Song of the South

Last updated

Song of the South
Song of south poster.jpg
Original theatrical release poster
Directed by
Produced by Walt Disney
Screenplay by
Based on Uncle Remus by
Joel Chandler Harris
Starring
Music by
Cinematography Gregg Toland
Edited byWilliam M. Morgan
Production
company
Distributed by RKO Radio Pictures
Release date
  • November 12, 1946 (1946-11-12)(Premiere: Atlanta, Georgia) [1]
  • November 20, 1946 (1946-11-20) [1]
Running time
94 minutes [2]
CountryUnited States
LanguageEnglish
BudgetUS$2.125 million [3]
Box officeUS$65 million [4]

Song of the South is a 1946 American live-action/animated musical film produced by Walt Disney and released by RKO Radio Pictures. It is based on the collection of Uncle Remus stories as adapted by Joel Chandler Harris, and stars James Baskett as Uncle Remus. The film takes place in the southern United States during the Reconstruction era, a period of American history shortly after the end of the American Civil War and the abolition of slavery. The story follows seven-year-old Johnny (Bobby Driscoll) who is visiting his grandmother's plantation for an extended stay. Johnny befriends Uncle Remus, one of the workers on the plantation, and takes joy in hearing his tales about the adventures of Br'er Rabbit, Br'er Fox, and Br'er Bear. Johnny learns from the stories how to cope with the challenges he is experiencing while living on the plantation.

A live-action animated film is one that combines live action filmmaking with animation.

Musical film film genre

Musical film is a film genre in which songs sung by the characters are interwoven into the narrative, sometimes accompanied by dancing.

Walt Disney American entrepreneur, animator, voice actor and film producer

Walter Elias Disney was an American entrepreneur, animator, voice actor and film producer. A pioneer of the American animation industry, he introduced several developments in the production of cartoons. As a film producer, Disney holds the record for most Academy Awards earned by an individual, having won 22 Oscars from 59 nominations. He was presented with two Golden Globe Special Achievement Awards and an Emmy Award, among other honors. Several of his films are included in the National Film Registry by the Library of Congress.

Contents

Walt Disney had wanted to produce a film based on the Uncle Remus stories for some time. It was not until 1939 that he began negotiating with the Harris family for the film rights, and finally in 1944, filming for Song of the South began. The studio constructed a plantation set for the outdoor scenes in Phoenix, Arizona, and some other scenes were filmed in Hollywood. The film is predominantly live action, but includes three animated segments, which were later released as stand-alone television features. Some scenes also feature a combination of live action with animation. Song of the South premiered in Atlanta in November 1946 and the remainder of its initial theater run was a financial success. The song "Zip-a-Dee-Doo-Dah" won the 1947 Academy Award for Best Original Song and Baskett received an Academy Honorary Award for his performance as Uncle Remus.

Phoenix, Arizona State capital city in Arizona, United States

Phoenix is the capital and most populous city of Arizona, with 1,660,272 people. It is also the fifth most populous city in the United States, and the most populous American state capital, and the only state capital with a population of more than one million residents.

Hollywood Neighborhood of Los Angeles in California, United States

Hollywood is a neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, California, notable as the home of the U.S. film industry, including several of its historic studios. Its name has come to be a shorthand reference for the industry and the people associated with it.

"Zip-a-Dee-Doo-Dah" is a song composed by Allie Wrubel with lyrics by Ray Gilbert from the Disney 1946 live action and animated movie Song of the South, sung by James Baskett. For "Zip-a-Dee-Doo-Dah", the film won the Academy Award for Best Original Song and was the second in a long line of Disney songs to win this award, after "When You Wish upon a Star" from Pinocchio (1940). In 2004 it finished at number 47 in AFI's 100 Years...100 Songs, a survey of top tunes in American cinema.

Since its original release, Song of the South has remained a subject of controversy. Some critics have described the film's portrayal of African Americans as racist and offensive, maintaining that the black vernacular and other qualities are stereotypes. In addition, the plantation setting is sometimes criticized as idyllic and glorified. Because of this controversy, Disney has yet to release Song of the South on any home video format in the United States. Some of the musical and animated sequences have been released through other means, and the full film has seen home video distribution in other countries around the world. The cartoon characters from the film have continued to feature in a variety of books, comics, and other media. The Disney theme park ride Splash Mountain is also based on the film.

African Americans are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa. The term typically refers to descendants of enslaved black people who are from the United States.

Racism in the United States

Racism in the United States has existed since the colonial era, when white Americans were given legally or socially sanctioned privileges and rights while these same rights were denied to other races and minorities. European Americans — particularly affluent white Anglo-Saxon Protestants — enjoyed exclusive privileges in matters of education, immigration, voting rights, citizenship, land acquisition, and criminal procedure throughout American history. Non-Protestant immigrants from Europe, particularly Irish, Italians, and Poles, were also victims of xenophobic exclusion and other forms of discrimination in American society until the late 1800s and early 1900s. In addition, groups like Jews and Arabs have faced continuous discrimination in the United States, and as a result, some people who belong to these groups do not identify as white. East, South, and Southeast Asians have similarly faced racism in America.

African-American Vernacular English, known less precisely as Black Vernacular, Black English Vernacular (BEV), Black Vernacular English (BVE) or colloquially Ebonics, is the variety of English natively spoken by many working- and middle-class African Americans and some Black Canadians, particularly in urban communities.

Synopsis

Setting

The film is set on a plantation in the southern United States, specifically in the state of Georgia, some distance from Atlanta. Although sometimes misinterpreted as taking place before the American Civil War while slavery was still legal in the region, the film takes place during the Reconstruction Era after slavery was abolished. [5] [6] [7] [8] Harris' original Uncle Remus stories were all set after the American Civil War and the abolition of slavery. Harris himself, born in 1848, was a racial reconciliation activist writer and journalist of the Reconstruction Era. The film makes several indirect references to the Reconstruction Era: clothing is in the newer late-Victorian style; Uncle Remus is free to leave the plantation at will; black field hands are sharecroppers, etc. [9]

Plantations in the American South large farms in the antebellum southern US, farmed by large numbers of enslaved Africans, typically growing cotton, tobacco, sugar, indigo, or rice

Plantations are an important aspect of the history of the American South, particularly the antebellum era. The mild subtropical climate, plentiful rainfall, and fertile soils of the southeastern United States allowed the flourishing of large plantations, where large numbers of workers, usually Africans held captive for slave labor, were required for agricultural production.

United States Federal republic in North America

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country comprising 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the most populous city is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico. The State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate, and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.

Georgia (U.S. state) State of the United States of America

Georgia is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. Georgia is the 24th largest and 8th-most populous of the 50 United States. Georgia is bordered to the north by Tennessee and North Carolina, to the northeast by South Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by Florida, and to the west by Alabama. The state's nicknames include the Peach State and the Empire State of the South. Atlanta, a "beta(+)" global city, is both the state's capital and largest city. The Atlanta metropolitan area, with an estimated population of 5,949,951 in 2018, is the 9th most populous metropolitan area in the United States and contains about 60% of the entire state population.

Plot

Seven-year-old Johnny (Bobby Driscoll) is excited about what he believes to be a vacation at his grandmother's Georgia plantation with his parents, John Sr. (Erik Rolf) and Sally (Ruth Warrick). When they arrive at the plantation, he discovers that his parents will be living apart for a while, and he is to live at the plantation with his mother and grandmother (Lucile Watson) while his father returns to Atlanta to continue his controversial editorship in the city's newspaper. Johnny, distraught because of his father's departure, secretly sets off that night for Atlanta with only a bindle.

Bobby Driscoll actor

Robert Cletus Driscoll was an American child actor and artist known for a large body of cinema and TV performances from 1943 to 1960. He starred in some of the Walt Disney Studios' most popular live-action pictures of that period, such as Song of the South (1946), So Dear to My Heart (1949), and Treasure Island (1950). He served as animation model and provided the voice for the title role in Peter Pan (1953). In 1950, he received an Academy Juvenile Award for outstanding performance in feature films of 1949, for his roles in So Dear to My Heart and The Window, both released in 1949.

Ruth Warrick American actress

Ruth Elizabeth Warrick was an American singer, actress and political activist, best known for her role as Phoebe Tyler Wallingford on All My Children, which she played regularly from 1970 until her death in 2005.

Bindle Bag, sack, or carrying device stereotypically used by the commonly American sub-culture of hobos

A bindle is the bag, sack, or carrying device stereotypically used by the American sub-culture of hobos. A "bindlestiff" was another name for a hobo who carried a bindle. The bindle is colloquially known as the "blanket stick", particularly within the Northeastern hobo community. A "bindlestiff", according to James Blish in his novel, A Life for the Stars, was about a hobo who stole another hobo's "bindle," hence the colloquium "stiff" as in steal.

As Johnny sneaks away from the plantation, he is attracted by the voice of Uncle Remus (James Baskett) telling tales of a character named Br'er Rabbit. By this time, word had gotten out that Johnny was missing, and some plantation residents are looking for him. Johnny evades being discovered, but Uncle Remus catches up with him. They befriend each other and Uncle Remus offers him some food for his journey, taking him back to his cabin. While at the cabin, Uncle Remus tells Johnny the traditional African-American folktale, "Br'er Rabbit Earns a Dollar a Minute". In the story, Br'er Rabbit (Johnny Lee) attempts to run away from home only to change his mind after an encounter with Br'er Fox and Br'er Bear (James Baskett and Nick Stewart). Johnny takes the advice and changes his mind about leaving the plantation, letting Uncle Remus take him back to his mother.

Uncle Remus fairy tale of South United States

Uncle Remus is the fictional title character and narrator of a collection of African-American folktales adapted and compiled by Joel Chandler Harris, published in book form in 1881. A journalist in post-Reconstruction Atlanta, Georgia, Harris produced seven Uncle Remus books. He wrote these stories to represent the struggle in the Southern United States, and more specifically in the plantations. He did so by introducing tales he had heard and framing them in the plantation context. He wrote his stories in a dialect that represented the voice of the narrators and their subculture. For this choice of framing, his collection has encountered controversy.

James Baskett actor

James Baskett was an American actor known for his portrayal of Uncle Remus, singing the song "Zip-a-Dee-Doo-Dah" in the 1946 Disney feature film Song of the South. In recognition of his warm portrayal of the famous black storyteller he was given an Honorary Academy Award, making him the first black male performer to receive an Oscar.

Brer Rabbit fictional rabbit in Uncle Remus folklore

Br'er Rabbit, also spelled Bre'r Rabbit or Brer Rabbit, is a central figure as Uncle Remus tells stories of the Southern United States. Br'er Rabbit is a trickster who succeeds by his wits rather than by brawn, provoking authority figures and bending social mores as he sees fit. The Walt Disney Company later adapted this character for its 1946 animated motion picture Song of the South.

Johnny makes friends with Toby (Glenn Leedy), a young black boy who lives on the plantation, and Ginny Favers (Luana Patten), a poor white girl. Ginny gives Johnny a puppy after her two older brothers, Joe (Gene Holland) and Jake (George Nokes), threaten to drown it. Johnny's mother refuses to let him take care of the puppy, so he takes the dog to Uncle Remus. Uncle Remus takes the dog in and delights Johnny and his friends with the fable of Br'er Rabbit and the Tar-Baby, stressing that people shouldn't get involved with something they have no business with in the first place. Johnny heeds the advice of how Br'er Rabbit used reverse psychology on Br'er Fox and begs the Favers Brothers not to tell their mother (Mary Field) about the dog. The reverse psychology works, and the boys go to speak with their mother. After being spanked, they realize that Johnny had fooled them. In an act of revenge, they tell Sally about the dog. She becomes upset that Johnny and Uncle Remus kept the dog despite her order (which was unknown to Uncle Remus). She instructs Uncle Remus not to tell any more stories to her son.

Johnny's birthday arrives and Johnny picks up Ginny to take her to his party. On the way there, Joe and Jake push Ginny into a mud puddle. With her dress ruined, Ginny is unable to go to the party and runs off crying. Johnny begins fighting with the boys, but their fight is broken up by Uncle Remus, who scolds Joe and Jake. Johnny runs off to comfort Ginny. He explains that he does not want to go either, especially since his father will not be there. Uncle Remus discovers both dejected children and cheers them up by telling the story of Br'er Rabbit and his "Laughing Place". When the three return to the plantation, Sally becomes angry at Johnny for missing his own birthday party, and tells Uncle Remus not to spend any more time with him. Saddened by the misunderstanding of his good intentions, Uncle Remus packs his bags and leaves for Atlanta. Johnny rushes to intercept him, but is attacked by a bull and seriously injured after taking a shortcut through a pasture. While Johnny hovers between life and death, his father returns. Johnny calls for Uncle Remus, who is then escorted in by his grandmother. Uncle Remus begins telling a tale of Br'er Rabbit and the Laughing Place, and the boy miraculously survives.

Johnny, Ginny, and Toby are next seen skipping along and singing while Johnny's returned puppy runs alongside them. Uncle Remus is also in the vicinity and he is shocked when Br'er Rabbit and several of the other characters from his stories appear in front of them and interact with the children. Uncle Remus rushes to join the group, and they all skip away singing.

Cast

Clockwise from left: Ginny (Luana Patten), Uncle Remus (James Baskett), Johnny (Bobby Driscoll) and Toby (Glenn Leedy) Remuskids.jpg
Clockwise from left: Ginny (Luana Patten), Uncle Remus (James Baskett), Johnny (Bobby Driscoll) and Toby (Glenn Leedy)

Voices

Development

In the aftermath of World War II, Walt Disney Studios faced financial difficulties due to a lack of foreign marketing for animated films during wartime. The studio produced few theatrical animated shorts then, focusing instead on military training films which broke even, but produced no profit. The studio only profited in 1945 and 46 by reissuing Snow White and Pinocchio , and still had to lay off half of its employees in 1946. With additional financial difficulties due to a union strike in 1941, Disney sought to produce live-action films to generate additional revenue. [10] While Disney’s contract with RKO was for animated films, films which mixed live-action with animation fell under the contract, allowing the studio to lower production costs on Saludos Amigos and The Three Caballeros . [10] Additionally, Disney owned the rights to several properties purchased after the success of Snow White which could be made into family films. In 1938, Disney became interested the Joel Chandler Harris Uncle Remus storybook, claiming to remember hearing the stories as a child, and prepared two research reports to determine if it was possible to film the stories, dated April 8 and April 11, 1938. He purchased the rights to the stories in 1939, paying Harris’ family $10,000. [10] By 1986, the film based on the stories, Song of the South, had earned $300,000,000. [10] Beginning in 1939, Disney began developing Uncle Remus as an entirely animated feature. The stories were also considered as two-reel animated shorts. Stories considered for the production included “Brer Rabbit Rides the Fox”, in which Brer Rabbit tricks Brer Fox into riding him like a horse to a party, and “De Wuller-De-Wust”, in which Brer Rabbit pretends to be a ghost to scare Brer Bear. In another treatment, Uncle Remus gathers the critters together for a prayer meeting and to encourage them to build a church which would bring peace between predators and prey. Also proposed was a storyline in which Brer Rabbit’s addiction to gambling would be at the root of the troubles that led to the films adventures. [10] Disney first began to negotiate with Harris' family for the rights in 1939, and by late summer of that year he already had one of his storyboard artists summarize the more promising tales and draw up four boards' worth of story sketches. [4] In November 1940, Disney visited the Harris' home in Atlanta. He told Variety that he wanted to "get an authentic feeling of Uncle Remus country so we can do as faithful a job as possible to these stories." [4] Roy O. Disney had misgivings about the project, doubting that it was "big enough in caliber and natural draft" to warrant a budget over $1 million and more than twenty-five minutes of animation. [10] Walt Disney planned to produce a series of Uncle Remus films if the first one was successful, each with the same live-action cast but different animated shorts. Ultimately, the studio decided that only a third of the film would be animated and the rest would be live-action. [10] Disney was initially going to have the screenplay written by the studio animators, but later sought professional writers. [10] In June 1944, Disney hired Southern-born writer Dalton Reymond to write the screenplay, and he met frequently with King Vidor, whom he was trying to interest in directing the live-action sequences. [4]

Dalton Reymond delivered a 51 page outline on May 15, 1944. [11] [5] The Hays Code reviewed Reymond’s outline, and demanded that some terminology, such as characters referring to Remus as a “old darkie” be removed from Reymond’s treatment. [12]

Disney hired African-American performer and writer Clarence Muse to be consulted on the screenplay, but Muse quit when Reymond ignored Muse’s suggestions to portray African-American characters in a way that would be perceived as being dignified and more than Southern stereotypes. [11] Muse subsequently wrote letters to the editors of black publications to criticize the depiction of African-Americans in Reymond’s script. Disney suspected that Muse would later attack the film because Disney did not choose Muse to play the part of Uncle Remus, which Muse had lobbied for. [12] Furthermore, Walter White, executive secretary of the NAACP, and June Blythe, the director of the American Council on Race Relations, were denied requests to see a treatment for the film. [12] In addition to concerns about his racial stereotypying, Reymond had never written a screenplay before or since. Maurice Rapf, who had been writing live-action features at the time, was asked by Walt Disney Productions to work with Reymond and co-writer Callum Webb to turn the treatment into a shootable screenplay. [5] According to Neal Gabler, one of the reasons Disney had hired Rapf to work with Reymond was to temper what Disney feared would be Reymond's "white Southern slant".

Reymond’s treatment included the phrases “massa”, in reference to white characters, and “darkey”, in reference to plantation workers, prominently. [11] Rapf removed the offending phrases, but dialogue he added to make it clear that the film was set after slavery had ended was removed; one character in Rapf’s script states, in reference to the black plantation workers, “We gotta pay these people. They’re not slaves.” Uncle Remus also states, after being told that he cannot read anymore stories to Johnny, “I’m a free man; I don’t have to take this.” [11] Rapf saw the animal stories as metaphors for slave resistance, and intended to portray Brer Rabbit as a smaller, less powerful black man, and in place of the oppressive whites would be Brer Fox, Brer Bear and the deleted character Brer Coon. [11]

Rapf was a minority, a Jew, and an outspoken left-winger, and he himself feared that the film would inevitably be Uncle Tomish. "That's exactly why I want you to work on it," Walt told him, "because I know that you don't think I should make the movie. You're against Uncle Tomism, and you're a radical." [4]

Rapf initially hesitated, but when he found out that most of the film would be live-action and that he could make extensive changes, he accepted the offer. [5] Rapf worked on Uncle Remus for about seven weeks. When he got into a personal dispute with Reymond, Rapf was taken off the project. [5] According to Rapf, Walt Disney "ended every conference by saying 'Well, I think we've really licked it now.' Then he'd call you the next morning and say, 'I've got a new idea.' And he'd have one. Sometimes the ideas were good, sometimes they were terrible, but you could never really satisfy him." [4] Morton Grant was assigned to the project. [5] Disney sent out the script for comment both within the studio and outside the studio. [4]

On May 10, 1944, the title changed from Uncle Remus to Song of the South. [11]

Production

Casting

In February 1941, Disney talked with Paul Robeson about him playing Uncle Remus, and the two remained in talks about the project for several years, but ultimately he was not cast. It is speculated that Robeson’s politics made him too controversial for the role. [10] Other actors considered included Rex Ingram. [10] Clarence Muse lobbied for the role of Uncle Remus while consulting on the screenplay, but left the project due to Dalton Reymond’s depiction of African-Americans in the original treatment. [12] James Baskett was cast as Uncle Remus after responding to an ad for providing the voice of a talking butterfly. "I thought that, maybe, they'd try me out to furnish the voice for one of Uncle Remus' animals," Baskett is quoted as saying. Upon review of his voice, Disney wanted to meet Baskett personally, and had him tested for the role of Uncle Remus. Not only did Baskett get the part of the butterfly's voice, but also the voice of Br'er Fox and the live-action role of Uncle Remus as well. [13] Additionally, Baskett filled in as the voice of Br'er Rabbit for Johnny Lee in the "Laughing Place" scene after Lee was called away to do promotion for the picture. [14] Disney liked Baskett, and told his sister Ruth that Baskett was "the best actor, I believe, to be discovered in years". Even after the film's release, Disney maintained contact with Baskett. [4] Disney also campaigned for Baskett to be given an Academy Award for his performance, saying that he had worked "almost wholly without direction" and had devised the characterization of Remus himself. Thanks to Disney's efforts, Baskett won an honorary Oscar in 1948. [4] [5] After Baskett's death, his widow wrote Disney and told him that he had been a "friend indeed and [we] certainly have been in need". [4]

Also cast in the production were child actors Bobby Driscoll, Luana Patten, and Glenn Leedy (his only screen appearance). Driscoll was the first actor to be under a personal contract with the Disney studio. [15] Patten had been a professional model since age 3, and caught the attention of Disney when she appeared on the cover of Woman's Home Companion magazine. [16] Leedy was discovered on the playground of the Booker T. Washington school in Phoenix, Arizona, by a talent scout from the Disney studio. [17] Ruth Warrick and Erik Rolf, cast as Johnny's mother and father, had actually been married during filming, but divorced in 1946. [18] [19] Hattie McDaniel also appeared in the role of Aunt Tempy.

Filming

Production started under the title Uncle Remus. [4] [5] The budget was originally $1,350,000. [20] The animated segments of the film were directed by Wilfred Jackson, while the live-action segments were directed by Harve Foster. [4] Filming began in December 1944 in Phoenix, where the studio had constructed a plantation and cotton fields for outdoor scenes, and Disney left for the location to oversee what he called "atmospheric shots". [4] Back in Hollywood, the live action scenes were filmed at the Samuel Goldwyn Studio.

On the final day of shooting, Jackson discovered that the scene in which Uncle Remus sings the film's signature song, "Zip-a-Dee-Doo-Dah", had not been properly blocked. According to Jackson, "We all sat there in a circle with the dollars running out, and nobody came up with anything. Then Walt suggested that they shoot Baskett in close-up, cover the lights with cardboard save for a sliver of blue sky behind his head, and then remove the cardboard from the lights when he began singing so that he would seem to be entering a bright new world of animation. Like Walt's idea for Bambi on ice, it made for one of the most memorable scenes in the film." [4]

Animation

Br'er Rabbit takes Br'er Fox and Br'er Bear to his "laughing place" Laughingplace.jpg
Br'er Rabbit takes Br'er Fox and Br'er Bear to his "laughing place"

There are three animated segments in the film (in all, they last a total of 25 minutes). The last few minutes of the film also contain combine animation with live-action. The three sequences were later shown as stand-alone cartoon features on television.

Music

Nine songs are heard in the film, with four reprises. Nearly all of the vocal performances are by the largely African-American cast, and the renowned all-black Hall Johnson Choir sing four pieces: two versions of a blues number ("Let the Rain Pour Down"), one chain-reaction-style folk song [21] ("That's What Uncle Remus Said") and one spiritual ("All I Want").

The songs are, in film order, as follows:

"Let the Rain Pour Down" is set to the melody of "Midnight Special", a traditional blues song popularized by Lead Belly (Huddie William Ledbetter). The song title "Look at the Sun" appeared in some early press books, though it is not actually in the film. [22] The song "Zip-a-Dee-Doo-Dah" was influenced by the chorus of the pre-Civil War folk song "Zip Coon", that is considered racist as it plays on an African American stereotype. [23] [24]

Theatrical release

The film premiered at the Fox Theatre in Atlanta in 1946. Fox Theater night.jpg
The film premiered at the Fox Theatre in Atlanta in 1946.

The film premiered on November 12, 1946, at the Fox Theater in Atlanta. [4] Walt Disney made introductory remarks, introduced the cast, then quietly left for his room at the Georgian Terrace Hotel across the street; he had previously stated that unexpected audience reactions upset him and he was better off not seeing the film with an audience. James Baskett was unable to attend the film's premiere because he would not have been allowed to participate in any of the festivities, as Atlanta was then a racially segregated city. [25] The film grossed $3.3 million at the box office. [4] [26]

As had been done earlier with Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs , Disney produced a Sunday comic strip titled Uncle Remus & His Tales of Br'er Rabbit to give the film pre-release publicity. The strip was launched by King Features on October 14, 1945, more than a year before the film was released. Unlike the Snow White comic strip, which only adapted the film, Uncle Remus ran for decades, telling one story after another about the characters, some based on the legends and others new, until it ended on December 31, 1972. [27] Apart from the newspaper strips, Disney Br'er Rabbit comics were also produced for comic books; the first such stories appeared in late 1946. Produced both by Western Publishing and European publishers such as Egmont, they continue to appear. [28]

In 1946, a Giant Golden Book entitled Walt Disney's Uncle Remus Stories was published by Simon & Schuster. It featured 23 illustrated stories of Br'er Rabbit's escapades, all told in a Southern dialect based on the original Joel Chandler Harris stories.

Song of the South was re-released in theaters several times after its original premiere, each time through Buena Vista Pictures: in 1956 for the 10th anniversary; in 1972 for the 50th anniversary of Walt Disney Productions; in 1973 as the second half of a double bill with The Aristocats ; in 1980 for the 100th anniversary of Harris' classic stories; and in 1986 for the film's own 40th anniversary and in promotion of the upcoming Splash Mountain attraction at Disneyland and Disney World. The entire uncut film has been broadcast on various European and Asian television channels including by the BBC as recently as 2006. The film (minus the infamous Tar Baby scene which was cut from all American television airings) was also aired on US television as part of the Disney Channel's "Lunch Box" program in the 1980s and 1990s until December 18, 2001.

Reception on first release

Although the film was a financial success, netting the studio a profit of $226,000 ($2,833,970 in 2017 dollars) [29] some critics were less enthusiastic about the film, not so much the animated sections as the live-action. Bosley Crowther wrote in The New York Times , "More and more, Walt Disney's craftsmen have been loading their feature films with so-called 'live action' in place of their animated whimsies of the past, and by just those proportions has the magic of these Disney films decreased", citing the ratio of live action to animation at two to one, concluding that is "approximately the ratio of its mediocrity to its charm". [4]

The film received positive notice. Time magazine called the film "top-notch Disney". [5]

Accolades

James Baskett was voted an Academy Honorary Award for his portrayal of Uncle Remus, the first African-American man to win any kind of Oscar. Uncle Remus 1946.JPG
James Baskett was voted an Academy Honorary Award for his portrayal of Uncle Remus, the first African-American man to win any kind of Oscar.

The score by Daniele Amfitheatrof, Paul J. Smith, and Charles Wolcott was nominated in the "Scoring of a Musical Picture" category, and "Zip-a-Dee-Doo-Dah", written by Allie Wrubel and Ray Gilbert, won the award for Best Song at the 20th Academy Awards on March 20, 1948. [30] A special Academy Award was given to Baskett "for his able and heart-warming characterization of Uncle Remus, friend and story teller to the children of the world in Walt Disney's Song of the South". Bobby Driscoll and Luana Patten in their portrayals of the children characters Johnny and Ginny were also discussed for Academy Juvenile Awards, but in 1947 it was decided not to present such awards at all. [31]

The film is recognized by American Film Institute in these lists:

Controversies

The film has received significant controversy for its handling of race. [34] Cultural historian Jason Sperb describes the film as "one of Hollywood's most resiliently offensive racist texts". [35] Sperb, Neal Gabler, and other critics have noted the film's release as being in the wake of the Double V campaign, a propaganda campaign in the United States during World War II to promote victory over racism in the United States and its armed forces, and victory over fascism abroad. [36] Early in the film's production, there was concern that the material would encounter controversy. Disney publicist Vern Caldwell wrote to producer Perce Pearce that "the negro situation is a dangerous one. Between the negro haters and the negro lovers there are many chances to run afoul of situations that could run the gamut all the way from the nasty to the controversial." [4]

The Disney Company has stated that, like Harris' book, the film takes place after the American Civil War and that all the African American characters in the movie are no longer slaves. [9] The Hays Office had asked Disney to "be certain that the frontispiece of the book mentioned establishes the date in the 1870s"; yet, the final film carried no such statement. [5]

When the film was first released, Walter Francis White, the executive secretary of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), telegraphed major newspapers around the country with the following statement, erroneously claiming that the film depicted an antebellum setting:

The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People recognizes in Song of the South remarkable artistic merit in the music and in the combination of living actors and the cartoon technique. It regrets, however, that in an effort neither to offend audiences in the north or south, the production helps to perpetuate a dangerously glorified picture of slavery. Making use of the beautiful Uncle Remus folklore, Song of the South unfortunately gives the impression of an idyllic master-slave relationship which is a distortion of the facts. [5]

White had not yet seen the film; his statement was based on memos he received from two NAACP staff members; Norma Jensen and Hope Spingarn, who attended a press screening on November 20, 1946. Jensen had written the film was "so artistically beautiful that it is difficult to be provoked over the clichés" but, said it contained "all the clichés in the book", mentioning she felt scenes like blacks singing traditional black songs were offensive as a stereotype. Spingarn listed several things she found objectionable from the film, including the use of African-American English. [5] Jim Hill Media stated that both Jensen and Spingarn were confused by the film's Reconstruction setting, writing; "it was something that also confused other reviewers who from the tone of the film and the type of similar recent Hollywood movies [ Gone with the Wind ; Jezebel ] assumed it must also be set during the time of slavery." Based on the Jensen and Spingarn memos, White released the "official position" of the NAACP in a telegram that was widely quoted in newspapers. [37] The New York Times' Bosley Crowther made a similar assumption, writing that the movie was a "travesty on the antebellum South." [38]

Time magazine, although it praised the film, cautioned that it was "bound to land its maker in hot water", because the character of Uncle Remus was "bound to enrage all educated Negroes and a number of damyankees". [39] Adam Clayton Powell, Jr., a congressman from Harlem, branded the film an "insult to American minorities [and] everything that America as a whole stands for." [40] The National Negro Congress set up picket lines in theaters in the big cities where the film played, with its protesters holding signs that read "Song of the South is an insult to the Negro people" and, lampooning "Jingle Bells", chanted: "Disney tells, Disney tells/lies about the South." [40] On April 2, 1947, a group of protesters marched around Paramount Theatre (Oakland, California) with picket signs reading, "We want films on Democracy not Slavery" and "Don't prejudice children's minds with films like this". [41] Jewish newspaper B'nai B'rith Messenger of Los Angeles considered the film to be "tall[ying] with the reputation that Disney is making for himself as an arch-reactionary".

Some of the black press had mixed reactions on what they thought of Song of the South. While Richard B. Dier in The Afro-American was "thoroughly disgusted" by the film for being "as vicious a piece of propaganda for white supremacy as Hollywood ever produced," Herman Hill in The Pittsburgh Courier felt that Song of the South would "prove of inestimable goodwill in the furthering of interracial relations", and considered criticisms of the film to be "unadulterated hogwash symptomatic of the unfortunate racial neurosis that seems to be gripping so many of our humorless brethren these days." [42]

Home media

The Walt Disney Company has yet to release a complete version of the film in the United States on home video given the film's controversial reputation. [43] [44] Over the years, Disney has made a variety of statements about whether and when the film would be re-released. [45] [46] [47] [48] From 1984-2005, Disney CEO Michael Eisner stated that the film would never receive a home video release in the U.S.A., due to not wanting to have to hire a viewing disclaimer. However he favored its release in Europe and Asia where "slavery is a lesser controversial subject". At Eisner's request Uncle Remus was not featured at the Disneyland, Disney World, and/or Tokyo Disneyland Splash Mountain attractions, instead replacing him with Brer Frog as the narrator. Quotes of Uncle Remus from the film are still carved along the wall of the ride at all three locations. In March 2010, new Disney CEO Bob Iger stated that there are currently no plans at this time to release the movie on DVD yet, calling the film "antiquated" and "fairly offensive". [49] On November 15, 2010, Disney creative director Dave Bossert stated in an interview, "I can say there's been a lot of internal discussion about Song of the South. And at some point we're going to do something about it. I don't know when, but we will. We know we want people to see Song of the South because we realize it's a big piece of company history, and we want to do it the right way." [50] Film critic Roger Ebert, who normally disdained any attempt to keep films from any audience, supported the non-release position, claiming that most Disney films become a part of the consciousness of American children, who take films more literally than do adults. [51] [52]

Despite not having a home video release in the United States, audio from the film—both the musical soundtrack and dialogue—were made widely available to the public from the time of the film's debut up through the late 1970s. In particular, many book-and-record sets were released, alternately featuring the animated portions of the film or summaries of the film as a whole. [53] The Walt Disney Company has also allowed key portions of the film to be issued on many VHS and DVD compilations in the U.S.A., as well as on the long-running Walt Disney anthology television series. Most recently, "Zip-a-Dee-Doo-Dah" and some of the animated portions of the film were issued on the Alice in Wonderland 2-DVD Special Edition set. These segments are part of a 1950 Walt Disney TV special included on the DVD which promoted the then-forthcoming Alice in Wonderland film. From 1986-2001 most of the musical segments notably "Zip-a-Dee-Doo-Dah", "How Do You Do?", Everybody's Got A Laughing Place" were included on the VHS and LaserDisc releases of the Disney Sing-Along Songs series.

The full-length film has been released in its entirety on VHS and LaserDisc in various European and Asian countries. In the UK, it was released on PAL VHS first in 1983, then in 1991, 1992, and 1996, and again in 2000. In Japan it appeared on NTSC VHS, and LaserDisc in 1990 with Japanese subtitles during songs (additionally, under Japanese copyright law, the film is now in the public domain). [54] An NTSC DVD was released in Taiwan for the rental market by ""Classic Reels"". This release appears to have been created from a PAL VHS, and has a 4% faster running time because of its PAL source. [55] [56] While most foreign releases of the film are literal translations of the English title, the German title, Onkel Remus' Wunderland, translates to "Uncle Remus' Wonderland", the Italian title, I Racconti Dello Zio Tom, translates to "The Stories of Uncle Tom", [57] and the Norwegian title Onkel Remus forteller translates to "Storyteller Uncle Remus". [58]

In July 2017, after being inaugurated as a Disney Legend, Whoopi Goldberg expressed a desire for Song of the South to be re-released publicly to American audiences. [59]

Legacy

The Disney theme park ride, Splash Mountain, is based on Song of the South. Splash Mountain at Disneyland.JPG
The Disney theme park ride, Splash Mountain, is based on Song of the South.

As early as October 1945, a newspaper strip named Walt Disney Presents "Uncle Remus" and His Tales of Br'er Rabbit appeared in the United States, and this production continued until 1972. There have also been episodes for the series produced for the Disney comic books worldwide, in the U.S., Denmark and the Netherlands, from the 1940s up to the present day, 2012. [60] Br'er Bear and Br'er Fox also appeared frequently in Disney's Big Bad Wolf stories, although here, Br'er Bear was usually cast as an honest farmer and family man, instead of the bad guy in his original appearances.

Br'er Rabbit, Br'er Fox and Br'er Bear appeared as guests in Disney's House of Mouse . They also appeared in Mickey's Magical Christmas: Snowed in at the House of Mouse . Br'er Bear and the Tar-Baby also appear in the 1988 film Who Framed Roger Rabbit . Br'er Bear can be seen in the Maroon Cartoon studio lot, briefly during the scene driving into Toon Town, and near the end while the Toons are celebrating finding the will. The Tar-Baby can briefly be seen during the scene driving into Toon Town.

Br'er Rabbit, Br'er Fox and Br'er Bear also appeared in the 2011 video game Kinect: Disneyland Adventures for the Xbox 360. The game is a virtual recreation of Disneyland and it features a mini game based on the Splash Mountain attraction. Br'er Rabbit helps guide the player character through that game, while Br'er Fox and Br'er Bear serve as antagonists. The three Br'ers also appear as meet-and-greet characters in the game, outside Splash Mountain in Critter Country. In the game, Jess Harnell reprises his role from the attraction as Br'er Rabbit and also takes on the role of Br'er Fox, while Br'er Bear is voiced by James Avery, who previously voiced Br'er Bear and Br'er Frog in the Walt Disney World version of Splash Mountain. This is the Br'ers' first major appearance in Disney media since The Lion King 1½ in 2004 and their first appearance as computer-generated characters.

In 2003, the Online Film Critics Society ranked the film as the 67th greatest animated film of all time. [61] On Rotten Tomatoes, the film has a 55% approval rating, based on 11 reviews, with an average rating of 5.8/10. [62]

Related Research Articles

Joel Chandler Harris Journalist, childrens writer

Joel Chandler Harris was an American journalist, fiction writer, and folklorist best known for his collection of Uncle Remus stories. Harris was born in Eatonton, Georgia, where he served as an apprentice on a plantation during his teenage years. He spent most of his adult life in Atlanta working as an associate editor at the Atlanta Constitution.

Paul Murry was an American cartoonist and comics artist. He is best known for his Disney comics, which appeared in Dell Comics and Gold Key Comics from 1946 to 1984.

Ollie Johnston American motion picture animator / director

Oliver Martin Johnston, Jr. ("Ollie") was an American motion picture animator. He was one of Disney's Nine Old Men, and the last surviving at the time of his death from natural causes. He was recognized by The Walt Disney Company with its Disney Legend Award in 1989. His work was recognized with the National Medal of Arts in 2005.

Tar-Baby sticky fake baby used to entrap Brer Rabbit

The Tar-Baby is the second of the Uncle Remus stories published in 1880; it is about a doll made of tar and turpentine used by the villainous Br'er Fox to entrap Br'er Rabbit. The more that Br'er Rabbit fights the Tar-Baby, the more entangled he becomes.

Splash Mountain attraction at Disney theme parks

Splash Mountain is a log flume at Disneyland, Tokyo Disneyland, and the Magic Kingdom at the Walt Disney World Resort, based on the characters, stories, and songs from the 1946 Disney film Song of the South. Although there are variations in the story and features between the three locations, each installation begins with a peaceful outdoor float-through that leads to indoor dark ride segments, with a climactic steep drop into a "briar patch" followed by an indoor finale. The drop is 50 feet (15 m).

One Hour in Wonderland is a 1950 television special made by Walt Disney Productions. It was first seen on Christmas Day, 1950, over NBC for Coca-Cola, and was Walt Disney's first television production. It featured Walt as host, with Bobby Driscoll, Kathryn Beaumont, Edgar Bergen & Charlie McCarthy, and other celebrities who worked with Walt, including the Firehouse Five Plus Two jazz band. This special was actually a promotional film for Disney's upcoming theatrical feature, Alice in Wonderland. Kathryn Beaumont, who was Alice's voice, was dressed like her for this television special.

The Laughing Place is a traditional African American folktale, featuring Br'er Rabbit, Br'er Fox and Br'er Bear. It is famous for its inclusion among Joel Chandler Harris' Uncle Remus stories.

<i>The Adventures of Brer Rabbit</i> 2006 film

The Adventures of Brer Rabbit is a book, a play, and a film inspired by the Uncle Remus stories. The central character's actual name is Br'er Rabbit, but in the title "Br'er" is simplified as "Brer".

No film received more than three awards at the 20th Academy Awards. This would not recur until the 78th Academy Awards.

Mickey Mouse Revue

The Mickey Mouse Revue was an indoor audio-animatronic stage show in the Fantasyland areas of the Magic Kingdom and Tokyo Disneyland theme parks. It was one of the three original opening day attractions in the Magic Kingdom's Fantasyland in 1971, and after closing in 1980, it was moved to Tokyo Disneyland for that park's opening in 1983.

Brer Fox and Brer Bear

Br'er Fox and Br'er Bear are fictional characters from the Uncle Remus folktales adapted and compiled by Joel Chandler Harris.

John Dotson Lee Jr. was an American singer, dancer and actor known for voicing the role of Br'er Rabbit in Disney's Song of the South (1946) and as the clownish, cringing, tremulous-voiced shyster pseudo-lawyer Algonquin J. Calhoun in the CBS Amos 'n' Andy TV and radio comedy series in the early 1950s. Much of his career was spent in vaudeville, but he also performed in motion pictures, on recordings and in television. He released a record in July 1949 called "You Can't Lose A Broken Heart", with backup vocals by The Ebonaires. Lee also starred in an all-black musical comedy called "Sugar Hill" in 1949 at Las Palmas Theatre in California.

Events in 1948 in animation.

Brer Rabbit Earns a Dollar a Minute

"Br'er Rabbit Earns a Dollar a Minute" is a traditional African American folktale, featuring Br'er Rabbit, Br'er Fox and Br'er Bear. It is famous for its inclusion among Joel Chandler Harris' Uncle Remus stories. Although its folk roots most likely trace back to ancient Africa, the folktale's first written appearance was as a chapter titled "Mr. Rabbit and Mr. Bear" in Uncle Remus: His Songs and Sayings, published in 1881.

Maurice Rapf Screenwriter and university professor

Maurice Harry Rapf was an American screenwriter and professor of film studies. His work includes the screenplays for early Disney live-action features Song of the South (1946) and So Dear to My Heart (1949), uncredited work on the screenplay for the animated feature Cinderella (1950), and several films of the late 1930s. He was a co-founder of the Screen Writers Guild. He was blacklisted in 1947 due to his association with the Communist Party USA. He later taught film studies at Dartmouth College.

References

Notes

  1. 1 2 "Song of the South: Detail View". American Film Institute. Retrieved April 29, 2014.
  2. "SONG OF THE SOUTH (U)". British Board of Film Classification . October 23, 1946. Retrieved November 28, 2015.
  3. Solomon, Charles (1989), p. 186. Enchanted Drawings: The History of Animation. ISBN   0-394-54684-9. Alfred A. Knopf. Retrieved February 16, 2008.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Gabler, Neal (October 31, 2006). Walt Disney: The Triumph of the American Imagination. Knopf. pp. 432–9, 456, 463, 486, 511, 599. ISBN   0-679-43822-X.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Cohen, Karl F. (1997). Forbidden Animation: Censored Cartoons and Blacklisted Animators in America. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc. p. 64. ISBN   0-7864-2032-4.
  6. Kaufman, Will (2006). The Civil War in American Culture. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. ISBN   0-7486-1935-6.
  7. Langman, Larry; Ebner, David (2001). Hollywood's Image of the South: A Century of Southern Films. Westport Connecticut, London: Greenwood Press. p. 169. ISBN   0-313-31886-7.
  8. Snead, James A.; MacCabe, Colin; West, Cornel (1994). White Screens, Black Images: Hollywood from the Dark Side. New York: Routledge. pp. 88, 93. ISBN   0-415-90574-5.
  9. 1 2 Walt Disney Presents "Song of the South" Promotional Program, Page 7. Published 1946 by Walt Disney Productions/RKO Radio Pictures.
  10. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Korkis, Jim. “Song of the South: The Beginning”. Pp 21-26
  11. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Korkis, Jim. “Song of the South: The Screenplay”. Pp 27-34
  12. 1 2 3 4 Korkis, Jim. “Song of the South: The Controversy”. Pp 67-74
  13. "James Baskett as Uncle Remus". Song of the South.net. Retrieved January 18, 2007.
  14. "Trivia for Song of the South". Internet Movie Database . Retrieved January 18, 2007.
  15. Bobby Driscoll biography at Song of the South.net
  16. "Luana Patten as Ginny Favers". Song of the South.net. Retrieved January 18, 2007.
  17. "Glenn Leedy as Toby". Song of the South.net. Retrieved January 18, 2007.
  18. "Ruth Warrick as Sally". Song of the South.net. Retrieved January 18, 2007.
  19. "Eric Rolf as John". Song of the South.net. Retrieved January 18, 2007.
  20. Variety 12 September 1945 p 12
  21. Walt Disney's Song of the South, 1946 Publicity Campaign Book, Distributed by RKO Pictures. Copyright Walt Disney Pictures, 1946. "The chain-reaction, endless song, of which American folk music is so plentiful [...] The number is 'Uncle Remus Said,' and it consists of a single, brief melody repeated as often as new lyrics come along."
  22. "Song of the South Song Lyrics" . Retrieved October 18, 2018.
  23. Emerson, Ken (1997). Doo-dah!: Stephen Foster and the Rise of American Popular Culture. New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 60. ISBN   978-0684810102.
  24. "Blackface!". black-face.com. Retrieved December 24, 2013.
  25. In a October 15, 1946 article in the Atlanta Constitution , columnist Harold Martin noted that to bring Baskett to Atlanta, where he would not have been allowed to participate in any of the festivities, "would cause him many embarrassments, for his feelings are the same as any man's". The modern claim that no Atlanta hotel would give Baskett accommodation is false: there were several black-owned hotels in the Sweet Auburn area of downtown Atlanta at the time, including the Savoy and the McKay. Atlanta's Black-Owned Hotels: A History.
  26. "Top Grossers of 1947", Variety, 7 January 1948 p 63
  27. Markstein, Don. "Br'er Rabbit". Don Markstein's Toonopedia. Archived from the original on September 1, 2015. Retrieved January 18, 2007.
  28. Coa.inducks.org
  29. Thomas, Bob (1994). Walt Disney: An American Original. New York.: Hyperion Books. p. 161. ISBN   0-7868-6027-8.
  30. Song of the South opened in Los Angeles in 1947, which became its qualification year for the awards.
  31. Parsons, Luella (February 28, 1960). "That Little Girl in 'Song of the South' a Big Girl Now". Lincoln Sunday Journal and Star. Retrieved September 2, 2008.
  32. "AFI's 100 Years...100 Songs" (PDF). American Film Institute . Retrieved August 13, 2016.
  33. "AFI's Greatest Movie Musicals Nominees" (PDF). Retrieved August 13, 2016.
  34. Time
  35. Jason Sperb, Disney's Most Notorious Film, University of Texas Press (2012), ISBN   0292739745, ISBN   978-0292739741; reviewed in John Lingan, Bristling Dixie, Slate January 4, 2013 (accessed August 21, 2013)
  36. Sperb, Disney's Most Notorious Film
  37. Jim Hill Media. Wednesdays with Wade: Did the NAACP kill "Song of the South"? November 15, 2005.
  38. The New York Times.The Screen; 'Song of the South,' Disney Film Combining Cartoons and Life, Opens at Palace—Abbott and Costello at Loew's Criterion By Bosley Crowther, November 28, 1946.
  39. "The New Pictures". Time. November 18, 1946.
  40. 1 2 Watts, Steven (2001). The Magic Kingdom: Walt Disney and the American Way of Life. University of Missouri Press. pp. 276–277. ISBN   0-8262-1379-0.
  41. Jim., Korkis, (2012). Who's afraid of the Song of the South? : and other forbidden Disney stories. Norman, Floyd. Orlando, Fla.: Theme Park Press. ISBN   0984341552. OCLC   823179800.
  42. Gevinson, Alan (1997). Within Our Gates: Ethnicity in American Feature Films, 1911-1960. California: University of California Press. p. 956. ISBN   978-0520209640.
  43. Inge, M. Thomas (September 2012). "Walt Disney's Song of the South and the Politics of Animation". Journal of American Culture. 35 (3): 228. Retrieved July 2, 2016.
  44. "Disney (Song of the South)". Urban Legends Reference Pages . Retrieved January 18, 2007.
  45. Audio of Robert Iger's statement can be heard here
  46. "2007 Transcript from shareholder's meeting" . Retrieved April 20, 2007.
  47. "Disney Backpedaling on Releasing Song of the South?". songofthesouth.net. Retrieved May 28, 2007.
  48. "Actually, things are looking pretty good right now for "Song of the South" to finally be released on DVD in late 2008 / early 2009". jimhillmedia.net. Retrieved July 6, 2007.
  49. "Disney CEO Calls Movie Antiquated and Fairly Offensive". songofthesouth.net. Retrieved March 16, 2010.
  50. "Disney Producer Encouraging About 'Song of the South' Release". The Post-Movie Podcast. November 20, 2010. Retrieved November 16, 2011.
  51. Mike Brantley (January 6, 2002). "'Song of the South'". Alabama Mobile Register. Retrieved January 18, 2007.
  52. http://www.rogerebert.com/answer-man/movie-answer-man-02132000
  53. "Song of the South Memorabilia". Song of the South.net. Archived from the original on February 13, 2007. Retrieved January 18, 2007.
  54. "Japanese Court Rules Pre-1953 Movies in Public Domain", contactmusic.com, December 7, 2006.
  55. "Song of the South, Laserdisc (Hong Kong)
  56. "Intercontinental Video Ltd
  57. "AKAs for Song of the South" . Retrieved January 18, 2007.
  58. "Walt Disney's: helaftens spillefilmer 1941–1981". Archived from the original on May 10, 2011. Retrieved October 3, 2009.
  59. Amidi, Amid (July 15, 2017). "In Her First Act As A Disney Legend, Whoopi Goldberg Tells Disney To Stop Hiding Its History". Cartoon Brew. Retrieved August 7, 2017.
  60. "Brer Rabbit" at Inducks
  61. "Top 100 Animated Features of All Time". Online Film Critics Society. Archived from the original on August 27, 2012. Retrieved January 18, 2007.
  62. "Song of the South (1946)". Rotten Tomatoes . Fandango Media . Retrieved July 19, 2018.

Further reading