# PAL

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Phase Alternating Line (PAL) is a colour encoding system for analogue television used in broadcast television systems in most countries broadcasting at 625-line / 50 field (25 frame) per second (576i). Other common colour encoding systems are NTSC National Television Standards Committee, ATSC Advanced Television Systems Committee, and SECAM.

Analog television or analogue television is the original television technology that uses analog signals to transmit video and audio. In an analog television broadcast, the brightness, colors and sound are represented by rapid variations of either the amplitude, frequency or phase of the signal.

576i is a standard-definition video mode originally used for terrestrial television in most countries of the world where the utility frequency for electric power distribution is 50 Hz. Because of its close association with the color encoding system, it is often referred to as simply PAL, PAL/SECAM or SECAM when compared to its 60 Hz NTSC-color-encoded counterpart, 480i. In digital applications it is usually referred to as "576i"; in analogue contexts it is often called "625 lines", and the aspect ratio is usually 4:3 in analogue transmission and 16:9 in digital transmission.

NTSC, named after the National Television System Committee, is the analog television color system that was used in North America from 1954 and until digital conversion, was used in most of the Americas ; Myanmar; South Korea; Taiwan; Philippines; Japan; and some Pacific island nations and territories.

## Contents

All the countries using PAL are currently in process of conversion or have already converted standards to DVB, ISDB or DTMB.

The digital television transition, also called the digital switchover, the analog switch-off (ASO), or the analog shutdown, is the process, mainly begun in 2006, in which older analog television broadcasting technology is converted to and replaced by digital television. Conducted by individual nations on different schedules, this primarily involves the conversion of analog terrestrial television broadcasting infrastructure to digital terrestrial. However, it also involves analog cable conversion to digital cable or internet protocol television, as well as analog to digital satellite television. Transition of land based broadcasting was begun by some countries around 2000. By contrast, transition of satellite television systems was well underway or completed in many counties by this time. It is an involved process because the existing analog television receivers owned by viewers cannot receive digital broadcasts; viewers must either purchase new digital TVs, or converter boxes which change the digital signal to an analog signal or some other form of a digital signal which can be received on the older TV.

Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB) is a set of international open standards for digital television. DVB standards are maintained by the DVB Project, an international industry consortium, and are published by a Joint Technical Committee (JTC) of the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI), European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC) and European Broadcasting Union (EBU).

The Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting is a Japanese standard for digital television (DTV) and digital radio used by the country's radio and television networks. ISDB replaced NTSC-J analog television system and the previously used MUSE Hi-vision analogue HDTV system in Japan, and will be replacing NTSC, PAL-M and PAL-N in South America and the Philippines. Digital Terrestrial Television Broadcasting (DTTB) services using ISDB-T started in Japan in December 2003 and in Brazil in December 2007 as a trial. Since then, many countries have adopted ISDB over other digital broadcasting standards.

This page primarily discusses the PAL colour encoding system. The articles on broadcast television systems and analogue television further describe frame rates, image resolution and audio modulation.

Terrestrial television systems are the encoding or formatting standards for the transmission and reception of terrestrial television signals. There were three main analog television systems in use around the world until the late 2010s (expected): NTSC, PAL, and SECAM. Now in digital terrestrial television (DTT), there are four main systems in use around the world: ATSC, DVB, ISDB and DTMB.

## History

In the 1950s, the Western European countries began plans to introduce colour television, and were faced with the problem that the NTSC standard demonstrated several weaknesses, including colour tone shifting under poor transmission conditions, which became a major issue considering Europe's geographical and weather-related particularities. To overcome NTSC's shortcomings, alternative standards were devised, resulting in the development of the PAL and SECAM standards. The goal was to provide a colour TV standard for the European picture frequency of 50 fields per second (50 hertz), and finding a way to eliminate the problems with NTSC.

In video, a field is one of the many still images which are displayed sequentially to create the impression of motion on the screen. Two fields comprise one video frame. When the fields are displayed on a video monitor they are "interlaced" so that the content of one field will be used on all of the odd-numbered lines on the screen and the other field will be displayed on the even lines. Converting fields to a still frame image requires a process called deinterlacing, in which the missing lines are duplicated or interpolated to recreate the information that would have been contained in the discarded field. Since each field contains only half of the information of a full frame, however, deinterlaced images do not have the resolution of a full frame.

The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second. It is named after Heinrich Rudolf Hertz, the first person to provide conclusive proof of the existence of electromagnetic waves. Hertz are commonly expressed in multiples: kilohertz (103 Hz, kHz), megahertz (106 Hz, MHz), gigahertz (109 Hz, GHz), terahertz (1012 Hz, THz), petahertz (1015 Hz, PHz), exahertz (1018 Hz, EHz), and zettahertz (1021 Hz, ZHz).

PAL was developed by Walter Bruch at Telefunken in Hanover, West Germany, with important input from Dr. Kruse and Gerhard Mahler  [ de ]. The format was patented by Telefunken in 1962, citing Bruch as inventor, and unveiled to members of the European Broadcasting Union (EBU) on 3 January 1963. When asked, why the system was named "PAL" and not "Bruch" the inventor answered that a "Bruch system" would probably not have sold very well ("Bruch" is the German word for "breakage"). The first broadcasts began in the United Kingdom in June 1967, followed by West Germany later that year. [1] The one BBC channel initially using the broadcast standard was BBC2, which had been the first UK TV service to introduce "625-lines" in 1964. Telefunken PALcolor 708T was the first PAL commercial TV set. It was followed by Loewe-Farbfernseher S 920 & F 900.

Walter Bruch was a German electrical engineer and pioneer of German television. He is the inventor of Closed-circuit television. He invented the PAL colour television system at Telefunken in the early 1960s. In addition to his research activities Walter Bruch was an honorary lecturer at Hannover Technical University. He was awarded the Werner von Siemens Ring in 1975.

Telefunken was a German radio and television apparatus company, founded in Berlin in 1903, as a joint venture of Siemens & Halske and the Allgemeine Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft (AEG).

West Germany was the informal name for the Federal Republic of Germany, a country in Central Europe, in the period between its formation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990. During this Cold War period, the western portion of Germany was part of the Western Bloc. The Federal Republic was created during the Allied occupation of Germany after World War II, established from eleven states formed in the three Allied zones of occupation held by the United States, the United Kingdom and France. Its (provisional) capital was the city of Bonn. The Cold War era West Germany is unofficially historically designated the "Bonn Republic".

Telefunken was later bought by the French electronics manufacturer Thomson. Thomson also bought the Compagnie Générale de Télévision where Henri de France developed SECAM, the first European Standard for colour television. Thomson, now called Technicolor SA, also owns the RCA brand and licenses it to other companies; Radio Corporation of America, the originator of that brand, created the NTSC colour TV standard before Thomson became involved.

Technicolor SA, formerly Thomson SARL and Thomson Multimedia, is a French multinational corporation that provides services and products for the communication, media and entertainment industries. Technicolor's headquarters are located in Paris, France. Other main office locations include Rennes (France), Los Angeles, Edegem (Belgium), London, Bangalore, Chennai (India) and Lawrenceville, Georgia (USA). Former US headquarters of Thomson Consumer Electronics in Carmel, Indiana (USA) was closed in 2017.

Henri Georges de France was a pioneering French television inventor. His inventions include the 819 line French standard and the SECAM color system. He was also apparently behind the HD-MAC high-definition standard.

The European Committee for Standardization is a public standards organization whose mission is to foster the economy of the European Union (EU) in global trading, the welfare of European citizens and the environment by providing an efficient infrastructure to interested parties for the development, maintenance and distribution of coherent sets of standards and specifications.

The term PAL was often used informally and somewhat imprecisely to refer to the 625-line/50 Hz (576i) television system in general, to differentiate from the 525-line/60 Hz (480i) system generally used with NTSC. Accordingly, DVDs were labelled as PAL or NTSC (referring to the line count and frame rate) even though technically the discs carry neither PAL nor NTSC encoded signal. CCIR 625/50 and EIA 525/60 are the proper names for these (line count and field rate) standards; PAL and NTSC on the other hand are methods of encoding colour information in the signal.

## Colour encoding

Both the PAL and the NTSC system use a quadrature amplitude modulated subcarrier carrying the chrominance information added to the luminance video signal to form a composite video baseband signal. The frequency of this subcarrier is 4.43361875 MHz for PAL and NTSC 4.43, compared to 3.579545 MHz for NTSC 3.58. The SECAM system, on the other hand, uses a frequency modulation scheme on its two line alternate colour subcarriers 4.25000 and 4.40625 MHz.

The name "Phase Alternating Line" describes the way that the phase of part of the colour information on the video signal is reversed with each line, which automatically corrects phase errors in the transmission of the signal by cancelling them out, at the expense of vertical frame colour resolution. Lines where the colour phase is reversed compared to NTSC are often called PAL or phase-alternation lines, which justifies one of the expansions of the acronym, while the other lines are called NTSC lines. Early PAL receivers relied on the human eye to do that cancelling; however, this resulted in a comb-like effect known as Hanover bars on larger phase errors. Thus, most receivers now use a chrominance analog delay line, which stores the received colour information on each line of display; an average of the colour information from the previous line and the current line is then used to drive the picture tube. The effect is that phase errors result in saturation changes, which are less objectionable than the equivalent hue changes of NTSC. A minor drawback is that the vertical colour resolution is poorer than the NTSC system's, but since the human eye also has a colour resolution that is much lower than its brightness resolution, this effect is not visible. In any case, NTSC, PAL, and SECAM all have chrominance bandwidth (horizontal colour detail) reduced greatly compared to the luminance signal.

The 4.43361875 MHz frequency of the colour carrier is a result of 283.75 colour clock cycles per line plus a 25 Hz offset to avoid interferences. Since the line frequency (number of lines per second) is 15625 Hz (625 lines × 50 Hz ÷ 2), the colour carrier frequency calculates as follows: 4.43361875 MHz = 283.75 × 15625 Hz + 25 Hz. The frequency 50 Hz is the optional refresh frequency of the monitor to be able to create an illusion of motion, while 625 lines means the vertical lines or resolution that the PAL system supports. The original colour carrier is required by the colour decoder to recreate the colour difference signals. Since the carrier is not transmitted with the video information it has to be generated locally in the receiver. In order that the phase of this locally generated signal can match the transmitted information, a 10 cycle burst of colour subcarrier is added to the video signal shortly after the line sync pulse, but before the picture information, during the so-called back porch. This colour burst is not actually in phase with the original colour subcarrier, but leads it by 45 degrees on the odd lines and lags it by 45 degrees on the even lines. This swinging burst enables the colour decoder circuitry to distinguish the phase of the R-Y vector which reverses every line.

### PAL vs. NTSC

PAL usually has 576 visible lines compared with 486 lines with NTSC, meaning that PAL has a 20% higher resolution, in fact it even has a higher resolution than Enhanced Definition standard (854x486).[ citation needed ] Most TV output for PAL and NTSC use interlaced frames meaning that even lines update on one field and odd lines update on the next field. Interlacing frames gives a smoother motion with half the frame rate. NTSC is used with a frame rate of 60i or 30p whereas PAL generally uses 50i or 25p; both use a high enough frame rate to give the illusion of fluid motion. This is due to the fact that NTSC is generally used in countries with a utility frequency of 60 Hz and PAL in countries with 50 Hz, although there are many exceptions. Both PAL and NTSC have a higher frame rate than film which uses 24 frames per second. PAL has a closer frame rate to that of film, so most films are sped up 4% to play on PAL systems, shortening the runtime of the film and, without adjustment, slightly raising the pitch of the audio track. Film conversions for NTSC instead use 3:2 pull down to spread the 24 frames of film across 60 interlaced fields. This maintains the runtime of the film and preserves the original audio, but may cause worse interlacing artefacts during fast motion.

NTSC receivers have a tint control to perform colour correction manually. If this is not adjusted correctly, the colours may be faulty. The PAL standard automatically cancels hue errors by phase reversal, so a tint control is unnecessary yet Saturation control can be more useful. Chrominance phase errors in the PAL system are cancelled out using a 1H delay line resulting in lower saturation, which is much less noticeable to the eye than NTSC hue errors.

However, the alternation of colour information—Hanover bars—can lead to picture grain on pictures with extreme phase errors even in PAL systems, if decoder circuits are misaligned or use the simplified decoders of early designs (typically to overcome royalty restrictions). In most cases such extreme phase shifts do not occur. This effect will usually be observed when the transmission path is poor, typically in built up areas or where the terrain is unfavourable. The effect is more noticeable on UHF than VHF signals as VHF signals tend to be more robust.

In the early 1970s some Japanese set manufacturers developed decoding systems to avoid paying royalties to Telefunken. The Telefunken licence covered any decoding method that relied on the alternating subcarrier phase to reduce phase errors. This included very basic PAL decoders that relied on the human eye to average out the odd/even line phase errors. One solution was to use a 1H analog delay line to allow decoding of only the odd or even lines. For example, the chrominance on odd lines would be switched directly through to the decoder and also be stored in the delay line. Then, on even lines, the stored odd line would be decoded again. This method effectively converted PAL to NTSC. Such systems suffered hue errors and other problems inherent in NTSC and required the addition of a manual hue control.

PAL and NTSC have slightly divergent colour spaces, but the colour decoder differences here are ignored.

### PAL vs. SECAM

The SECAM patents predate those of PAL by several years (1956 vs 1962). Its creator, Henri de France, in search of a response to known NTSC hue problems, came up with ideas that were to become fundamental to both European systems, namely: 1) colour information on two successive TV lines is very similar and vertical resolution can be halved without serious impact on perceived visual quality 2) more robust colour transmission can be achieved by spreading information on two TV lines instead of just one 3) information from the two TV lines can be recombined using a delay line.

SECAM applies those principles by transmitting alternately only one of the U and V components on each TV line, and getting the other from the delay line. QAM is not required, and frequency modulation of the subcarrier is used instead for additional robustness (sequential transmission of U and V was to be reused much later in Europe's last "analog" video systems: the MAC standards).

SECAM is free of both hue and saturation errors. It is not sensitive to phase shifts between the color burst and the chrominance signal, and for this reason was sometimes used in early attempts at color video recording, where tape speed fluctuations could get the other systems into trouble. In the receiver, it did not require a quartz crystal (which was an expensive component at the time) and generally could do with lower accuracy delay lines and components.

SECAM transmissions are more robust over longer distances than NTSC or PAL. However, owing to their FM nature, the color signal remains present, although at reduced amplitude, even in monochrome portions of the image, thus being subject to stronger cross color.

One serious drawback for studio work is that the addition of two SECAM signals does not yield valid colour information, due to its use of frequency modulation. It was necessary to demodulate the FM and handle it as AM for proper mixing, before finally remodulating as FM, at the cost of some added complexity and signal degradation. In its later years, this was no longer a problem, due to the wider use of component and digital equipment.

PAL can work without a delay line, but this configuration, sometimes referred to as "poor man's PAL", could not match SECAM in terms of picture quality. To compete with it at the same level, it had to make use of the main ideas outlined above, and as a consequence PAL had to pay license fees to SECAM. Over the years, this contributed significantly to the estimated 500 million francs gathered by the SECAM patents (for an initial 100 million francs invested in research). [2]

Hence, PAL could be considered as a hybrid system, with its signal structure closer to NTSC, but its decoding borrowing much from SECAM.

There were initial specifications to use color with the French 819 line format (system E). However, "SECAM E" only ever existed in development phases. Actual deployment used the 625 line format. This made for easy interchange and conversion between PAL and SECAM in Europe. Conversion was often not even needed, as more and more receivers and VCRs became compliant with both standards, helped in this by the common decoding steps and components. When the SCART plug became standard, it could take RGB as an input, effectively bypassing all the color coding formats' peculiarities.

When it comes to home VCRs, all video standards use what is called "color under" format. Color is extracted from the high frequencies of the video spectrum, and moved to the lower part of the spectrum available from tape. Luminance then uses what remains of it, above the color frequency range. This is usually done by heterodyning for PAL (as well as NTSC). But the FM nature of color in SECAM allows for a cheaper trick: division by 4 of the subcarrier frequency (and multiplication on replay). This became the standard for SECAM VHS recording in France. Most other countries kept using the same heterodyning process as for PAL or NTSC and this is known as MESECAM recording (as it was more convenient for some Middle East countries that used both PAL and SECAM broadcasts).

Regarding early (analog) videodiscs, the established Laserdisc standard supported only NTSC and PAL. However, a different optical disc format, the Thomson transmissive optical disc made a brief appearance on the market. At some point, it used a modified SECAM signal (single FM subcarrier at 3.6 MHz [3] ). The media's flexible and transmissive material allowed for direct access to both sides without flipping the disc, a concept that reappeared in multi-layered DVDs about fifteen years later.

### PAL signal details

For PAL-B/G the signal has these characteristics.

ParameterValue
Bandwidth5 MHz [4]
Horizontal sync polarityNegative
Total time for each line64.000  μs [5] [6]
Front porch (A)1.65+0.4
−0.1
μs
Sync pulse length (B)4.7±0.20 μs
Back porch (C)5.7±0.20 μs
Active video (D)51.95+0.4
−0.1
μs

(Total horizontal sync time 12.05 µs)

After 0.9 µs a 2.25±0.23 μs colorburst of 10±1 cycles is sent. Most rise/fall times are in 250±50  ns range. Amplitude is 100% for white level, 30% for black, and 0% for sync. [5] The CVBS electrical amplitude is Vpp 1.0  V and impedance of 75 Ω. [7]

The vertical timings are:

ParameterValue
Vertical lines312.5 (625 total)
Vertical lines visible288 (576 total)
Vertical sync polarityNegative (burst)
Vertical frequency50 Hz
Sync pulse length (F)0.576  ms (burst) [8]
Active video (H)18.4 ms

(Total vertical sync time 1.6 ms)

As PAL is interlaced, every two fields are summed to make a complete picture frame.

Luminance, ${\displaystyle Y}$, is derived from red, green, and blue (${\displaystyle R'G'B'}$) signals: [6]

• ${\displaystyle Y=0.299R'+0.587G'+0.114B'}$

${\displaystyle U}$ and ${\displaystyle V}$ are used to transmit chrominance. Each has a typical bandwidth of 1.3 MHz.

• ${\displaystyle U=0.492(B'-Y)}$
• ${\displaystyle V=0.877(R'-Y)}$

Composite PAL signal ${\displaystyle =Y+U\sin(\omega t)+V\cos(\omega t)+}$timing [6] where ${\displaystyle \omega =2\pi F_{SC}}$.

Subcarrier frequency ${\displaystyle F_{SC}}$ is 4.43361875 MHz (±5 Hz) for PAL-B/D/G/H/I/N.

This table illustrates the differences:

PAL BPAL G, HPAL IPAL D/KPAL MPAL N
Transmission bandVHFUHFUHF/VHF*VHF/UHFVHF/UHFVHF/UHF
Fields505050506050
Lines625625625625525625
Active lines576576576576480576
Channel bandwidth7 MHz8 MHz8 MHz8 MHz6 MHz6 MHz
Video bandwidth5.0 MHz5.0 MHz5.5 MHz6.0 MHz4.2 MHz4.2 MHz
Colour subcarrier4.43361875 MHz4.43361875 MHz4.43361875 MHz4.43361875 MHz3.575611 MHz3.58205625 MHz
Vision/Sound carrier spacing5.5 MHz5.5 MHz6.0 MHz6.5 MHz4.5 MHz4.5 MHz

* System I has never been used on VHF in the UK.

#### PAL-B/G/D/K/I

Many countries have turned off analog transmissions, so the following does not apply, except for using devices which output broadcast signals, such as video recorders. The resolution that PAL gave may or may not still be used, but HD or full HD are most commonly used in digital transmissions.[ citation needed ]

The majority of countries using PAL have television standards with 625 lines and 50 fields per second, differences concern the audio carrier frequency and channel bandwidths. The variants are:

• Standards B/G are used in most of Western Europe, Australia, and New Zealand
• Standard I in the UK, Ireland, Hong Kong, South Africa, and Macau
• Standards D/K (along with SECAM) in most of Central and Eastern Europe
• Standard D in mainland China. Most analogue CCTV cameras are Standard D.

Systems B and G are similar. System B specifies 7 MHz channel bandwidth, while System G specifies 8 MHz channel bandwidth. Australia used System B for VHF and UHF channels. Similarly, Systems D and K are similar except for the bands they use: System D is only used on VHF (except in mainland China), while System K is only used on UHF. Although System I is used on both bands, it has only been used on UHF in the United Kingdom.

#### PAL-M (Brazil)

In Brazil, PAL is used in conjunction with the 525 line, 59.94 field/s system M, using (very nearly) the NTSC colour subcarrier frequency. Exact colour subcarrier frequency of PAL-M is 3.575611 MHz. Almost all other countries using system M use NTSC.

The PAL colour system (either baseband or with any RF system, with the normal 4.43 MHz subcarrier unlike PAL-M) can also be applied to an NTSC-like 525-line (480i) picture to form what is often known as "PAL-60" (sometimes "PAL-60/525", "Quasi-PAL" or "Pseudo PAL"). PAL-M (a broadcast standard) however should not be confused with "PAL-60" (a video playback system—see below).

#### PAL-N (Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay)

In Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay the PAL-N variant is used. It employs the 625 line/50 field per second waveform of PAL-B/G, D/K, H, and I, but on a 6 MHz channel with a chrominance subcarrier frequency of 3.582056 MHz very similar to NTSC.

PAL-N uses the YDbDr colour space.

VHS tapes recorded from a PAL-N or a PAL-B/G, D/K, H, or I broadcast are indistinguishable because the downconverted subcarrier on the tape is the same. A VHS recorded off TV (or released) in Europe will play in colour on any PAL-N VCR and PAL-N TV in Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay. Likewise, any tape recorded in Argentina, Paraguay or Uruguay off a PAL-N TV broadcast can be sent to anyone in European countries that use PAL (and Australia/New Zealand, etc.) and it will display in colour. This will also play back successfully in Russia and other SECAM countries, as the USSR mandated PAL compatibility in 1985—this has proved to be very convenient for video collectors.

People in Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay usually own TV sets that also display NTSC-M, in addition to PAL-N. Direct TV also conveniently broadcasts in NTSC-M for North, Central, and South America. Most DVD players sold in Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay also play PAL discs—however, this is usually output in the European variant (colour subcarrier frequency 4.433618 MHz), so people who own a TV set which only works in PAL-N (plus NTSC-M in most cases) will have to watch those PAL DVD imports in black and white (unless the TV supports RGB SCART) as the colour subcarrier frequency in the TV set is the PAL-N variation, 3.582056 MHz.

In the case that a VHS or DVD player works in PAL (and not in PAL-N) and the TV set works in PAL-N (and not in PAL), there are two options:

• images can be seen in black and white, or
• an inexpensive transcoder (PAL -> PAL-N) can be purchased in order to see the colours

Some DVD players (usually lesser known brands) include an internal transcoder and the signal can be output in NTSC-M, with some video quality loss due to the system's conversion from a 625/50 PAL DVD to the NTSC-M 525/60 output format. A few DVD players sold in Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay also allow a signal output of NTSC-M, PAL, or PAL-N. In that case, a PAL disc (imported from Europe) can be played back on a PAL-N TV because there are no field/line conversions, quality is generally excellent.

Extended features of the PAL specification, such as Teletext, are implemented quite differently in PAL-N. PAL-N supports a modified 608 closed captioning format that is designed to ease compatibility with NTSC originated content carried on line 18, and a modified teletext format that can occupy several lines.

Some special VHS video recorders are available which can allow viewers the flexibility of enjoying PAL-N recordings using a standard PAL ( 625/50 Hz ) colour TV, or even through multi-system TV sets. Video recorders like Panasonic NV-W1E (AG-W1 for the US), AG-W2, AG-W3, NV-J700AM, Aiwa HV-M110S, HV-M1U, Samsung SV-4000W and SV-7000W feature a digital TV system conversion circuitry.

#### PAL-L

The PAL L (Phase Alternating Line with L-sound system) standard uses the same video system as PAL-B/G/H (625 lines, 50 Hz field rate, 15.625 kHz line rate), but with 6 MHz video bandwidth rather than 5.5 MHz. This requires the audio subcarrier to be moved to 6.5 MHz. An 8 MHz channel spacing is used for PAL-L.

#### System A

The BBC tested their pre-war 405 line monochrome system with all three colour standards including PAL, before the decision was made to abandon 405 and transmit colour on 625/System I only.

#### PAL interoperability

The PAL colour system is usually used with a video format that has 625 lines per frame (576 visible lines, the rest being used for other information such as sync data and captioning) and a refresh rate of 50 interlaced fields per second (compatible with 25 full frames per second), such systems being B, G, H, I, and N (see broadcast television systems for the technical details of each format).

This ensures video interoperability. However, as some of these standards (B/G/H, I and D/K) use different sound carriers (5.5 MHz, 6.0 MHz 6.5 MHz respectively), it may result in a video image without audio when viewing a signal broadcast over the air or cable. Some countries in Eastern Europe which formerly used SECAM with systems D and K have switched to PAL while leaving other aspects of their video system the same, resulting in the different sound carrier. Instead, other European countries have changed completely from SECAM-D/K to PAL-B/G. [9]

The PAL-N system has a different sound carrier, and also a different colour subcarrier, and decoding on incompatible PAL systems results in a black-and-white image without sound. The PAL-M system has a different sound carrier and a different colour subcarrier, and does not use 625 lines or 50 frames/second. This would result in no video or audio at all when viewing a European signal.

#### Multisystem PAL support and "PAL 60"

Recently[ when? ] manufactured PAL television receivers can typically decode all of these systems except, in some cases, PAL-M and PAL-N. Many of receivers can also receive Eastern European and Middle Eastern SECAM, though rarely French-broadcast SECAM (because France used a quasi-unique positive video modulation, system L) unless they are manufactured for the French market. They will correctly display plain CVBS or S-video SECAM signals. Many can also accept baseband NTSC-M, such as from a VCR or game console, and RF modulated NTSC with a PAL standard audio subcarrier (i.e., from a modulator), though not usually broadcast NTSC (as its 4.5 MHz audio subcarrier is not supported). Many sets also support NTSC with a 4.43 MHz subcarrier.

Many 1990s-onwards videocassette recorders sold in Europe can play back NTSC tapes. When operating in this mode most of them do not output a true (625/25) PAL signal, but rather a hybrid consisting of the original NTSC line standard (525/30), but with colour converted to PAL 4.43 MHz—this is known as "PAL 60" (also "quasi-PAL" or "pseudo-PAL") with "60" standing for 60 Hz (for 525/30), instead of 50 Hz (for 625/25). Some video game consoles also output a signal in this mode. Most newer television sets can display such a signal correctly, but some will only do so (if at all) in black and white and/or with flickering/foldover at the bottom of the picture, or picture rolling (however, many old TV sets can display the picture properly by means of adjusting the V-Hold and V-Height knobs—assuming they have them). Some TV tuner cards or video capture cards will support this mode (although software/driver modification can be required and the manufacturers' specs may be unclear). A "PAL 60" signal is similar to an NTSC (525/30) signal, but with the usual PAL chrominance subcarrier at 4.43 MHz (instead of 3.58 as with NTSC and South American PAL variants) and with the PAL-specific phase alternation of the red colour difference signal between the lines.

Modern PAL DVD players, such as European DVD players, convert the NTSC Signal to PAL when playing NTSC discs [10] .

## Countries and territories using PAL

Below countries and territories currently use or once used the PAL system. Many of these have converted or are currently converting PAL to DVB-T (most countries), DVB-T2 (most countries), DTMB (China, Hong Kong and Macau) or ISDB (Sri Lanka, Maldives, Botswana and part of South America).

### PAL-M

•   Brazil [11] (simulcast with digital format in ISDB-Tb, also called SBTVD), an update to ISDB-T, started in December 2007. PAL broadcasting continues until 2020.

### Countries that have formerly used PAL

The following countries no longer use PAL for terrestrial broadcasts, and are in process of converting from PAL (cable) to DVB-C.

CountrySwitched toSwitchover completed
Albania DVB-T17 June 2015
Andorra DVB-T25 September 2007
Australia DVB-T10 December 2013
Austria DVB-T and DVB-T27 June 2011
Azerbaijan DVB-T17 June 2015
Belgium DVB-T1 March 2010
Brunei DVB-T1 January 2015
Bulgaria DVB-T30 September 2013
Cambodia DVB-T21 January 2015
Croatia DVB-T20 October 2010
Cyprus DVB-T1 July 2011
Czech Republic DVB-T30 June 2012
Denmark DVB-T and DVB-T21 November 2009
Estonia DVB-T1 July 2010
Faroe Islands DVB-T December 2002
Finland DVB-T1 September 2007
Georgia DVB-T1 July 2015
Germany DVB-T and DVB-T24 June 2009
Ghana DVB-T2June 2015
Greece DVB-T6 February 2015
Gibraltar DVB-T31 December 2012
Guernsey DVB-T17 November 2010
Hungary DVB-T and DVB-T231 October 2013
Iceland DVB-T and DVB-T22 February 2015
India DVB-T31 March 2015
Iran DVB-T19 December 2014
Ireland DVB-T24 October 2012
Isle of Man DVB-T24 October 2012
Israel DVB-T and DVB-T213 June 2011
Italy DVB-T4 July 2012
Jersey DVB-T17 November 2010
Kenya DVB-TMarch 2015
Latvia DVB-T1 June 2010
Lithuania DVB-T29 October 2012
Luxembourg DVB-T1 September 2006
North Macedonia DVB-T31 May 2013
Malta DVB-T31 October 2011
Monaco DVB-T24 May 2011
Montenegro DVB-T17 June 2015
Namibia DVB-T13 September 2014
Netherlands DVB-T14 December 2006
New Zealand DVB-T1 December 2013
Norway DVB-T and DVB-T21 December 2009
Poland DVB-T23 July 2013
Portugal DVB-T26 April 2012
Qatar DVB-T and DVB-T213 February 2012
Romania DVB-T231 December 2016
Rwanda DVB-TMarch 2014
Saudi Arabia DVB-T and DVB-T213 February 2012
Serbia DVB-T27 June 2015
San Marino DVB-T2 December 2010
Singapore DVB-T22 January 2019
Slovenia DVB-T1 December 2010
Slovakia DVB-T31 December 2012
South Africa DVB-T2015 [13] (as of 2018, PAL terrestrial still operational)
Spain DVB-T3 April 2010
Sweden DVB-T29 October 2007
Switzerland DVB-T26 November 2007
Tanzania DVB-TJuly 2014
Turkey DVB-T3 March 2015
United Arab Emirates DVB-T and DVB-T213 February 2012
Ukraine DVB-T and DVB-T2 31 December 2016
United Kingdom DVB-T (SD) and DVB-T2 (HD)24 October 2012
Zambia DVB-T231 December 2014

## Related Research Articles

Chrominance is the signal used in video systems to convey the color information of the picture, separately from the accompanying luma signal. Chrominance is usually represented as two color-difference components: U = B′ − Y′ (blue − luma) and V = R′ − Y′ (red − luma). Each of these difference components may have scale factors and offsets applied to it, as specified by the applicable video standard.

SECAM, also written SÉCAM, is an analog color television system first used in France. It was one of three major color television standards, the others being the European PAL and North American NTSC.

Colorburst is an analog video, composite video signal generated by a video-signal generator used to keep the chrominance subcarrier synchronized in a color television signal. By synchronizing an oscillator with the colorburst at the back porch (beginning) of each scan line, a television receiver is able to restore the suppressed carrier of the chrominance (color) signals, and in turn decode the color information. The most common use of colorburst is to genlock equipment together as a common reference with a vision mixer in a television studio using a multi-camera setup.

Composite video is an analog video transmission that carries standard definition video typically at 480i or 576i resolution as a single channel. Video information is encoded on one channel, unlike the higher-quality S-video and the even higher-quality component video. In all of these video formats, audio is carried on a separate connection.

SMPTE timecode is a set of cooperating standards to label individual frames of video or film with a timecode. The system is defined by the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers in the SMPTE 12M specification. SMPTE revised the standard in 2008, turning it into a two-part document: SMPTE 12M-1 and SMPTE 12M-2, including new explanations and clarifications.

A subcarrier is a sideband of a radio frequency carrier wave, which is modulated to send additional information. Examples include the provision of colour in a black and white television system or the provision of stereo in a monophonic radio broadcast. There is no physical difference between a carrier and a subcarrier; the "sub" implies that it has been derived from a carrier, which has been amplitude modulated by a steady signal and has a constant frequency relation to it.

A vectorscope is a special type of oscilloscope used in both audio and video applications. Whereas an oscilloscope or waveform monitor normally displays a plot of signal vs. time, a vectorscope displays an X-Y plot of two signals, which can reveal details about the relationship between these two signals. Vectorscopes are highly similar in operation to oscilloscopes operated in X-Y mode; however those used in video applications have specialized graticules, and accept standard television or video signals as input.

Dot crawl is the popular name for a visual defect of color analog video standards when signals are transmitted as composite video, as in terrestrial broadcast television. It consists of animated checkerboard patterns which appear along horizontal color transitions. It results from intermodulation or crosstalk between chrominance and luminance components of the signal, which are imperfectly multiplexed in the frequency domain.

Multiplexed analogue components (MAC) was a satellite television transmission standard, originally proposed for use on a Europe-wide terrestrial HDTV system, although it was never used terrestrially.

The 405-line monochrome analogue television broadcasting system was the first fully electronic television system to be used in regular broadcasting.

Analog high-definition television was an analog video broadcast television system developed in the 1930s to replace early experimental systems with as few as 12-lines. On 2 November 1936 the BBC began transmitting the world's first public regular analog high-definition television service from the Victorian Alexandra Palace in north London. It therefore claims to be the birthplace of television broadcasting as we know it today. John Logie Baird, Philo T. Farnsworth, and Vladimir Zworykin had each developed competing TV systems, but resolution was not the issue that separated their substantially different technologies, it was patent interference lawsuits and deployment issues given the tumultuous financial climate of the late 1920s and 1930s.

MUSE, was an analog high-definition television standard, using dot-interlacing and digital video compression to deliver 1125-line high definition video signals to the home. Japan had the earliest working HDTV system, which was named Hi-Vision with design efforts going back to 1979. The country began broadcasting wideband analog HDTV signals in 1989 using 1035 active lines interlaced in the standard 2:1 ratio (1035i) with 1125 lines total. By the time of its commercial launch in 1991, digital HDTV was already under development in the United States. Hi-Vision continued broadcasting in analog until 2007.

PAL-M is the analog TV system used in Brazil since February 19, 1972. At that time, Brazil was the first South American country to broadcast in colour. Colour TV broadcast began on February 19, 1972, when the TV networks Globo and Bandeirantes transmitted the Caxias do Sul Grape Festival. Transition from black and white to colour was not complete until 1978. Two years later, in 1980, colour broadcast nationwide in Brazil was commonplace.

CCIR System B was the 625-line analog broadcast television system which at its peak was the system used in most countries. It is being replaced across Western Europe, part of Asia and Africa by digital broadcasting.

CCIR System A was the 405 line analog broadcast television system broadcast in the UK and Ireland. CCIR service was discontinued in 1985.

CCIR System I is an analog broadcast television system. It was first used in the Republic of Ireland starting in 1962 as the 625-line broadcasting standard to be used on VHF Band I and Band III, sharing Band III with 405-line System A signals radiated in the north of the country. The UK started its own 625-line television service in 1964 also using System I, but on UHF only - the UK has never used VHF for 625-line television except for some cable relay distribution systems.

## References

1. The standard that defines the PAL system was published by the International Telecommunication Union in 1998 and has the title Recommendation ITU-R BT.470-6, Conventional Television Systems
2. http://www.ebha.org/ebha2007/pdf/Gaillard.pdf The CCIR, the standards and the TV sets’ market in France (section III.1)
3. "Les Videodisques", Georges Broussaud (head/member of development team), editions Masson
4. "PGC categories – Countries using PAL standard". Archived from the original on 22 April 2009. 090426 dvd-replica.com
5. "Horizontal Blanking Interval of 405-, 525-, 625- and 819-Line Standards" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 May 2009. 090426 pembers.freeserve.co.uk
6. "NTSC, PAL, and SECAM Overview" (PDF). 090426 deetc.isel.ipl.pt page 52
7. "empty" (PDF). 090426 thomsongrassvalley.com
8. "Vertical Blanking Interval of 625-Line Standard (PAL Colour)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 April 2016. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
9. "Changes to the terrestrial television systems in Central and East European countries" (PDF). EBU . Retrieved 11 September 2010.
10. "Playback of NTSC Videos on PAL Equipment" . Retrieved 29 June 2019.
11. Michael Hegarty; Anne Phelan; Lisa Kilbride (1 January 1998). Classrooms for Distance Teaching and Learning: A Blueprint. Leuven University Press. pp. 260–. ISBN   978-90-6186-867-5.
12. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 21 February 2016. Retrieved 9 December 2017.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)