1936 Summer Olympics

Last updated

Games of the XI Olympiad
1936 berlin logo.jpg
Host city Berlin, Germany
MottoI Call the Youth of the World!
(German: Ich rufe die Jugend der Welt!)
Athletes3,963 (3,632 men, 331 women)
Events129 in 19 sports (25 disciplines)
Opening1 August
Closing16 August
Opened by
Stadium Olympiastadion
Los Angeles 1932 London 1948
Helsinki 1940
London 1944
Garmisch-Partenkirchen 1936 St. Moritz 1948
Garmisch-Partenkirchen 1940
Cortina d'Ampezzo 1944

The 1936 Summer Olympics (German: Olympische Sommerspiele 1936), officially known as the Games of the XI Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in 1936 in Berlin, Nazi Germany. Berlin won the bid to host the Games over Barcelona, Spain, on 26 April 1931, at the 29th IOC Session in Barcelona (two years before the Nazis came to power). It marked the second and final time the International Olympic Committee gathered to vote in a city that was bidding to host those Games.

German language West Germanic language

German is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe. It is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, South Tyrol in Italy, the German-speaking Community of Belgium, and Liechtenstein. It is also one of the three official languages of Luxembourg and a co-official language in the Opole Voivodeship in Poland. The languages which are most similar to German are the other members of the West Germanic language branch: Afrikaans, Dutch, English, the Frisian languages, Low German/Low Saxon, Luxembourgish, and Yiddish. There are also strong similarities in vocabulary with Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, although those belong to the North Germanic group. German is the second most widely spoken Germanic language, after English.

A multi-sport event is an organized sporting event, often held over multiple days, featuring competition in many different sports among organized teams of athletes from (mostly) nation-states. The first major, modern, multi-sport event of international significance is the modern Olympic Games.

Berlin Capital of Germany

Berlin is the capital and largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,748,148 (2018) inhabitants make it the second most populous city proper of the European Union after London. The city is one of Germany's 16 federal states. It is surrounded by the state of Brandenburg, and contiguous with its capital, Potsdam. The two cities are at the center of the Berlin-Brandenburg capital region, which is, with about six million inhabitants and an area of more than 30,000 km², Germany's third-largest metropolitan region after the Rhine-Ruhr and Rhine-Main regions.


To outdo the Los Angeles games of 1932, Reich Chancellor Adolf Hitler had a new 100,000-seat track and field stadium built, as well as six gymnasiums and many other smaller arenas. The games were the first to be televised, and radio broadcasts reached 41 countries. [2] Filmmaker Leni Riefenstahl was commissioned by the German Olympic Committee to film the Games for $7 million. [2] Her film, titled Olympia , pioneered many of the techniques now common in the filming of sports.

1932 Summer Olympics games of the X Olympiad, celebrated in Los Angeles in 1932

The 1932 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the X Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event that was held from July 30 to August 14, 1932, in Los Angeles, California, United States.

Adolf Hitler Leader of Germany from 1934 to 1945

Adolf Hitler was a German politician and leader of the Nazi Party. He rose to power as Chancellor of Germany in 1933 and later Führer in 1934. During his dictatorship from 1933 to 1945, he initiated World War II in Europe by invading Poland in September 1939. He was closely involved in military operations throughout the war and was central to the perpetration of the Holocaust.

Olympiastadion (Berlin) stadium in the city of Berlin, Germany

Olympiastadion is a sports stadium at Olympiapark Berlin in Berlin, Germany. It was originally built by Werner March for the 1936 Summer Olympics. During the Olympics, the record attendance was thought to be over 100,000. Today the stadium is part of the Olympiapark Berlin.

Hitler saw the Games as an opportunity to promote his government and ideals of racial supremacy and antisemitism, and the official Nazi party paper, the Völkischer Beobachter , wrote in the strongest terms that Jews should not be allowed to participate in the Games. [3] [4] German Jewish athletes were barred or prevented from taking part by a variety of methods [5] and Jewish athletes from other countries seem to have been side-lined in order not to offend the Nazi regime. [6]

Antisemitism is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews. A person who holds such positions is called an antisemite. Antisemitism is generally considered to be a form of racism. It has also been characterized as a political ideology which serves as an organizing principle and unites disparate groups which are opposed to liberalism.

<i>Völkischer Beobachter</i> periodical literature

The Völkischer Beobachter was the newspaper of the National Socialist German Workers' Party from 25 December 1920. It first appeared weekly, then daily from 8 February 1923. For twenty-four years it formed part of the official public face of the Nazi Party until its last edition at the end of April 1945. The paper was banned and ceased publication between November 1923, after Adolf Hitler's arrest for leading the unsuccessful Beer Hall Putsch in Munich, and February 1925, the approximate time of the rally which relaunched the NSDAP.

Total ticket revenues were 7.5 million Reichsmark, generating a profit of over one million ℛℳ. The official budget did not include outlays by the city of Berlin (which issued an itemized report detailing its costs of 16.5 million ℛℳ) or outlays of the German national government (which did not make its costs public, but is estimated to have spent US$30 million). [7]

Jesse Owens won four gold medals in the sprint and long jump events and became the most successful athlete to compete in Berlin while the host country was the most successful country overall with 89 medals total, with the United States coming in second with 56 medals. These were the final Olympics under the presidency of Henri de Baillet-Latour and the final Olympic Games for 12 years due to the disruption of the Second World War. The next Olympic Games were held in 1948 (the Winter in Switzerland and then the Summer in London).

Jesse Owens American track and field athlete

James Cleveland "Jesse" Owens was an American track and field athlete and four-time gold medalist in the 1936 Olympic Games.

Long jump track and field event

The long jump is a track and field event in which athletes combine speed, strength and agility in an attempt to leap as far as possible from a take off point. Along with the triple jump, the two events that measure jumping for distance as a group are referred to as the "horizontal jumps". This event has a history in the Ancient Olympic Games and has been a modern Olympic event for men since the first Olympics in 1896 and for women since 1948.

Nazi Germany The German state from 1933 to 1945, under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler

Nazi Germany is the common English name for Germany between 1933 and 1945, when Adolf Hitler and his Nazi Party (NSDAP) controlled the country through a dictatorship. Under Hitler's rule, Germany was transformed into a totalitarian state where nearly all aspects of life were controlled by the government. The official name of the state was Deutsches Reich until 1943 and Großdeutsches Reich from 1943 to 1945. Nazi Germany is also known as the Third Reich, meaning "Third Realm" or "Third Empire", the first two being the Holy Roman Empire (800–1806) and the German Empire (1871–1918). The Nazi regime ended after the Allies defeated Germany in May 1945, ending World War II in Europe.

Host city selection

The bidding for these Olympic Games was the first to be contested by IOC members casting votes for their own favorite host cities. [8] The vote occurred in 1931, during the final years of the Weimar Republic, two years before Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party rose to power in 1933. Many other cities around the world also wanted to host the Summer Olympics for that year, but except for Barcelona they did not receive any IOC votes. The other cities competing to hold the games were Alexandria, Buenos Aires, Cologne, Dublin, Frankfurt, Helsinki, Lausanne, Nuremberg, Rio de Janeiro, Budapest, and Rome. Helsinki, Rome, Barcelona and Rio de Janeiro would go on to host the Olympic Games in 1952, 1960, 1992 and 2016, respectively. [9]

Weimar Republic Germany state in the years 1918/1919–1933

The Weimar Republic is an unofficial historical designation for the German state from 1918 to 1933. The name derives from the city of Weimar, where its constitutional assembly first took place. The official name of the republic remained Deutsches Reich unchanged from 1871, because of the German tradition of substates. Although commonly translated as "German Empire", the word Reich here better translates as "realm", in that the term does not have monarchical connotations in itself. The Reich was changed from a constitutional monarchy into a republic. In English, the country was usually known simply as Germany.

Nazi Party Fascist political party in Germany (1920-1945)

The National Socialist German Workers' Party, commonly referred to in English as the Nazi Party, was a far-right political party in Germany that was active between 1920 and 1945, that created and supported the ideology of National Socialism. Its precursor, the German Workers' Party, existed from 1919 to 1920.

Barcelona City and municipality in Catalonia, Spain

Barcelona is a city in Spain. It is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Catalonia, as well as the second most populous municipality of Spain. With a population of 1.6 million within city limits, its urban area extends to numerous neighbouring municipalities within the Province of Barcelona and is home to around 4.8 million people, making it the sixth most populous urban area in the European Union after Paris, London, Madrid, the Ruhr area and Milan. It is one of the largest metropolises on the Mediterranean Sea, located on the coast between the mouths of the rivers Llobregat and Besòs, and bounded to the west by the Serra de Collserola mountain range, the tallest peak of which is 512 metres high.

The selection procedure marked the second and final time that the International Olympic Committee would gather to vote in a city which was bidding to host those Games. The only other time this occurred was at the inaugural IOC Session in Paris, France, on 24 April 1894. Then, Athens and Paris were chosen to host the 1896 and 1900 Games, respectively.

After the Nazis took control and began instituting antisemitic policies, the IOC held private discussions among its delegates about changing the decision to hold the Games in Berlin. However, Hitler's regime gave assurances that Jewish athletes would be allowed to compete on a German Olympic team. [10]

1936 Summer Olympics bidding result [9]
CityCountryRound 1
Berlin Flag of Germany (3-2 aspect ratio).svg Germany 43
Barcelona Flag of Spain (1931-1939).svg Spain 16
Alexandria Flag of Egypt (1922-1958).svg Egypt 0
Budapest Flag of Hungary (1915-1918, 1919-1946).svg Hungary 0
Buenos Aires Flag of Argentina.svg Argentina 0
Cologne Flag of Germany (3-2 aspect ratio).svg Germany 0
Dublin Flag of Ireland.svg Ireland 0
Frankfurt Flag of Germany (3-2 aspect ratio).svg Germany 0
Helsinki Flag of Finland.svg Finland 0
Lausanne Flag of Switzerland.svg Switzerland 0
Nuremberg Flag of Germany (3-2 aspect ratio).svg Germany 0
Rio de Janeiro Flag of Brazil (1889-1960).svg Brazil 0
Rome Flag of Italy (1861-1946) crowned.svg Italy 0


Hans von Tschammer und Osten, as Reichssportführer, i.e. head of the Deutscher Reichsbund für Leibesübungen (DRL), the Reich Sports Office, played a major role in the structure and organisation of the Olympics. He promoted the idea that the use of sports would harden the German spirit and instill unity among German youth. At the same time he also believed that sports was a "way to weed out the weak, Jewish, and other undesirables". [11]

Von Tschammer trusted the details of the organisation of the games to Theodor Lewald and Carl Diem, the former president and secretary of the Deutscher Reichsausschuss für Leibesübungen, the forerunner of the Reich Sports Office. Among Diem's ideas for the Berlin Games was the introduction of the Olympic torch relay between Greece and the host nation.

Runners carrying the Olympic Flame Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1976-116-08A, Olympische Spiele, Fackellaufer.jpg
Runners carrying the Olympic Flame

Torch relay

The 1936 Summer Olympics torch relay was the first of its kind, [12] following on from the reintroduction of the Olympic Flame at the 1928 Games. It pioneered the modern convention of moving the flame via a relay system from Greece to the Olympic venue. Leni Riefenstahl filmed the relay for the 1938 film Olympia.

The sportive, knightly battle awakens the best human characteristics. It doesn't separate, but unites the combatants in understanding and respect. It also helps to connect the countries in the spirit of peace. That's why the Olympic Flame should never die.

Adolf Hitler, commenting on the 1936 Berlin Olympic Games. [13]


The games were the first to have live television coverage. The German Post Office, using equipment from Telefunken, broadcast over 70 hours of coverage to special viewing rooms throughout Berlin and Potsdam and a few private TV sets, transmitting from the Paul Nipkow TV Station. They used three different types of TV cameras, so blackouts would occur when changing from one type to another. [14]

Olympic village

The 1936 Olympic village is located at Elstal in Wustermark (at 52°32′10.78″N13°0′33.20″E / 52.5363278°N 13.0092222°E / 52.5363278; 13.0092222 ), on the western edge of Berlin. The site, which is 30 kilometres (19 mi) from the centre of the city, consisted of one and two-floor dormitories, a large dining hall, Dining Hall of the Nations, a swimming facility, gymnasium, track, and other training facilities. Its layout was designed and construction overseen by appointed village commander Hauptmann Wolfgang Fürstner beginning in 1934. [15] Less than two months before the start of the Olympic Games, Fürstner was abruptly demoted to vice-commander, and replaced by Oberstleutnant Werner von Gilsa, commander of the Berlin Guard-Regiment. The official reason for the replacement was that Fürstner had not acted "with the necessary energy" to prevent damage to the site as 370,000 visitors passed through it between 1 May and 15 June. However, this was just a cover story to explain the sudden demotion of the half-Jewish officer. [16] The 1935 Nuremberg Laws, passed during the period Fürstner was overseeing the Olympic Village, had classified him as a Jew, and as such, the career officer was to be expelled from the Wehrmacht . [17] Two days after the conclusion of the Berlin Olympics, vice-commander Fürstner had been removed from active Wehrmacht duty, [18] and committed suicide because he realised he had no future under the Nazis. [16]

After the completion of the Olympic Games, the village was repurposed for the Wehrmacht into the Olympic Döberitz Hospital (German : Olympia-Lazarett Döberitz), and Army Infantry School (German : Heeres-Infanterieschule), and was used as such through the Second World War. In 1945 it was taken over by the Soviet Union and became a military camp of the union occupation forces. Late 20th century efforts were made to restore parts of the former village, but little progress was made. [19] More recently, the vast majority of the land of the Olympic village has been managed by the DKB Foundation, with more success; efforts are being made to restore the site into a living museum. The dormitory building used by Jesse Owens, Weissen House, has been fully restored, with the gymnasium and swimming hall partially restored. Seasonally, tours are given daily to small groups and students. [20]

The site remains relatively unknown even in Germany, but some tournaments are held at the site in an effort to boost knowledge of the venues. [21] An effort aimed at 2018 completion is underway to make the village a mixed residential and historical property. [22]


Twenty-two venues were used for the 1936 Summer Olympics. Many were located in the Reich Sportsfeld complex.

Sailing was held in the Bay of Kiel, which would serve as the sailing venue for the 1972 Summer Olympics held in Munich. [23] The Olympic Stadium would later be part of two FIFA World Cups and then host an IAAF World Championships in Athletics along with undergoing a renovation in the early 2000s to give new life to the stadium. Avus Motor Road (AVUS) was started in 1907, but was not completed until 1921 due to World War I. [24] The track was rebuilt for the 1936 Games. [24] AVUS continued being used after World War II though mainly in Formula 2 racing. [24] The German Grand Prix was last held at the track in 1959. [24] Dismantling of the track first took place in 1968 to make way for a traffic crossing for touring cars that raced there until 1998. [24]

BSV 92 Field was first constructed in 1910 for use in football, handball, athletics, and tennis. [25] The Reich Sports Field, which consisted of the Olympic Stadium, the Dietrich Ecekrt Open-Air Theatre, the Olympic Swimming Stadium, Mayfield, the Hockey Stadiums, the Tennis Courts, and the Haus des Deutschen Sports, was planned for the aborted 1916 Summer Olympics, but was not completed until 1934. [26] Mayfield was the last venue completed prior to the 1936 Games in April 1936. [26] Deutschland Hall was opened in 1935. [27] Mommenstadion opened in 1930. [28] Basketball was held outdoors at the request of the International Basketball Federation (FIBA). [29] [30] The tennis courts were used, which turned to mud during heavy rain at the final. [29] The K-1 1000 m canoeing final was also affected by heavy rain at Grünau that included thunder and lightning. [31] During World War II, Deutschlandhalle suffered heavy aerial bombing damage. [27] After the second world war, the hall was reconstructed and expansion has continued as of 2010. [27] The Deutschlandhalle in Berlin, where the boxing, weightlifting, and wrestling events took place, was used as venue, but was increasingly closed for repairs, last in 2009 when it was close for repairs, It was demolished in December 2011. the Mommsenstadion was renovated in 1987 and was still in use in 2010. [28]

The Olympic Stadium was used as an underground bunker in World War II as the war went against Nazi Germany's favor. [32] The British reopened the Stadium in 1946 and parts of the stadium were rebuilt by the late 1950s. [33] As a host venue for the 1974 FIFA World Cup, the stadium had its roof partially covered on the North and South Stands. [34] British occupation of the stadium ended in 1994. [35] Restoration was approved in 1998 with a contractor being found to do the work in 2000. [36] This restoration ran from 2000 to 2004. [37] The modernized Stadium reopened in 2004, [38] with a capacity of 74,228 people. The seating has been changed greatly, especially the sections that were reserved for German and international political leaders. The stadium now plays host to Hertha BSC (1963–present), and is expected to remain the home of the team for years to come. For the 2006 FIFA World Cup, the venue was where the final took place between Italy and France. [39] Three years later, the venue hosted the World Athletics Championships. [40]

Avus Motor Road Athletics (marathon, 50 km walk), Cycling (road)Not listed [41]
BSV Field Cycling (track), Handball 1,000 [42]
Dietrich Eckart Open-Air Theatre Gymnastics 20,000 [43]
Döberitz Equestrian (eventing), Modern pentathlon (riding)Not listed [44]
Deutschlandhalle Boxing, Weightlifting, Wrestling 8,630 [45]
Berlin-Grünau Regatta Course Canoeing, Rowing 19,000 [46]
Haus des Deutschen Sports Fencing, Modern pentathlon (fencing)1200 [47] [48]
Hertha BSC Field Football 35,239 [49]
Hockeystadion Field hockey 18,000 [43]
Hockeystadion#2 Field hockey1600 [43]
Kiel Bay Sailing Not listed [50]
Mayfield Equestrian (dressage), Polo 75,000 [43]
Mommsenstadion Football15,005 [49]
Olympic Stadium Athletics, Equestrian (jumping), Football (final), Handball (final)100,000 [43]
Olympic Swimming Stadium Diving, Modern pentathlon (swimming), Swimming, Water polo 20,000 [51]
Police Stadium HandballNot listed [52]
Poststadion Football45,000 [49]
Ruhleben Modern pentathlon (shooting)Not listed. [53]
Tennis Courts Basketball, Fencing (épée)832 [54]
Tennis Stadium BasketballNot listed [54]
Wannsee Golf Course Modern pentathlon (running)Not listed [55]
Wannsee Shooting Range Shooting Not listed [55]


Opening ceremony

Parade of nations Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-P017045, Berlin, Eroffnung der XI. Olympischen Spiele.jpg
Parade of nations
Segments of the opening ceremony.

The opening ceremony was held at the Berlin Olympic Stadium. A flyover by the German airship Hindenburg flying the Olympic flag behind it was featured early in the opening ceremonies. [56] After the arrival of Hitler and his entourage, the parade of nations proceeded, each nation with its own unique costume. As the birthplace of the Olympics, Greece entered the stadium first. The host nation, Germany entered last. Some nations' athletes purposefully gave the Nazi salute as they passed Hitler. Others gave the Olympic salute (a similar one, given with the same arm), or a different gesture entirely, such as hats-over-hearts, as the United States and China did. All nations lowered their flags[ dubious ] as they passed the Führer, save the United States. (The United States doing this was explained later as an army regulation.) [56] Writer Thomas Wolfe, who was there, described the opening as an "almost religious event, the crowd screaming, swaying in unison and begging for Hitler. There was something scary about it; his cult of personality." [57]

After a speech by the president of the German Olympic Committee, the games were declared open by Adolf Hitler: "I proclaim open the Olympic Games of Berlin, celebrating the Eleventh Olympiad of the modern era." [56] Hitler opened the games from his own box, on top of others. Writer David Wallechinsky has commented on the event, saying, "This was his event, he wanted to be glorified." [57]

Although the Olympic flame was first introduced in the 1928 Summer Olympics in Amsterdam, this was the first instance of the torch relay. The Nazis invented the concept of the torch run from ancient Olympia to the host city. Thus as swimmer Iris Cummings Critchell later related, "once the athletes were all in place, the torch bearer ran in through the tunnel to go around the stadium". A young man chosen for this task ran up the steps all the way up to the top of the stadium there to light a cauldron which would start this eternal flame that would burn through the duration of the games. [57] [58]

But in spite of all the pomp and ceremony, and the glorification of Hitler, all did not go according to plan, and there was a rather humorous aspect in the opening ceremony. U.S. distance runner Louis Zamperini, one of the athletes present, related it on camera: [57]

They released 25,000 pigeons, the sky was clouded with pigeons, the pigeons circles overhead, and then they shot a cannon, and they scared the poop out of the pigeons, and we had straw hats, flat straw hats, and you could heard the pitter-patter on our straw hats, but we felt sorry for the women, for they got it in their hair, but I mean there were a mass of droppings, and I say it was so funny...


129 events in 25 disciplines, comprising 19 sports, were part of the Olympic program in 1936. The number of events in each discipline is noted in parentheses.

Basketball and handball made their debut at the Olympics, both as outdoor sports. Handball did not appear again on the program until the next German summer Olympic games in Munich in 1972. Demonstration sports were Art, Baseball, Gliding and Wushu.

Medal count

Volmari Iso-Hollo, 3000 m steeplechase, 1936 Summer Olympics BASA-3K-15-385-4-Volmari Iso-Hollo, 1936 Summer Olympics.jpeg
Volmari Iso-Hollo, 3000 m steeplechase, 1936 Summer Olympics

The ten nations that won most medals at the 1936 Games.

  *   Host nation (Germany)

1Flag of the German Reich (1935-1945).svg  Germany*33263089
2US flag 48 stars.svg  United States 24201256
3Flag of Hungary (1915-1918, 1919-1946; 3-2 aspect ratio).svg  Hungary 101516
4Flag of Italy (1861-1946).svg  Italy 89522
5Flag of Finland.svg  Finland 76619
Flag of France.svg  France 76619
7Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 65920
8Flag of Japan (1870-1999).svg  Japan 64818
9Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 64717
10Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain 47314
Totals (10 nations)1118891290

Notable achievements

Germany had a prosperous year in the equestrian events, winning individual and team gold in all three disciplines, as well as individual silver in dressage. In the cycling match sprint finals, the German Toni Merkens fouled Arie van Vliet of the Netherlands. Instead of being disqualified, he was fined 100 ℛℳ and kept his gold. German gymnasts Konrad Frey and Alfred Schwarzmann both won three gold medals.

American Jesse Owens won four gold medals in the sprint and long jump events. His German competitor Luz Long offered Owens advice after he almost failed to qualify in the long jump and was posthumously awarded the Pierre de Coubertin medal for sportsmanship. Mack Robinson, brother to Jackie Robinson, won the 200-meter sprint silver medal behind Owens by 0.4 seconds. Although he did not win a medal, future American war hero Louis Zamperini, lagging behind in the 5,000-meter final, made up ground by clocking a 56-second final lap. This effort caught the attention of Adolf Hitler who personally commended Zamperini on his speed. In one of the most dramatic 800-meter races in history, American John Woodruff won gold after slowing to jogging speed in the middle of the final in order to free himself from being boxed in. [59] Glenn Edgar Morris, a farm boy from Colorado, won gold in the decathlon. Rower Jack Beresford won his fifth Olympic medal in the sport, and his third gold medal. The U.S. eight-man rowing team from the University of Washington won the gold medal, coming from behind to defeat the Germans and Italians with Hitler in attendance.

Obverse of John Woodruff's gold medal for winning the 800 metres. WoodRuff 1936 Olympics medal front.jpg
Obverse of John Woodruff's gold medal for winning the 800 metres.
Reverse of John Woodruff's gold medal while on display at Hillman Library, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA. WoodRuff 1936 Olympics medal back.jpg
Reverse of John Woodruff's gold medal while on display at Hillman Library, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA.

Jack Lovelock of New Zealand won the 1500 m gold medal, coming through a strong field to win in world record time of 3:47.8.

In the marathon, the ethnic Koreans Sohn Kee-chung and Nam Sung-yong won one gold and one bronze medal; as Korea was annexed by Japan at the time, they were running for Japan.

India won the gold medal in the field hockey event once again (they won the gold in all Olympics from 1928 to 1956), defeating Germany 8–1 in the final. However, Indians were considered Indo-Aryans by the Germans and there was no controversy regarding their victory. Rie Mastenbroek of the Netherlands won three gold medals and a silver in swimming. Estonia's Kristjan Palusalu won gold medals in both Men's heavyweight Wrestling styles, marking the last time Estonia competed as an independent nation in the Olympics until 1992.

After winning the middleweight class, the Egyptian weightlifter Khadr El Touni continued to compete for another 45 minutes, finally exceeding the total of the German silver medalist by 35 kg. The 20-year-old El Touni lifted a total of 387.5 kg crushing two German world champions, El Touni broke the then Olympic and world records, while the German lifted 352.5 kg. Furthermore, El Touni had lifted 15 kg more than the light-heavyweight gold medalist, a feat only El Touni has accomplished. El Touni's new world records stood for 13 years. Fascinated by El Touni's performance, Adolf Hitler rushed down to greet this human miracle. Prior to the competition, Hitler was said to have been sure that Rudolf Ismayr and Adolf Wagner would embarrass all other opponents. Hitler was so impressed by El Touni's domination in the middleweight class that he ordered a street named after him in Berlin's Olympic village. [60] The Egyptian held the No. 1 position on the IWF list of history's 50 greatest weightlifters for 60 years, until the 1996 Games in Atlanta where Turkey's Naim Süleymanoğlu surpassed him to top the list.

Italy's football team continued their dominance under head coach Vittorio Pozzo, winning the gold medal in these Olympics between their two consecutive World Cup victories (1934 and 1938). Much like the successes of German athletes, this triumph was claimed by supporters of Benito Mussolini's regime as a vindication of the superiority of the fascist system. Austria won the silver; a controversial win after Hitler called for a rematch of the quarterfinals match to discount Peru's 4–2 win over Austria. The Peruvian national Olympic team refused to play the match again and withdrew from the games. In the quarter-finals of the football tournament, Peru beat Austria 4–2 in extra-time. Peru rallied from a two-goal deficit in the final 15 minutes of normal time. During extra-time, Peruvian fans allegedly ran onto the field and attacked an Austrian player. In the chaos, Peru scored twice and won, 4–2. However, Austria protested and the International Olympic Committee ordered a replay without any spectators. The Peruvian government refused and their entire Olympic squad left in protest as did Colombia. [61]

A remarkable story from the track and field competition was the gold medal won by the US women's 4 × 100 m relay team. The German team were the heavy favourites, but dropped the baton at one hand-off. Of notable interest on the US team was Betty Robinson. [62] She was the first woman ever awarded an Olympic gold medal for track and field, winning the women's 100 m event at the 1928 Summer Olympics in Amsterdam. [62] In 1931, Robinson was involved in a plane crash, and was severely injured. Her body was discovered in the wreckage and it was wrongly thought that she was dead. She was placed in the trunk of a car and taken to an undertaker, where it was discovered that she was not dead, but in a coma. She awoke from the coma seven months later, although it was another six months before she could get out of a wheelchair, and two years before she could walk normally again. [63] Due to the length of her recovery, she had to miss participating in the 1932 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles, in her home country.

Participating nations

A total of 49 nations attended the Berlin Olympics, up from 37 in 1932. Five nations made their first official Olympic appearance at these Games: Afghanistan, Bermuda, Bolivia, Costa Rica and Liechtenstein.

Participating National Olympic Committees


Reich Chancellor Adolf Hitler saw the Games as an opportunity to promote his government and ideals of racial supremacy. The official Nazi party paper, the Völkischer Beobachter , wrote in the strongest terms that Jewish people and Black people should not be allowed to participate in the Games. [3] [4] However, when threatened with a boycott of the Games by other nations, he relented and allowed Black people and Jewish people to participate, and added one token participant to the German team—a German woman, Helene Mayer, who had a Jewish father. At the same time, the party removed signs stating "Jews not wanted" and similar slogans from the city's main tourist attractions. In an attempt to "clean up" the host city, the German Ministry of the Interior authorized the chief of police to arrest all Romani (Gypsies) and keep them in a "special camp," the Berlin-Marzahn concentration camp. [64]

Political aspects

United States Olympic Committee president Avery Brundage became a main supporter of the Games being held in Germany, arguing that "politics has no place in sport", despite having initial doubts. [65] Later Brundage requested that a system be established to examine female athletes for what Time magazine called "sex ambiguities" after observing the performance of Czechoslovak runner and jumper Zdenka Koubkova and English shotputter and javelin thrower Mary Edith Louise Weston (both individuals later had sex change surgery and legally changed their names to Zdenek Koubek and Mark Weston). [66]

French Olympians gave a Roman salute at the opening ceremony: known as the salut de Joinville per the Bataillon de Joinville  [ fr ], the Olympic salute was part of the Olympic traditions since the 1924 games. [67] However, due to the different context this action was mistaken by the crowd for a support to fascism (the Olympic salute was discarded after 1946). [68]

Although Haiti attended only the opening ceremony, an interesting vexillological fact was noticed: its flag and the flag of Liechtenstein were coincidentally identical, and this was not discovered until then. The following year, a crown was added to Liechtenstein's to distinguish one flag from the other.

American sprinters Sam Stoller and Marty Glickman, the only two Jews on the U.S. Olympic team, were pulled from the 4 × 100 relay team on the day of the competition, leading to speculation that U.S. Olympic committee leader Brundage did not want to add to Hitler's embarrassment by having two Jews win gold medals. [69]

In 1937, Hollywood released the film Charlie Chan at the Olympics . The plot concerned members of the Berlin police force helping the Chinese detective apprehend a group of spies (of unnamed nationality) trying to steal a new aerial guidance system. Despite pertaining to the Berlin Olympics, actual Games' footage used by the filmmakers was edited to remove any Nazi symbols. [70]

After the Olympics, Jewish participation in German sports was further limited, and persecution of Jews started to become ever more lethal. The Olympic Games had provided a nine-month period of relative calmness. [71]


The German Olympic committee, in accordance with Nazi directives, virtually barred Germans who were Jewish or Roma or had such an ancestry from participating in the Games (Helene Mayer, who had one Jewish parent, was the only German Jew to compete at the Berlin Games). This decision meant exclusion for many of the country's top athletes such as shotputter and discus thrower Lilli Henoch, who was a four-time world record holder and 10-time German national champion, [72] and Gretel Bergmann who was suspended from the German team just days after she set a record of 1.60 meters in the high jump. [73] [74]

Individual Jewish athletes from a number of countries chose to boycott the Berlin Olympics, including South African Sid Kiel, [75] and Americans Milton Green and Norman Cahners. In the United States, the American Jewish Congress and the Jewish Labor Committee supported a boycott. [76]

Boycott debate

Prior to and during the Games, there was considerable debate outside Germany over whether the competition should be allowed or discontinued. Berlin had been selected by the IOC as the host city in 1931, but after Adolf Hitler's rise to power in 1933, observers in many countries began to question the morality of going ahead with an Olympic Games hosted by the Nazi regime. A number of brief campaigns to boycott or relocate the Games emerged in the United Kingdom, France, Sweden, Czechoslovakia and the Netherlands. [76] Exiled German political opponents of Hitler's regime also campaigned against the Berlin Olympics through pro-Communist newspapers such as the Arbeiter-Illustrierte-Zeitung .

The protests were ultimately unsuccessful; in 1935 the Amateur Athletic Union of the United States voted to compete in the Berlin Games and other countries followed suit. Forty-nine teams from around the world participated in the 1936 Games, the largest number of participating nations of any Olympics to that point. [76]


The Spanish government led by the newly elected Far-left Communist Popular Front boycotted the Games and organized the People's Olympiad as a parallel event in Barcelona. Some 6,000 athletes from 49 countries registered. However, the People's Olympiad was aborted because of the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War just one day before the event was due to start. [76]

Soviet Union

The Soviet Union did not participate in international sporting events since the 1920 Olympics. The Soviet government was not invited to the 1920 Games, with the Russian Civil War still raging, and they did not participate in the 1924 Olympics and forward on ideological grounds. Instead, through the auspices of the Red Sport International, it had participated in a left-wing workers' alternative, the Spartakiad, since 1928. The USSR had intended to attend the People's Olympiad in Barcelona until it was cancelled; the Soviets did attend the Spartakiad-sponsored 1937 Workers' Summer Olympiad in Antwerp, Belgium. [77]


Halet Çambel and Suat Fetgeri Așani, the first Turkish and Muslim women [78] athletes to participate in the Olympics (fencing), refused an offer by their guide to be formally introduced to Adolf Hitler, saying they would not shake hands with him due to his approach to Jews, as stated by Ms. Çambel in a Milliyet newspaper interview in 2000. [79]

United States

Avery Brundage meeting mayor of Berlin Julius Lippert and IOC German Secretary Theodor Lewald in 1936 Brundage at Berlin.jpg
Avery Brundage meeting mayor of Berlin Julius Lippert and IOC German Secretary Theodor Lewald in 1936

Traditionally the US sent one of the largest teams to the Olympics, and there was a considerable debate over whether the United States should participate in the 1936 Games. [76]

Those involved in the debate on whether to boycott the Olympics included Ernest Lee Jahncke, Judge Jeremiah Mahoney, and future IOC President Avery Brundage. Some within the United States considered requesting a boycott of the Games, as to participate in the festivity might be considered a sign of support for the Nazi regime and its antisemitic policies. However, others such as Brundage (see below) argued that the Olympic Games should not reflect political views, but rather should be strictly a contest of the greatest athletes.

Avery Brundage, then of the United States Olympic Committee, opposed the boycott, stating that Jewish athletes were being treated fairly and that the Games should continue. Brundage asserted that politics played no role in sports, and that they should never be entwined. Brundage also believed that there was a "Jewish-Communist conspiracy" that existed to keep the United States from competing in the Olympic Games. [65] Somewhat ironically, Brundage would be later accused of being a Soviet dupe for his controversial stance on the Soviet sports system that allowed them to circumvent the amateur rules. [80] [81] On the subject of Jewish discrimination, he stated, "The very foundation of the modern Olympic revival will be undermined if individual countries are allowed to restrict participation by reason of class, creed, or race." [76]

During a fact-finding trip that Brundage went on to Germany in 1934 to ascertain whether German Jews were being treated fairly, Brundage found no discrimination when he interviewed Jews and his Nazi handlers translated for him, and Brundage commiserated with his hosts that he belonged to a sports club in Chicago that did not allow Jews entry, either. [82]

Unlike Brundage, Jeremiah Mahoney supported a boycott of the Games. Mahoney, the president of the Amateur Athletic Union, led newspaper editors and anti-Nazi groups to protest against American participation in the Berlin Olympics. He contested that racial discrimination was a violation of Olympic rules and that participation in the Games was tantamount to support for the Third Reich.

Most African-American newspapers supported participation in the Olympics. The Philadelphia Tribune and the Chicago Defender both agreed that black victories would undermine Nazi views of Aryan supremacy and spark renewed African-American pride. American Jewish organizations, meanwhile, largely opposed the Olympics. The American Jewish Congress and the Jewish Labor Committee staged rallies and supported the boycott of German goods to show their disdain for American participation. [65] The JLC organized the World Labor Athletic Carnival, held on August 15 and 16 at New York's Randall's Island, to protest the holding of the 1936 Olympics in Nazi Germany. [83]

Eventually, Brundage won the debate, convincing the Amateur Athletic Union to close a vote in favor of sending an American team to the Berlin Olympics. Mahoney's efforts to incite a boycott of the Olympic games in the United States failed.

US President Franklin Delano Roosevelt and his administration did not become involved in the debate due to a tradition of allowing the US Olympic Committee to operate independently of government influence. However, several American diplomats including William E. Dodd, the American ambassador to Berlin, and George Messersmith, head of the US legation in Vienna, deplored the US Olympic Committee's decision to participate in the games. [76]


Fencer Albert Wolff qualified for the French Olympic Team but boycotted the 1936 Summer Olympics, withdrawing from France's national team on principle because he was a Jew. [84] He said: "I cannot participate in anything sponsored by Adolf Hitler, even for France." [85]

See also

Related Research Articles

Avery Brundage IOC president

Avery Brundage was the fifth President of the International Olympic Committee (IOC), serving from 1952 to 1972. The only American to attain that position, Brundage is remembered as a zealous advocate of amateurism and for his involvement with the 1936 and 1972 Summer Olympics, both held in Germany.

Carl Diem German sports administrator

Carl Diem was a German sports administrator, and as Secretary General of the Organizing Committee of the Berlin Olympic Games, the chief organizer of the 1936 Olympic Summer Games.

Ilona Elek Hungarian fencer

Ilona Elek, known also as Ilona Elek-Schacherer was a Hungarian Olympic fencer. Elek won more international fencing titles than any other woman.

1936 Summer Olympics medal table

The 1936 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XI Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in Berlin, Germany, from 1 August to 16 August. Berlin had previously been chosen to host the 1916 Summer Olympics, which were subsequently cancelled due to the First World War. The 1936 Games had 3,963 athletes from 49 National Olympic Committees (NOCs) participating in a total of 129 events in 19 sports. This was the highest number of nations represented at any Games to date. Athletes from 32 NOCs won medals, of which 21 secured at least one gold medal. As a result, 17 NOCs were left without any medal. The host NOC, Germany, received a total of 89 medals, a record for a united German team, although East Germany broke that record in 1976, 1980 and 1988.

Alfred Flatow gymnast

Alfred Flatow was a German gymnast. He competed at the 1896 Summer Olympics in Athens. He was Jewish.

Helene Mayer German fencer

Helene Julie Mayer was a German-born fencer who won the gold medal at the 1928 Olympics in Amsterdam, and the silver medal at the 1936 Olympics in Berlin. She competed for Nazi Germany in Berlin, despite having been forced to leave Germany in 1935 and resettle in the United States because she was Jewish.

Khedr Sayed El Touny was an Egyptian weightlifter, widely regarded as the best weightlifter of all time. He was ranked number one on the list of history's 50 greatest weightlifters issued by the International Weightlifting Federation, until Turkey's Naim Süleymanoğlu surpassed the Egyptian to top the list at the 1996 Games in Atlanta.

Tilly Fleischer German javelin thrower

Ottilie "Tilly" Fleischer was a German athlete who competed in a variety of track and field athletic events. She competed for Germany in the 1932 Summer Olympics held in Los Angeles, United States in three different events, taking the bronze medal in the javelin. Four years later in her home country at the 1936 Games she won the gold medal in the javelin in front of the Berlin crowds.

Gretel Lambert was a German Jewish track and field athlete who competed as a high jumper during the 1930s.

Károly Kárpáti was a Hungarian Olympic wrestling champion of Jewish heritage.

Ellen Preis Austrian fencer

Ellen Müller-Preis, née Preis, was German-born Austrian Olympic-champion foil fencer.

Samuel Balter Jr. was an American basketball player who won a gold medal at the 1936 Olympics, and sportscaster.

Israel at the Olympics Israels competition at the Olympic Games

Israel has competed at the Olympic Games as a nation since 1952. Its National Olympic Committee was formed in 1933 during the British Mandate of Palestine. Israel has sent a team to each Summer Olympic Games since 1952 and to each Winter Olympic Games since 1994. The country became a member of the European Olympic Committees (EOC) in 1994.

Sam Stoller was an American sprinter and long jumper who tied the world record in the 60-yard dash in 1936. He is best known for his exclusion from the American 4 × 100 relay team at the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin. The 2-man substitution triggered widespread speculation that he and Marty Glickman—the only two Jews on the U.S. track team—were excluded because U.S. Olympic Committee chairman Avery Brundage wanted to avoid embarrassing Adolf Hitler by having two Jewish athletes win gold medals. Stoller vowed at the time that he would never run again, but he returned in 1937 to win both the Big Ten Conference and NCAA championships in the 100-yard dash. After graduating from the University of Michigan in 1937, Stoller briefly went into a singing and acting career as "Singin' Sammy Stoller."

Robert Fein was an Austrian weightlifter.

<i>Berlin 36</i> 2009 film set in the Olympic games in fascist Germany directed by Kaspar Heidelbach

Berlin 36 is a 2009 German film telling the fate of Jewish track and field athlete Gretel Bergmann in the 1936 Summer Olympics. She was replaced by the Nazi regime by an athlete later discovered to be an intersex man. The film, based on a true story, was released in Germany on September 10, 2009.

Albert Wolff was a French-born American Olympic fencer.

Lilli Henoch Track and field athlete

Lilli Henoch was a German track and field athlete who set four world records and won 10 German national championships, in four different disciplines.

The 1936 Summer Olympic Games were hosted in Germany, as determined by voting of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) between May 1930 and April 1931, two years prior to the rise of the Nazi Party to power. Nazi influence in Germany grew exponentially after the German Federal Elections in 1932 and 1933, coinciding with the appointment of Adolf Hitler, the head of the Nazi Party, as Chancellor in November 1932. The strict racial policies of the Nazis began to take effect after Adolf Hitler gained power though the Enabling Act, passed by the German Parliament in March 1933. The Games were seen by Hitler as a time to show the strength of the new Nazi Germany to the world; not only would the festivities be exciting and bold, but the Germans would dominate in every aspect of athletic competition. The Nazis used the Olympics to their political advantage, promoting a peaceful German state, and hiding their anti-Semitism.


  1. 1 2 "Factsheet - Opening Ceremony of the Games f the Olympiad" (PDF) (Press release). International Olympic Committee. 13 September 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 August 2016. Retrieved 22 December 2018.
  2. 1 2 Rader, Benjamin G. "American Sports: From the Age of Folk Games to the Age of Televised Sports" --5th Ed.
  3. 1 2 Hitlerland. p. 188.
  4. 1 2 David Clay Large, Nazi Games: The Olympics of 1936, p. 58.
  5. "The Nazi Olympics Berlin 1936". www.ushmm.org. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 7 October 2016.
  6. "Jewish Athletes — Marty Glickman & Sam Stoller". www.ushmm.org. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 7 October 2016.
  7. Zarnowski, C. Frank (Summer 1992). "A Look at Olympic Costs" (PDF). Citius, Altius, Fortius. 1 (1): 16–32. Retrieved 24 March 2007.
  8. "Olympic Vote History". Archived from the original on 25 May 2008. Retrieved 1 July 2008.
  9. 1 2 "Past Olympic host city election results". GamesBids. Archived from the original on 17 March 2011. Retrieved 17 March 2011.
  10. Keßler, Mario (2011). "Berlin 1936 – nur Spiele der Nazis? Olympia zwischen Sport und Politik". Jahrbuch für Forschungen zur Geschichte der Arbeiterbewegung . II.
  11. "Nazification of Sport". www.ushmm.org. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Archived from the original on 7 June 2013. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
  12. "The Olympic torch's shadowy past". BBC News. 5 April 2008.
  13. Weigant, Chris. "The Olympic Torch Relay's Nazi Origin". www.huffingtonpost.com. Huffington Post. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
  14. Large, Davic Clay (2007). Nazi Games The Olympics of 1936. W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. ISBN   0-393-05884-0.
  15. "The History Place - Triumph of Hitler: The Berlin Olympics". www.historyplace.com. Retrieved 14 October 2016.
  16. 1 2 Rippon, Anton (2006). Hitler's Olympics: The Story of the 1936 Nazi Games. Pen and Sword. p. 216. ISBN   9781781597378.
  17. Lehrer, Steven (2006). The Reich Chancellery and Führerbunker Complex. An Illustrated History of the Seat of the Nazi Regime. McFarland: Jefferson, NC. pp. 47–48. ISBN   0-7864-7733-4.
  18. "The Nazi Olympics: Berlin 1936 | Continuing Persecution". www.ushmm.org. Retrieved 14 October 2016.
  19. "Adolf Hitler's Olympic Village of 1936: Can this decaying relic ever escape the ghosts of its past?". Daily Mail . 30 June 2012.
  20. "Öffnungszeiten und Führungen im Olympischen Dorf von 1936". www.dkb-stiftung.de. Retrieved 13 October 2016.
  21. "Hitler's Olympic Village Faces Conservation Battle". Voice of America. 26 August 2012.
  22. (www.dw.com), Deutsche Welle. "Nazi Olympic village gets new lease of life | Business | DW.COM | 19.08.2016". DW.COM. Retrieved 14 October 2016.
  23. 1972 Summer Olympics official report. Archived 18 November 2008 at the Wayback Machine Volume 2. Part 2. pp. 162–7, 209–11. Accessed 17 October 2010.
  24. 1 2 3 4 5 Kolumbus.fi profile of German race tracks. Accessed 17 October 2010.
  25. The first 50 years of BSV92: 1892–1943. Archived 18 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 17 October 2010. ‹See Tfd› (in German)
  26. 1 2 1936 Summer Olympics. Volume 1. pp. 129–140. Accessed 17 October 2010.
  27. 1 2 3 Messe-Berlin history. Archived 31 October 2010 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 17 October 2010.
  28. 1 2 Mommenstadion profile. Accessed 17 October 2010. ‹See Tfd› (in German)
  29. 1 2 Wallechinsky, David and Jaime Loucky (2008). "Basketball: Men". In The Complete Book of the Olympics: 2008 Edition. London: Aurum Press Limited. pp. 399–400.
  30. 1936 Summer Olympics official report. Archived 6 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine Volume 2. p. 1074.
  31. Wallechinsky, David and Jaime Loucky (2008). "Canoeing: Men's Kayak Singles 1000 Meters". In The Complete Book of the Olympics: 2008 Edition. London: Aurum Press Limited. p. 471.
  32. History Olympic Stadium Berlin: 1937–45. Archived 22 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 17 October 2010.
  33. History Olympic Stadium Berlin: 1946–56. Archived 22 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 17 October 2010.
  34. History Olympic Stadium Berlin: 1957–88. Accessed 17 October 2010.
  35. History Olympic Stadium Berlin: 1989–97. Archived 22 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 17 October 2010.
  36. History Olympic Stadium Berlin: 1998-9. Archived 22 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 7 October 2010.
  37. History Olympic Stadium Berlin: 2000-4. Accessed 17 October 2010.
  38. History Olympic Stadium Berlin: 2004. Archived 22 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 17 October 2010.
  39. History Olympic Stadium Berlin: 2006. Archived 22 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 17 October 2010.
  40. History Olympic Stadium Berlin: 2009. Archived 22 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 17 October 2009.
  41. 1936 Summer Olympics official report. Archived 6 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine Volume 2. pp. 644–7, 682–5, 932–5. Accessed 17 October 2010.
  42. 1936 Summer Olympics official report. Archived 6 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine Volume 2. pp. 926, 1067–73. Accessed 17 October 2010.
  43. 1 2 3 4 5 1936 Summer Olympics official report. Volume 1. pp. 141–9, 154–62. Accessed 17 October 2010.
  44. 1936 Summer Olympics official report. Archived 6 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine Volume 2. pp. 830, 894. Accessed 17 October 2010.
  45. 1936 Summer Olympics official report. Archived 6 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine Volume 2. pp. 705, 737. Accessed 17 October 2010.
  46. 1936 Summer Olympics official report. Archived 6 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine Volume 2. pp. 996–1029. Accessed 17 October 2010.
  47. 1936 Summer Olympics official report Volume 1. pp. 163–4. Accessed 17 October 2010.
  48. 1936 Summer Olympics official report Archived 6 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine Volume 2. pp. 752–815, 830–6. Accessed 17 October 2010.
  49. 1 2 3 1936 Summer Olympics official report. Archived 6 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine Volume 2. pp. 1047–56. Accessed 17 October 2010.
  50. 1936 Summer Olympics official report. Archived 6 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine Volume 2. pp. 1031–8. Accessed 17 October 2010.
  51. 1936 Summer Olympics official report. Volume 1. pp. 150–3, 498. Accessed 17 October 2010.
  52. 1936 Summer Olympics official report. Archived 6 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine Volume 2. pp. 1067–73. Accessed 17 October 2010.
  53. 1936 Summer Olympics official report. Archived 6 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine Volume 2. pp. 827–36. Accessed 17 October 2010.
  54. 1 2 1936 Summer Olympics official report. Volume 1. pp. 162–3. Accessed 17 October 2010.
  55. 1 2 1936 Summer Olympics official report. Archived 6 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine Volume 2. pp. 817–36. Accessed 17 October 2010.
  56. 1 2 3 Birchall, Frederick T. (1 August 1939). "100,000 Hail Hitler; U.S. Athletes Avoid Nazi Salute to Him". www.nytimes.com. The New York Times. Retrieved 13 October 2016.
  57. 1 2 3 4 Jesse Owens. TV documentary. WGBH Educational Foundation. 2012. Presented on YLE TV 1, 9 July 2014.
  58. "Hitler's Berlin Games Helped Make Some Emblems Popular". Sports > Olympics. The New York Times. 14 August 2004. Retrieved 27 March 2010.
  59. Litsky, Frank (1 November 2007). "John Woodruff, an Olympian, Dies at 92". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 August 2010.
  60. "Rare 1936 Olympic souvenir booklet turns up in UTD's McDermott Library". www.pegasusnews.com. Pegasus News Wire. Archived from the original on 4 December 2008. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
  61. "Berlin, 1936". www.fifa.com. Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA). Archived from the original on 1 October 2007. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
  62. 1 2 "Schwartz, Elizabeth Robinson". www.anb.org. American National Biography Online. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
  63. Joe Gergen (2014) First Lady of Olympic Track: The Life and Times of Betty Robinson, Northwestern University Press, ISBN   0-8101-2958-2, pp. 146–47
  64. "The Facade of Hospitality". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Archived from the original on 9 October 2008. Retrieved 4 July 2008. In a move to "clean up" Berlin before the Olympics, the German Ministry of Interior authorized the chief of the Berlin Police to arrest all Gypsies prior to the Games. On 16 July 1936, some 800 Gypsies were arrested and interned under police guard in a special Gypsy camp in the Berlin suburb of Marzahn.
  65. 1 2 3 "The Nazi Party: The Nazi Olympics". www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
  66. "Medicine: Change of Sex". time.com. TIME Magazine. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
  67. Droit, Jean (1924). "Paris 1924 - Jeux Olympiques". Olympic Games Museum. Retrieved 15 March 2010.
  68. "The Berlin Olympics". www.historyplace.com. The History Place. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
  69. Holocaust Museum exhibit, Washington, DC
  70. Hanke, Ken (2004). Charlie Chan at the Movies: History, Filmography, and Criticism. McFarland. pp. 89–97. ISBN   0-7864-1921-0.
  71. Arnd Krüger. "Once the Olympics are through, we'll beat up the Jew" German Jewish Sport 1898–1938 and the Anti-Semitic Discourse, in: Journal of Sport History, 1999 Vol. 26 No. 2 p. 353-375. www.library.la84.org/SportsLibrary/JSH/JSH1999/JSH2602/jsh2602g.pdf
  72. Paul Taylor (2004). Jews and the Olympic Games: the clash between sport and politics: with a complete review of Jewish Olympic medalists. Sussex Academic Press. ISBN   1-903900-88-3 . Retrieved 2 November 2011.
  73. Hipsh, Rami (25 November 2009). "German film helps Jewish athlete right historical wrong". Haaretz. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
  74. Sandomir, Richard (7 July 2004). "'Hitler's Pawn' on HBO: An Olympic Betrayal". New York Times. Retrieved 4 July 2008. And she remembers with restrained anger the isolation she felt as a Jewish athlete denied basic rights in Hitler's Germany, and how, despite equaling a national record in the high jump a month before the 1936 Berlin Summer Games, she was excluded from the German Olympic team because she was a Jew.
  75. Players / South Africa / Sid Kiel – ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 2 May 2015.
  76. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 "The Movement to Boycott the Berlin Olympics of 1936". Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. June 2013. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 8 February 2014.
  77. Richard D. Mandell, The Nazi Olympics, University of Illinois Press, 1987, ISBN   0-252-01325-5; p. 68
  78. Sattar, Marium. "New fields to conquer for Muslim sportswomen". www.dailystar.com.lb. The Daily Star. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
  79. "GÜLE GÜLE TORUNUM" [Goodbye grandson] (in Turkish). Retrieved 16 November 2015.
  80. https://www.cia.gov/library/readingroom/docs/CIA-RDP80-00810A005800260002-1.pdf
  81. https://www.cia.gov/library/readingroom/docs/CIA-RDP80-00810A005600130009-0.pdf
  82. Nagorski, Andrew. Hitlerland: American Eyewitnesses to the Nazi Rise to Power . New York: Simon and Schuster, 2012, p. 190.
  83. 1936: Anti-Nazi World Labor Athletic Carnival Held in NYC
  84. David Clay Large. Nazi Games: The Olympics of 1936
  85. 29 October 1948 Jewish Post.

Further reading

Preceded by
Los Angeles
Summer Olympic Games
XI Olympiad (1936)
Succeeded by
cancelled due to World War II