actors Riz Ahmed and Dev Patel were initially considered, but it was later decided that a newcomer should be cast in the role. [119] In July 2017, it was announced that Egyptian-Canadian actor Mena Massoud had been cast as Aladdin, Scott as Jasmine, and Smith as the Genie. [120] [121] At the 2017 D23 Expo, Menken announced that he would be co-writing new songs for the film with Academy Award winners Pasek and Paul ( La La Land ) [122] while Vanessa Taylor ( Game of Thrones , The Shape of Water ) would re-write the script. [123] In August 2017, Marwan Kenzari, Nasim Pedrad, and Numan Acar joined the cast as Jafar, Dalia, and Hakim, respectively. [124] [125] The following month, Billy Magnussen and Navid Negahban were cast as Prince Anders and the Sultan, respectively. [126] [127] Filming began on September 6, 2017 at Longcross Studios and concluded on January 24, 2018. [128] [129] The film was released on May 24, 2019. [130]

See also

Notes

  1. Aladdin and the Magic Lamp was authored by Hanna Diyab, [1] [2] and was added to the One Thousand and One Nights by Antoine Galland, appearing in his French translation Les mille et une nuits . [3]

Related Research Articles

Jafar (Disney) Aladdin character

Jafar is a fictional character who appears in Walt Disney Pictures' 31st animated feature film Aladdin (1992). He is voiced by American actor Jonathan Freeman, who also portrayed the character in the Broadway musical adaptation. An inspiration to the character is the villain Jafar, played by Conrad Veidt in The Thief of Bagdad, from which Aladdin borrows several character ideas and plot elements. The Jafar of Disney's Aladdin plays essentially the same part as the character from the 1940 movie, and is drawn with notable similarity to Conrad Veidt's looks.

<i>The Return of Jafar</i> 1994 animated film

The Return of Jafar is a 1994 American direct-to-video animated musical fantasy adventure film produced by Walt Disney Television Animation. It is the first sequel to the 1992 film Aladdin, and serves as the pilot to the Aladdin animated series. Released on May 20, 1994, it was the first Disney direct-to-video animated film, and marked the first American direct-to-video animated film.

<i>Aladdin and the King of Thieves</i> 1996 animated film directed by Tad Stones

Aladdin and the King of Thieves is a 1996 American direct-to-video animated musical fantasy adventure film produced by Walt Disney Television Animation. It is the second sequel to the 1992 film Aladdin, and serves as the final chapter of the Arabian Nights-inspired Disney franchise beginning with the first film, and continuing with its first direct-to-video sequel The Return of Jafar and the animated series of the same name.

<i>Aladdin</i> (animated TV series) Animated television series made by Walt Disney Television

Aladdin is an American animated television series produced by Walt Disney Television Animation which aired from February 6, 1994, to November 25, 1995, based on the original 1992 Disney film of the same name. The series is set after The Return of Jafar, although it debuted four months before the movie. It ended with Aladdin and the King of Thieves.

Princess Jasmine character from Disneys Aladdin

Princess Jasmine is a fictional character who appears in Walt Disney Pictures' 31st animated feature film Aladdin (1992). Voiced by American actress Linda Larkin – with a singing voice provided by Filipina singer Lea Salonga – Jasmine is the spirited Princess of Agrabah, who has grown weary of her life of palace confinement. Despite an age-old law stipulating that the princess must marry a prince in time for her upcoming birthday, Jasmine is instead determined to marry someone she loves for who he is as opposed to what he owns. Created by directors Ron Clements and John Musker with screenwriters Ted Elliott and Terry Rossio, Jasmine is based on Badroulbadour, a princess who appears in the One Thousand and One Nights folktale "Aladdin and the Magical Lamp".

Iago (Disney) fictional character in Disneys Aladdin franchise

Iago is a fictional supporting character who appears in Walt Disney Pictures' 31st animated feature film Aladdin (1992), the direct-to-video sequels The Return of Jafar (1994), Aladdin and the King of Thieves (1996), and the television series. He is voiced by American comedian Gilbert Gottfried in animation and by Disney voice actor Alan Tudyk in the live action adaptation of Aladdin. Iago first appeared in the first film as a minion to the main villain Jafar, and later becomes one of the protagonists for part of the franchise's run, particularly the two direct-to-video sequels and television adaptation. The red-plumed talking scarlet macaw is an homage to the villain of William Shakespeare's Othello.

Ron Clements American animation director

Ronald Francis Clements is an American animation director, screenwriter and producer. He often collaborates with fellow director John Musker.

Disneys Aladdin: A Musical Spectacular stage show at Disney California Adventure

Disney's Aladdin: A Musical Spectacular was a Broadway-style show based on Disney's 1992 animated film Aladdin with music by Alan Menken and lyrics by Howard Ashman, Tim Rice and Alan Menken.

John Musker American animation director

John Edward Musker is an American animation director. Along with Ron Clements, he makes up the duo of one of the Disney animation studio's leading director teams.

Aladdin (Disney character) fictional character in Disneys Aladdin series

Aladdin is a fictional character and the titular protagonist of Walt Disney Pictures' 31st animated feature film Aladdin (1992) based on Aladdin, a folk tale of Middle Eastern origin. He is voiced by American actor Scott Weinger, while his singing voice is provided by Brad Kane. He also stars in the two direct-to-video sequels The Return of Jafar (1994) and Aladdin and the King of Thieves (1996), as well as the animated television series based on the film. Mena Massoud played a live-action version of the character in a live action adaptation of the 1992 film.

<i>Aladdin</i> (1992 soundtrack) 1992 soundtrack album by Various artists

Aladdin: Original Motion Picture Soundtrack is the soundtrack for the 1992 Disney animated feature film, Aladdin. The album was released by Walt Disney Records on CD and cassette tape on October 27, 1992. The soundtrack was intertwined with demos, work tapes and unreleased masters, as well as original scores in 1994 in a four-disc box set entitled The Music Behind the Magic: The Musical Artistry of Alan Menken, Howard Ashman & Tim Rice. A remastered reissue with altered lyrics and new artwork was released in 2001. A special edition reissue featuring two previously released demos and new artwork was released in 2004.

<i>Aladdin Jr.</i> musical

Aladdin Jr. is a one-act, eleven-scene theatre musical adapted from the 1992 Walt Disney Animation Studios film Aladdin which is an adaptation of the folk tale Aladdin. The production runs between 60 and 80 minutes and includes five female parts, six male parts, and a chorus.

"Prince Ali" and its reprise are two musical numbers from the 1992 Disney animated film Aladdin. The first part was performed by Robin Williams in his role as the Genie and the reprise is performed by Jonathan Freeman in his role as Jafar. The song performed by Williams was nominated for the Golden Globe Award for Best Original Song at the 50th Golden Globe Awards in 1993.

<i>Aladdin</i> (2011 musical) Musical

Aladdin is a Broadway musical based on the 1992 Disney animated film of the same name with a book by Chad Beguelin, music by Alan Menken and lyrics by Howard Ashman, Tim Rice and Beguelin. It resurrects three songs written by Menken and Ashman for the film but not used, and adds four songs written by Menken and Beguelin.

<i>Aladdin</i> (franchise) Disney media franchise based on the folk tale of the same name from One Thousand and One Nights

Aladdin is a Disney media franchise comprising a film series and additional media. It began with the 1992 American animated feature of the same name, which was based on the tale of the same name, and was directed by Ron Clements and John Musker. The success of the film led to two direct-to-video sequels, a television series, a Broadway musical, a live-action film adaptation, various rides and themed areas in Disney's theme parks, several video games, and merchandise, among other related works. The franchise as a whole has EGOT-ed, meaning it has won the four biggest awards of American show business: the Emmy, Grammy, Oscar and Tony Awards.

Genie (Disney) character from Disneys Aladdin

The Genie is a fictional Jinn appearing in Walt Disney Pictures' 31st animated feature film Aladdin (1992). He was voiced by Robin Williams in the first film. Following a contract dispute between Williams and the Walt Disney Company, Dan Castellaneta voiced the Genie throughout the direct-to-video feature The Return of Jafar, as well as the television series, before Williams reprised the role for the final installment, Aladdin and the King of Thieves, as well as for the character's own mini-series, Great Minds Think for Themselves. Castellaneta voiced the Genie in Aladdin in Nasira's Revenge and later the Kingdom Hearts series of video games by Square Enix and Disney Interactive Studios for both Kingdom Hearts and Kingdom Hearts II. Jim Meskimen took over the role in Disney Think Fast (2008) and Kinect Disneyland Adventures (2011) and currently voices him, after Williams' death in 2014. Will Smith plays a live-action version of the character in the 2019 live-action adaptation of the original 1992 film.

<i>Aladdin</i> (2019 film) 2019 film by Walt Disney Pictures directed by Guy Ritchie

Aladdin is a 2019 American musical fantasy film produced by Walt Disney Pictures. Directed by Guy Ritchie, who co-wrote the screenplay with John August, it is a live action adaptation of Disney's 1992 animated film of the same name, which is based on the eponymous tale from One Thousand and One Nights. The film stars Will Smith, Mena Massoud, Naomi Scott, Marwan Kenzari, Navid Negahban, Nasim Pedrad, Billy Magnussen, and Numan Acar, as well as the voices of Alan Tudyk and Frank Welker. The plot follows Aladdin, a street urchin, as he falls in love with Princess Jasmine, befriends a wish-granting Genie, and battles the wicked Jafar.

<i>Aladdin</i> (2019 soundtrack) 2019 soundtrack album by various artists

Aladdin is a soundtrack for the film of the same name, released by Walt Disney Records in May 2019. The soundtrack features a cover of "A Whole New World" by Zayn Malik and Zhavia Ward, songs from the original film, a new song written by the original film's composer Alan Menken and Pasek & Paul, and a score composed by Menken. The soundtrack was released on May 22, 2019.

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