Pacific Games

Last updated

Pacific Games
Pacific Games Council.png
AbbreviationPAG
First event1963
Occur every4 years
Headquarters Suva, Fiji
PresidentVidhya Lakhan
Website Official website

The Pacific Games (formerly known as the South Pacific Games) is a continental multi-sport event competing Olympic sports, with participation exclusively from archipelagic countries around the Pacific Ocean. It is held every four years and began in 1963.

Contents

Nine different cities in six countries and territories have hosted the Pacific Games. Four countries have hosted the games three times: Fiji (1963, 1979, 2003), New Caledonia (1966, 1987, 2011), Papua New Guinea (1969, 1991, 2015) and Samoa (1983, 2007, 2019). Two territories have hosted the Pacific Games twice: French Polynesia (1971, 1995) and Guam (1975, 1999). The Solomon Islands will become the seventh country to host the event come 2023.

Only six countries have attended every edition of the Pacific Games: Fiji, French Polynesia (Tahiti), New Caledonia, Papua New Guinea, Tonga, and Vanuatu. New Caledonia have dominated twelve out of the fifteen Pacific Games, Papua New Guinea with two, and Fiji with one.

The most recent Pacific Games was held in Apia, Samoa in July 2019.

History

Concept

The idea of holding the South Pacific Games originated with Dr A.H. Sahu Khan who was one of Fiji's representatives at a meeting of the South Pacific Commission held at Rabaul during 1959. The idea was adopted and led to a meeting of nine Territories, held in Nouméa during March 1961, which awarded Fiji the honour of hosting the very first Games. [1]

Creation

During 1962, the South Pacific Commission founded the South Pacific Games Council, with the first ever Games being held at Suva, Fiji. In the 40 years since, Games have been held in 12 countries and territories within the region. Initially the Games were held at three-year intervals although this was subsequently expanded to four following the Tumon Games in Guam.

As a residual consequence of the European colonisation of the Pacific from the early part of the 18th Century onwards, many nations who participated in the first Games (of 1963) were under predominantly British or French territorial rule. Understandably this generated a certain amount of confusion as both British and French flags and national anthems dominated proceedings and were occasionally used together for winning countries.
Western Samoa (now Samoa) was the only country with a flag and anthem of its sovereignty as it was the only participating independent island nation at that time. As time went on, fledgling nations gradually achieving sovereignty of their own sought to extricate themselves from their colonial past and new national anthems and flags emerged. Nevertheless, English and French remain the official languages of the Games. [2]

Like other sporting events, the South Pacific Games has experienced slight controversies. A minor dispute that still continues today is the scheduling of events landing on a Sunday. Throughout the Pacific, the Christian Sabbath remains very important (sporting events or similar activity are illegal in Tonga for example) and scheduling at such a time would be frowned upon. The events themselves have also been affected by religious sensitivities, notably beach volleyball where the official uniform of bikinis for women has been forced to give way to more conservative attire. [3] However other larger nations within the region or those loosely associated with more secular states (e.g. Cook Islands (New Zealand), American Samoa (United States), and French Polynesia (France)) are more moderate in this regard.

Other global and regional events have also influenced and shaped the Games' history. In 1995, the year Papeete, Tahiti hosted the Games, many countries took the decision to boycott as a direct protest at French nuclear testing in the Pacific. [4] The Games, however, returned to near full regional participation in the following event in 1999, held on Guam.

The first objective of the Pacific Games Council, according to its Charter, [5] is

"To create bonds of kindred friendship and brotherhood amongst people of the countries of the Pacific region through sporting exchange without any distinctions as to race, religion or politics."

The Games were initiated to promote and develop sport amongst the nations and peoples of the South Pacific. [1] After fifty years in existence, The South Pacific Commission changed its name to the Pacific Community . [1]

Modern day games

The XII South Pacific Games held in Suva, Fiji saw for the first time the introduction of a full program of 32 sports. [6] That program included sports that are synonymous with the Pacific region as well as sports that have a limited participation and are generally not well established.

A strong corporate sponsorship package a first for the games enabled the organizers to work with a free hand towards their aims of making the games a success. A colorful and effective media and publicity campaign generated much interest and enthusiasm among the public in Fiji. Schools and youth groups were involved in interactive programs such as the adopt-a-country program also a first for the games. [7]

The XIII Pacific Games were hosted in Apia, Samoa. They were the 13th to have been held since 1963. In contrast to the Olympic Games which are expected to generate income for the host nation, [8] the 2007 Pacific Games were expected to leave Samoa US$92million in debt, predominantly as a result of expenditure on large-scale infrastructure projects such as bridges and roads. [9]

Potential debt positions notwithstanding, five nations (Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu, Solomon Islands, Tonga and American Samoa) bid for the 2015 Pacific Games. The Games were ultimately awarded to Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea and follow the 2011 Pacific Games held in Nouméa, New Caledonia. However the rising cost (purportedly in excess of $1 billion) and the logistical burden of putting on the games continue to threaten countries' abilities to host the event. [10]

Pacific Games Council

The games governing body is the Pacific Games Council. The Games council flag is presented to the host nation of the next games at the end of every games. With expansion and economic growth in the Pacific and Oceania countries of the Pacific Islands, the South Pacific Games Council decided to modernise and revise its charter in light of these changes in the region and the changing place of Sport in our society, thus the council adapted a new charter in 2007.

The current President of the Council is Vidhya Lakhan from Fiji.

Member associations

Membership of the Council includes internationally recognised National Multisport Organisations within countries and territories who are members of the Pacific Community. [5] There are currently 22 members. [11] Pitcairn Island is the only Pacific Community member that is not member of the Pacific Council, whereas Norfolk Island was admitted as a member of the Pacific Games Council although not a member of the Pacific Community.

15 members are also member associations of the Oceania National Olympic Committees (ONOC). [11] Since the 2015 games Australia and New Zealand participate in the Pacific Games.

In July 2014, the Oceania National Olympic Committees announced their members had voted to allow Australia and New Zealand to participate in four sports, on a provisional basis, in the 2015 Pacific Games. The risk of seeing the two wealthy, developed nations dominate the competition had previously prevented their inclusion. They would be allowed to send participants only in rugby sevens, sailing, taekwondo and weightlifting - sports where other Pacific countries had proved sufficiently competitive against them in the past. [12]

NationOrganisationWebsite
Flag of American Samoa.svg  American Samoa American Samoa National Olympic Committee (ASNOC) oceaniasport.com/amsam
Flag of the Cook Islands.svg  Cook Islands Cook Islands Sports and National Olympic Committee (CISNOC) oceaniasport.com/cookis
Flag of Federated States of Micronesia.svg  Federated States of Micronesia Federated States of Micronesia National Olympic Committee (FSMNOC) oceaniasport.com/fsm
Flag of Fiji.svg  Fiji Fiji Association of Sports and National Olympic Committee (FASANOC) fijiolympiccommittee.com
Flag of Guam.svg  Guam Guam National Olympic Committee (GNOC) oceaniasport.com/guam
Flag of Kiribati.svg  Kiribati Kiribati National Olympic Committee (KNOC) oceaniasport.com/kiribati
Flag of the Marshall Islands.svg  Marshall Islands Marshall Islands National Olympic Committee (MINOC) oceaniasport.com/marshalls
Flag of Nauru.svg  Nauru Nauru Olympic Committee oceaniasport.com/nauru
New Caledonia flags merged (2017).svg New Caledonia Comité territorial olympique et sportif de Nouvelle-Calédonie (CTOS) www.ctos.nc
Flag of Niue.svg  Niue Niue Island Sports and Commonwealth Games Association (NISCGA) oceaniasport.com/niue
Flag of Norfolk Island.svg  Norfolk Island Norfolk Island Amateur Sports & Commonwealth Games Association sportingpulse.com/assoc_page.cgi?assoc=3852
Flag of the Northern Mariana Islands.svg  Northern Mariana Islands Northern Marianas Amateur Sports Association sportingpulse.com/assoc_page.cgi?assoc=3859
Flag of Palau.svg  Palau Palau National Olympic Committee (PNOC) oceaniasport.com/palau
Flag of Papua New Guinea.svg  Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea Sports Federation & National Olympic Committee (PNGSFOC) oceaniasport.com/png
Flag of Samoa.svg  Samoa Samoa Association of Sports and National Olympic Committee (SASNOC) oceaniasport.com/samoa
Flag of the Solomon Islands.svg  Solomon Islands Solomon Islands National Olympic Committee (NOCSI) oceaniasport.com/solomon
Flag of French Polynesia.svg  Tahiti Comité olympique de Polynésie française (COPF) www.copftahiti.com
Flag of Tokelau.svg  Tokelau Tokelau Sports Federation sportingpulse.com/assoc_page.cgi?assoc=3861
Flag of Tonga.svg  Tonga Tonga Sports Association and National Olympic Committee (TASANOC) oceaniasport.com/tonga
Flag of Tuvalu.svg  Tuvalu Tuvalu Association of Sports and National Olympic Committee (TASNOC) oceaniasport.com/tuvalu
Flag of Vanuatu.svg  Vanuatu Vanuatu Association of Sports and National Olympic Committee (VASANOC) oceaniasport.com/vanuatu
Flag of Wallis and Futuna.svg  Wallis and Futuna Comité territorial olympique et sportif des îles Wallis et Futuna (CTOSWF) wallisetfutuna.franceolympique.com

Pacific Games locations

YearGamesHostDatesAthletesNationsSportsMost gold medals
1963 I Flag of Fiji (1924-1970).svg Suva, Fiji 29 August – 8 September6461310Flag of Fiji (1924-1970).svg  Fiji
1966 II Flag of France.svg Nouméa, New Caledonia 8–18 December12001412Flag of France.svg New Caledonia
1969 III Flag of Papua New Guinea (1965-1970).svg Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea 13–23 August11501215Flag of France.svg New Caledonia
1971 IV Flag of French Polynesia.svg Papeete, Tahiti 25 August – 5 September20001417Flag of France.svg New Caledonia
1975 V Flag of Guam.svg Tumon, Guam 1–10 August12051316Flag of France.svg New Caledonia
1979 VI Flag of Fiji.svg Suva, Fiji 28 August – 8 September26721918Flag of France.svg New Caledonia
1983 VII Flag of Samoa.svg Apia, Western Samoa 5–16 September25001513New Caledonia Sports Flag.svg New Caledonia
1987 VIII New Caledonia Sports Flag.svg Nouméa, New Caledonia 8–20 December16501218New Caledonia Sports Flag.svg New Caledonia
1991 IX Flag of Papua New Guinea.svg Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea 7–21 September20001617Flag of Papua New Guinea.svg  PapuaNew Guinea
1995 X Flag of French Polynesia.svg Papeete, Tahiti 25 August – 5 September20001225New Caledonia Sports Flag.svg New Caledonia
1999 XI Flag of Guam.svg Santa Rita, Guam 29 May – 12 June 3000+2122New Caledonia Sports Flag.svg New Caledonia
2003 XII Flag of Fiji.svg Suva, Fiji 28 June – 12 July50002232New Caledonia Sports Flag.svg New Caledonia
2007 XIII Flag of Samoa.svg Apia, Samoa 25 August – 8 September50002233New Caledonia Sports Flag.svg New Caledonia
2011 XIV New Caledonia flags merged (2017).svg Nouméa, New Caledonia 27August10September43002227New Caledonia Sports Flag.svg New Caledonia
2015 XV Flag of Papua New Guinea.svg Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea 4–18 July37002428Flag of Papua New Guinea.svg  PapuaNew Guinea
2019 XVI Flag of Samoa.svg Apia, Samoa [13] 7–20 July35002426New Caledonia flags merged (2017).svg New Caledonia
2023 XVII Flag of the Solomon Islands.svg Honiara, Solomon Islands [14] 14–28 JulyTBD2424

Sports

There are 37 sports approved by the Pacific Games Council, as at December 2017. [15] The 2019 Pacific Games shall consist of a maximum 26 sports, but a reduction to a maximum of 24 sports will be made for 2023. [16]

Core sports

The number of Pacific Games core sports was increased from 14 to 16, [16] effective for the 2023 Games. This change was made in 2016, with Sailing and Triathlon being made core sports. [16] The core sports are required to be included at every edition of the games.

Details for each core sport, up to and including the 2019 games, are presented in the table below:

Sport (discipline)ContestedYears
Athletics Athletics pictogram.svg All1963–present
Basketball a (5x5) Basketball pictogram.svg All1963–present
(3x3) 3-on-3 basketball pictogram.svg 1 time2019–present
Boxing Boxing pictogram.svg All1963–present
Football Football pictogram.svg 15 times1963–1995, 2003–present
Golf Golf pictogram.svg 14 times1969–present
Judo Judo pictogram.svg 11 times1969–1979, 1987, 1995–2011, 2019–present
Outrigger canoeing (va'a) Canoeing (flatwater) pictogram.svg 7 times1995–present
Rugby 7s Rugby Sevens pictogram.svg 6 times1999–present
Sailing Sailing pictogram.svg 13 times1969–1979, 1987–present
Swimming Swimming pictogram.svg 15 times1963–1979, 1987–present
Table tennis Table tennis pictogram.svg All1963–present
Taekwondo Taekwondo pictogram.svg 7 times1995–present
Tennis Tennis pictogram.svg All1963–present
Triathlon Triathlon pictogram.svg 7 times1995–present
Volleyball b (indoor) Volleyball (indoor) pictogram.svg All1963–present
(beach) Volleyball (beach) pictogram.svg 6 times1999–present
Weightlifting Weightlifting pictogram.svg 15 times1966–present

Optional sports

There are 21 sports optional for inclusion at a games, as selected by the host nation's organising committee. Details for each optional sport, up to and including the 2019 games, are presented in the table below:

Sport (discipline)ContestedYears
Archery Archery pictogram.svg 7 times1971–1975, 1995, 2003–2011, 2019
Badminton Badminton pictogram.svg 4 times2003–2011, 2019
Baseball Baseball pictogram.svg 4 times1999–2011
Billiards Billiards pictogram.svg NeverN/A
Bodybuilding Bodybuilding pictogram.svg 5 times1995, 2003–2015
Cricket Cricket pictogram.svg 8 times1979, 1987–1991, 2003–present
Cycling Cycling pictogram.svg 5 times1966, 1971–1975, 1987, 1995
Field hockey Field hockey pictogram.svg 4 times1979, 2003–2007, 2015
Handball Handball pictogram.svg NeverN/A
Karate Karate pictogram.svg 5 times1995–2003, 2011–2015
Lawn bowls Lawn bowls pictogram.svg 6 times1979, 1991, 2003–2007, 2015–present
Netball c Netball pictogram.svg 12 times1963–1969, 1979–1983, 1991–2007, 2015–present
Powerlifting Powerlifting pictogram (Paralympics).svg 6 times1995, 2003–present
Rugby league 9s Rugby league pictogram.svg 4 times2007, 2015–present
Shooting Shooting pictogram.svg 7 times1987, 1995, 2003–present
Snooker Cue sports pictogram.svg NeverN/A
Softball Softball pictogram.svg 6 times1969–1975, 1991, 2007, 2015
Squash Squash pictogram.svg 9 times1979–1991, 2003–present
Surfing Surfing pictogram.svg 4 times1995, 2003–2011
Touch rugby d Rugby pictogram.svg 4 times2003–2007, 2015–present
Wrestling Wrestling pictogram.svg 2 times1999, 2007

Former sports

Former sports include rugby 15s (replaced by rugby 7s) and underwater fishing (last contested in 1999).

Sport (discipline)ContestedYears
Rugby 15s Rugby pictogram.svg 9 times1963–1971, 1979–1995
Underwater fishing Spearfishing pictogram.svg 4 times1971–1975, 1995–1999

Also included at the 2009 Pacific Mini Games was rugby league 7s (now replaced by rugby league 9s).

Notes:

^a The 3x3 format was added as an extra discipline for basketball in 2019 after being included at the Mini Games in 2017.

^b Volleyball and beach volleyball disciplines have been listed as one sport for the purposes of the Games program since some time after the bids for the XV Games (in conjunction with the maximum number of sports being reduced from 28 to 26 for the XVI Games). [17] [18]

^c Netball is a women's competition only.

^d Touch rugby is an optional sport but men's, women's and mixed tournaments must be included if touch rugby is selected.

All-time medal table

Officially the final medal tally of the Games does not recognize a winner, regarding competition and fair play more highly. [7]

Australia and New Zealand were included in the all-time medal count for the first time after the 2015 Pacific Games in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. The table below includes all Games from 1963 to 2019.

Nation(s) in italics are defunct PGAs.

RankNationGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1Flags of New Caledonia.svg  New Caledonia 9117276312269
2Flag of French Polynesia.svg  French Polynesia 5174504791446
3Flag of Papua New Guinea.svg  Papua New Guinea 4704364461352
4Flag of Fiji.svg  Fiji 4224854981405
5Flag of Samoa.svg  Samoa (includes Western Samoa)232193201626
6Flag of Nauru.svg  Nauru 1016761229
7Flag of Guam.svg  Guam 65108134307
8Flag of Tonga.svg  Tonga 5866105229
9Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 502825103
10Flag of American Samoa.svg  American Samoa 454881174
11Flag of the Cook Islands.svg  Cook Islands 315470155
12Flag of Vanuatu.svg  Vanuatu (includes New Hebrides)2963100192
13Flag of France.svg  Wallis and Futuna 254285152
14Flag of Federated States of Micronesia.svg  Micronesia 20141044
15Flag of the Solomon Islands.svg  Solomon Islands 195292163
16Flag of Kiribati.svg  Kiribati 12263371
17Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand 9191644
18Flag of Palau.svg  Palau 9141336
19Flag of the Northern Mariana Islands.svg  Northern Mariana Islands 8121232
20Flag of Norfolk Island.svg  Norfolk Island 7151840
21Flag of Tokelau.svg  Tokelau 3227
22Flag of Tuvalu.svg  Tuvalu 24612
23Flag of Niue.svg  Niue 161219
24Flag of the Marshall Islands.svg  Marshall Islands 041317
25Flag of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands (1937-1976).svg  Gilbert and Ellice Islands 0112
Totals (25 nations)3046293631449126

See also

Related Research Articles

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A cricket tournament at the Pacific Games, previously the South Pacific Games, was introduced in 1979 and was played intermittently at games in the 1980s and 1990s, depending on the facilities of the host nation. Since 2003, cricket has featured at every Pacific Games. Detailed records of the tournaments prior to 2003 have not been kept and beyond knowing what teams won the gold and silver medals at each Games, little is known with certainty of the first three tournaments.

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1991 South Pacific Games

The 1991 South Pacific Games, held from 7–21 September 1991 at Port Moresby and Lae in Papua New Guinea, was the ninth edition of the South Pacific Games. This was the first time that events at one games had been held in two cities. The decision to do so was to allow both locations to benefit from the construction of new facilities.

1969 South Pacific Games

The 1969 South Pacific Games, held from 13–23 August 1969 at Port Moresby in Papua New Guinea, was the third edition of the South Pacific Games. A total of 1,150 athletes participated in the games.

Boxing at the Pacific Games has been contested since 1963 when it was included as one of ten sports at the First South Pacific Games held in Suva, Fiji. There are presently ten weight classes for the men's competition at the Pacific Games, known as the South Pacific Games prior to 2011, in accordance with the (amateur) International Boxing Association (AIBA) classifications.

1971 South Pacific Games

The 1971 South Pacific Games, held at Papeete in Tahiti from 25 August to 5 September 1971, was the fourth edition of the South Pacific Games.

1997 South Pacific Mini Games

The 1997 South Pacific Mini Games were held at Pago Pago in American Samoa from 11 to 22 August 1997. It was the fifth edition of the South Pacific Mini Games. It was much larger than previous editions, with an almost doubling of the number of medals awarded compared to the 1993 South Pacific Mini Games. The impressive performances by Nauru in weightlifting continued in Pago Pago, with the tiny nation finishing on top of the unofficial medal table after winning 33 gold.

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1983 South Pacific Games

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1979 South Pacific Games

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2017 Pacific Mini Games

The 2017 Pacific Mini Games were held in Port Vila, Vanuatu, in December 2017. It was the tenth edition of the Pacific Mini Games, and the second to be hosted in Vanuatu.

Basketball is one of the 26 sports scheduled for the 2019 Pacific Games which will be held in Apia, Samoa.

References

  1. 1 2 3 "History". Pacific Games Council Official Website. 2013. Retrieved 27 October 2015.
  2. Charter 2007, p. 6.
  3. Bikinis out, Shorts in at Beach Volleyball Pacific Radio News - Niue FM, 29 August 2007
  4. French tests: Opposition grows, article summarising the response to French nuclear testing in the Pacific from World Information Service on Energy retrieved 19 February 2007
  5. 1 2 Charter 2007, p. 4.
  6. Sidsnet.org Archived 4 May 2005 at the Wayback Machine
  7. 1 2 2003 Twelfth South Pacific Games, Suva, Fiji
  8. Article by CBRE regarding increase to gross domestic product and real estate values as a result of the 2004 Athens Olympics
  9. "Games puts Samoa in debt". ABC Radio Australia. 3 September 2007. Retrieved 3 September 2007.
  10. Paligaru, Clement. "PNG risks losing right to host 2015 Pacific Games". ABC Radio Australia. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  11. 1 2 "Pacific Games Council - DIRECTORY 2013" (PDF 0.4 MB). Pacific Games Council. 2013. Retrieved 27 August 2013.
  12. "Vanuatu committed to 2017 Pacific Mini Games". Cook Islands News. 11 May 2017. Archived from the original on 7 October 2017. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
  13. "Samoa Set To Host Pacific Games In 2019". Pacific Islands Report. 1 September 2017. Archived from the original on 2 September 2017. Retrieved 2 September 2017.
  14. "Solomon Islands awarded 2023 Pacific Games", Inside the Games, 11 May 2016
  15. Charter 2018, p. 14–15.
  16. 1 2 3 "Pacific Games: Sports Program Review". Pacific Games Council. 27 May 2016. Archived from the original on 9 February 2018. Retrieved 8 February 2018.
  17. Charter 2010, pp. 15–16.
  18. Charter 2012, pp. 15–16.

Sources

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