180 lines is an early electronic television system. It was used in Germany after on March 22, 1935, using telecine transmission of film, intermediate film system, or cameras using the Nipkow disk. Simultaneously, fully electronic transmissions using cameras based on the iconoscope began on January 15, 1936 with a definition of 375 lines.
The Berlin Summer Olympic Games were televised, using both closed-circuit 375 lines fully electronic iconoscope-based cameras and 180 lines intermediate film cameras transmitting to Berlin, Hamburg, Munich, Nuremberg and Bayreuth via special Reichspost long distance cables in August 1936. In Berlin, twenty-eight public 180 lines television rooms were opened for anybody who did not own a television set. After February 1937 both 180 and 375 lines systems were replaced by a superior 441-line system.
|System||Field frequency||Active picture||Field blanking||No. of broad pulses||Broad pulse width||Line frequency||Front porch||Line sync||Back porch||Active line time||Video/syncs ratio|
|180 lines||25 Hz||169 lines||11 lines||1 per field||200 μs||4500 Hz||2.2 μs||20.0 μs||2.2 μs||197.8 μs||75/25|
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Television (TV), sometimes shortened to tele or telly, is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome, or in color, and in two or three dimensions and sound. The term can refer to a television set, a television show, or the medium of television transmission. Television is a mass medium for advertising, entertainment, news, and sports.
John Logie BairdFRSE was a Scottish inventor, electrical engineer, and innovator, demonstrating the world's first working television system on 26 January 1926. He also invented the first publicly demonstrated colour television system, and the first purely electronic colour television picture tube.
Color television is a television transmission technology that includes information on the color of the picture, so the video image can be displayed in color on the television set. It is considered an improvement on the earliest television technology, monochrome or black and white television, in which the image is displayed in shades of gray (grayscale). Television broadcasting stations and networks in most parts of the world upgraded from black and white to color transmission in the 1960s to the 1980s. The invention of color television standards is an important part of the history of television, and it is described in the technology of television article.
Kinescope, shortened to kine, also known as telerecording in Britain, is a recording of a television program on motion picture film, directly through a lens focused on the screen of a video monitor. The process was pioneered during the 1940s for the preservation, re-broadcasting and sale of television programmes before the introduction of videotape, which from 1956 eventually superseded the use of kinescopes for all of these purposes. Kinescopes were the only practical way to preserve live television broadcasts prior to videotape.
The year 1936 in television involved some significant events. Below is a list of television-related events during 1936.
Vladimir Kosmich Zworykin was a Russian-American inventor, engineer, and pioneer of television technology. Zworykin invented a television transmitting and receiving system employing cathode ray tubes. He played a role in the practical development of television from the early thirties, including charge storage-type tubes, infrared image tubes and the electron microscope.
A professional video camera is a high-end device for creating electronic moving images. Originally developed for use in television studios or with outside broadcast trucks, they are now also used for music videos, direct-to-video movies, corporate and educational videos, wedding videos, among other uses. Since the 2000s, most professional video cameras are digital professional video cameras.
Video camera tubes were devices based on the cathode ray tube that were used in television cameras to capture television images prior to the introduction of charge-coupled device (CCD) image sensors in the 1980s. Several different types of tubes were in use from the early 1930s, and as late as the 1990s.
Walter Bruch was a German electrical engineer and pioneer of German television. He is the inventor of Closed-circuit television. He invented the PAL colour television system at Telefunken in the early 1960s. In addition to his research activities Walter Bruch was an honorary lecturer at Hannover Technical University. He was awarded the Werner von Siemens Ring in 1975.
Mechanical television or mechanical scan television is a television system that relies on a mechanical scanning device, such as a rotating disk with holes in it or a rotating mirror drum, to scan the scene and generate the video signal, and a similar mechanical device at the receiver to display the picture. This contrasts with vacuum tube electronic television technology, using electron beam scanning methods, for example in cathode ray tube (CRT) televisions. Subsequently, modern solid-state liquid-crystal displays (LCD) are now used to create and display television pictures.
The intermediate film system was a television process in which motion picture film was processed almost immediately after it was exposed in a camera, then scanned by a television scanner, and transmitted over the air. This system was used principally in Britain and Germany where television cameras were not sensitive enough to use reflected light, but could transmit a suitable image when a bright light was shown through motion picture film directly into the camera lens. John Logie Baird began developing the process in 1932, borrowing the idea of Georg Oskar Schubert from his licensees in Germany, where it was demonstrated by Fernseh AG in 1932 and used for broadcasting in 1934. The BBC used Baird's version of the process during the first three months of its then-"high-definition" television service from November 1936 through January 1937, and German television used it during broadcasts of the 1936 Summer Olympics. In both cases, intermediate film cameras alternated with newly introduced direct television cameras.
The iconoscope was the first practical video camera tube to be used in early television cameras. The iconoscope produced a much stronger signal than earlier mechanical designs, and could be used under any well-lit conditions. This was the first fully electronic system to replace earlier cameras, which used special spotlights or spinning disks to capture light from a single very brightly lit spot.
Sir Isaac Shoenberg was an electronic engineer born in Belarus who was best known for his role in history of television.
The concept of television was the work of many individuals in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with its roots initially starting from back even in the 18th century. The first practical transmissions of moving images over a radio system used mechanical rotating perforated disks to scan a scene into a time-varying signal that could be reconstructed at a receiver back into an approximation of the original image. Development of television was interrupted by the Second World War. After the end of the war, all-electronic methods of scanning and displaying images became standard. Several different standards for addition of color to transmitted images were developed with different regions using technically incompatible signal standards. Television broadcasting expanded rapidly after World War II, becoming an important mass medium for advertising, propaganda, and entertainment.
Boris Pavlovich Grabovsky was a Soviet engineer of ukrainian descent who invented a first fully electronic TV set that was demonstrated in 1928. In 1925, one of the pioneers of television Boris Rosing advised and helped him apply for a patent of a fully electronic TV set called Telefot.
A number of experimental and broadcast pre World War II television systems were tested. The first ones were mechanical based and of very low resolution, sometimes with no sound. Later TV systems were electronic.
441 lines is the number of scan lines in some early electronic monochrome analog television systems. Systems with this number of lines were used with 25 interlaced frames per second in France and Germany from 1939 to 1943, as well as by RCA in the United States with 30 interlaced frames per second from 1938 to 1941.
The following timeline tables list the discoveries and inventions in the history of electrical and electronic engineering.
The history of videotelephony covers the historical development of several technologies which enable the use of live video in addition to voice telecommunications. The concept of videotelephony was first popularized in the late 1870s in both the United States and Europe, although the basic sciences to permit its very earliest trials would take nearly a half century to be discovered. This was first embodied in the device which came to be known as the video telephone, or videophone, and it evolved from intensive research and experimentation in several telecommunication fields, notably electrical telegraphy, telephony, radio, and television.
The first scheduled, high-definition television programmes were broadcast on 2 November 1936 by the British Broadcasting Corporation. They had been preceded by a number of low-definition BBC test broadcasts, as well as a 180-line Deutscher Fernseh Rundfunk service, from Berlin, since March 1935.