Doping at the Olympic Games

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This article is about the history of competitors at the Olympic Games using banned athletic performance-enhancing drugs.

Contents

History

The use of performance-enhancing tactics or more formally known as PEDs, and more broadly, the use of any external device to nefariously influence the outcome of a sporting event has been a part of the Olympics since its inception in Ancient Greece. One speculation as to why men were required to compete naked was to prevent the use of extra accoutrements and to keep women from competing in events specifically designed for men. [1] Athletes were also known to drink "magic" potions and eat exotic meats in the hopes of giving them an athletic edge on their competition. [2] If they were caught cheating, their likenesses were often engraved into stone and placed in a pathway that led to the Olympic stadium. [1] In the modern Olympic era, chemically enhancing one's performance has evolved into a sophisticated science, but in the early years of the Modern Olympic movement the use of performance-enhancing drugs was almost as crude as its ancient predecessors. For example, the winner of the marathon at the 1904 Games, Thomas Hicks, was given strychnine and brandy by his coach, even during the race. [3]

During the early 20th century, many Olympic athletes discovered ways to improve their athletic abilities by boosting testosterone. As their methods became more extreme, it became increasingly evident that the use of performance-enhancing drugs was not only a threat to the integrity of sport but could also have potentially fatal side effects on the athlete. The only Olympic death linked to athletic drug use occurred at the Rome Games of 1960. During the cycling road race, Danish cyclist Knud Enemark Jensen fell from his bicycle and later died. A coroner's inquiry found that he was under the influence of amphetamine, which had caused him to lose consciousness during the race. [4] Jensen's death exposed to the world how endemic drug use was among elite athletes. [5] By the mid–1960s, sports federations were starting to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs, and the IOC followed suit in 1967. [6]

The first Olympic athlete to test positive for the use of performance-enhancing drugs was Hans-Gunnar Liljenwall, a Swedish pentathlete at the 1968 Summer Olympics, who lost his bronze medal for alcohol use, 'two beers to steady his nerves'. [7] Liljenwall was the only athlete to test positive for a banned substance at the 1968 Olympics, as the technology and testing techniques improved, the number of athletes discovered to be chemically enhancing their performance increased as well.

Kornelia Ender Bundesarchiv Bild 183-L1209-0021, Kornelia Ender.jpg
Kornelia Ender

The most systematic case of drug use for athletic achievement is that of the East German Olympic teams of the 1970s and 1980s. In 1990, documents were discovered that showed many East German female athletes, especially swimmers, had been administered anabolic steroids and other drugs by their coaches and trainers. Girls as young as eleven were started on the drug regimen without consent from their parents. American female swimmers, including Shirley Babashoff, accused the East Germans of using performance-enhancing drugs as early as the 1976 Summer Games. [8] Babashoff's comments were dismissed by the international and domestic media as sour grapes since Babashoff, a clear favorite to win multiple gold medals, won three silver medals - losing all three times to either of the two East Germans Kornelia Ender or Petra Thümer, and one gold medal in a relay. There was no suspicion of cheating on the part of the East German female swimmers even though their medal tally increased from four silvers and one bronze in 1972 to ten golds (out of a possible 12), six silvers, and one bronze in 1976. No clear evidence was discovered until after the fall of the Berlin Wall, when the aforementioned documents proved that East Germany had embarked on a state-sponsored drug regimen to dramatically improve their competitiveness at the Olympic Games and other international sporting events. Many of the East German authorities responsible for this program have been subsequently tried and found guilty of various crimes in the German penal system. [9] [10]

The report, titled "Doping in Germany from 1950 to today," details how the West German government helped fund a wide-scale doping program. West Germany encouraged and covered up a culture of doping across many sports for decades. [11] Doping of West German athletes was prevalent at the Munich Games of 1972, and at the 1976 Montreal Olympics. [12]

According to British journalist Andrew Jennings, a KGB colonel stated that the agency's officers had posed as anti-doping authorities from the International Olympic Committee to undermine doping tests and that Soviet athletes were "rescued with [these] tremendous efforts". [13] On the topic of the 1980 Summer Olympics, a 1989 Australian study said "There is hardly a medal winner at the Moscow Games, certainly not a gold medal winner, who is not on one sort of drug or another: usually several kinds. The Moscow Games might as well have been called the Chemists' Games." [13]

Documents obtained in 2016 revealed the Soviet Union's plans for a statewide doping system in track and field in preparation for the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles. Dated prior to the country's decision to boycott the Games, the document detailed the existing steroids operations of the program, along with suggestions for further enhancements. [14] The communication, directed to the Soviet Union's head of track and field, was prepared by Dr. Sergei Portugalov of the Institute for Physical Culture. Portugalov was also one of the main figures involved in the implementation of the Russian doping program prior to the 2016 Summer Olympics. [14]

China conducted a state sanctioned doping programme on athletes in the 1980s and 1990s. [15] In a July 2012 interview published by the Sydney Morning Herald newspaper, Chen Zhangho, the lead doctor for the Chinese Olympic team at the Los Angeles, Seoul and Barcelona Olympics told of how he had tested hormones, blood doping and steroids on about fifty elite athletes. [16] Chen also accused the United States, the Soviet Union and France of using performance-enhancing drugs at the same time as China. [16]

A very publicized steroid-related disqualification at an Olympic Games was the case of Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson, who won the Men's 100 metres at the 1988 Seoul Olympics, but tested positive for stanozolol. His gold medal was subsequently stripped and awarded to runner-up Carl Lewis, who himself had tested positive for banned substances prior to the Olympics, but had not been banned due to a lack of consistency in the application of the rules. At that time National Olympic Committees had leeway to determine whether a specific athlete met the criteria to be banned from Olympic competition. [17]

Response

In the late 1990s, the IOC took the initiative in a more organized battle against doping, leading to the formation of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) in 1999. The 2000 Summer Olympics and 2002 Winter Olympics have shown that the effort to eliminate performance-enhancing drugs from the Olympics is not over, as several medalists in weightlifting and cross-country skiing were disqualified due to failing a drug test. During the 2006 Winter Olympics, only one athlete failed a drug test and had a medal revoked. The IOC-established drug testing regimen (now known as the "Olympic Standard") has set the worldwide benchmark that other sporting federations attempt to emulate. [18] During the Beijing games, 3,667 athletes were tested by the IOC under the auspices of the World Anti-Doping Agency. Both urine and blood testing was used in a coordinated effort to detect banned substances and recent blood transfusions. While several athletes were barred from competition by their National Olympic Committees prior to the Games, six athletes failed drug tests while in competition in Beijing. [19] [20]

Prohibited drugs

Summer Olympic Games

What follows is a list of all the athletes that have tested positive for a banned substance either during or after an Olympic Games in which they competed. Any medals listed were revoked by the International Olympic Commission (IOC). In 1967 the IOC banned the use of performance-enhancing drugs, instituted a Medical Commission, and created a list of banned substances. [21] Mandatory testing began at the following year's Games. [21] In a few cases the IOC has reversed earlier rulings that stripped athletes of medals.

1968 Mexico City

NameCountrySportBanned substanceMedals
Hans-Gunnar Liljenwall Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden Modern pentathlon Ethanol Bronze medal icon.svg (team)

1972 Munich

As a 16-year-old, Rick DeMont qualified to represent the United States at the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, Germany. He originally won the gold medal in the men's 400-meter freestyle, but following the race, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) disqualified DeMont [22] after his post-race urinalysis tested positive for traces of the banned substance ephedrine contained in his prescription asthma medication, Marax. The positive test following the 400-meter freestyle final also deprived him of a chance at multiple medals, as he was barred from any other events at the Olympics, including the 1,500-meter freestyle for which he was the then-current world record-holder.

Before the Olympics, DeMont had properly declared his asthma medications on his medical disclosure forms, but the U.S. Olympic Committee (USOC) had not cleared them with the IOC's medical committee. [23] The United States Olympic Committee (USOC) has recognized his gold medal performance in the 1972 Summer Olympics in 2001, [24] but only the IOC has the power to restore his medal, and it has, as of 2019, refused to do so. [24]

NameCountrySportAnti-doping rule violationMedalsRef.
Bakaava Buidaa Flag of the People's Republic of Mongolia (1940-1992).svg  Mongolia Judo Dianabol Silver medal icon.svg (63 kg) [25]
Miguel Coll Flag of Puerto Rico (1952-1995).svg  Puerto Rico Basketball Amphetamine [25] [26]
Rick DeMont Flag of the United States.svg  United States Swimming Ephedrine Gold medal icon.svg (men's 400 m freestyle) [25]
Aad van den Hoek Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands Cycling Coramine Bronze medal icon.svg (100 km team race) [25]
Jaime Huélamo Flag of Spain (1945-1977).svg  Spain Cycling Coramine Bronze medal icon.svg (individual road race) [25]
Walter Legel Flag of Austria.svg  Austria Weightlifting Amphetamine [25]
Mohammad Reza Nasehi State Flag of Iran (1964-1980).svg  Iran Weightlifting Ephedrine [25]

1976 Montreal

NameCountrySportAnti-doping rule violationMedalsRef.
Blagoi Blagoev Flag of Bulgaria (1971-1990).svg  Bulgaria Weightlifting Anabolic steroid Silver medal icon.svg (82.5 kg) [25]
Mark Cameron Flag of the United States.svg  United States Weightlifting Anabolic steroid [25]
Paul Cerutti Flag of Monaco.svg  Monaco Shooting Amphetamine [25]
Dragomir Cioroslan Flag of Romania (1965-1989).svg  Romania Weightlifting Fencamfamine [25]
Philippe Grippaldi Flag of the United States.svg  United States Weightlifting Anabolic steroid [25]
Zbigniew Kaczmarek Flag of Poland (1928-1980).svg  Poland Weightlifting Anabolic steroid Gold medal icon.svg (67.5 kg) [25]
Valentin Khristov Flag of Bulgaria (1971-1990).svg  Bulgaria Weightlifting Anabolic steroid Gold medal icon.svg (110 kg) [25]
Lorne Liebel Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada Sailing Phenylpropanolamine [25]
Arne Norrback Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden Weightlifting Anabolic steroid [25]
Peter Pavlasek Flag of Czechoslovakia.svg  Czechoslovakia Weightlifting Anabolic steroid [25]
Danuta Rosani Flag of Poland (1928-1980).svg  Poland Athletics Anabolic steroid [25] [27]

1980 Moscow

Though no athletes were caught doping at the 1980 Summer Olympics, it has been revealed that athletes had begun using testosterone and other drugs for which tests had not been yet developed. According to British journalist Andrew Jennings, a KGB colonel stated that the agency's officers had posed as anti-doping authorities from the International Olympic Committee (IOC) to undermine doping tests and that Soviet athletes were "rescued with [these] tremendous efforts". [13] A 1989 report by a committee of the Australian Senate claimed that "there is hardly a medal winner at the Moscow Games, certainly not a gold medal winner...who is not on one sort of drug or another: usually several kinds. The Moscow Games might well have been called the Chemists' Games". [28]

A member of the IOC Medical Commission, Manfred Donike, privately ran additional tests with a new technique for identifying abnormal levels of testosterone by measuring its ratio to epitestosterone in urine. Twenty percent of the specimens he tested, including those from sixteen gold medalists would have resulted in disciplinary proceedings had the tests been official. [28] The results of Donike's unofficial tests later convinced the IOC to add his new technique to their testing protocols. [29] The first documented case of "blood doping" occurred at the 1980 Summer Olympics as a runner was transfused with two pints of blood before winning medals in the 5000 m and 10,000 m. [30]

1984 Los Angeles

NameCountrySportBanned substanceMedalsRef.
Serafim Grammatikopoulos Flag of Greece.svg  Greece Weightlifting Nandrolone
Vésteinn Hafsteinsson Flag of Iceland.svg  Iceland Athletics Nandrolone [27]
Tomas Johansson Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden Wrestling Methenolone Silver medal icon.svg (super-heavy)
Stefan Laggner Flag of Austria.svg  Austria Weightlifting Nandrolone
Göran Pettersson Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden Weightlifting Nandrolone
Eiji Shimomura Flag of Japan (1870-1999).svg  Japan Volleyball Testosterone
Mikiyasu Tanaka Flag of Japan (1870-1999).svg  Japan Volleyball Ephedrine
Ahmed Tarbi Flag of Algeria.svg  Algeria Weightlifting Nandrolone
Mahmud Tarha Flag of Lebanon.svg  Lebanon Weightlifting Nandrolone
Giampaolo Urlando Flag of Italy.svg  Italy Athletics Testosterone [27]
Martti Vainio Flag of Finland.svg  Finland Athletics Methenolone Silver medal icon.svg (10,000 m) [27]
Anna Verouli Flag of Greece.svg  Greece Athletics Nandrolone [27]

The organizers of the Los Angeles games had refused to provide the IOC doping authorities with a safe prior to the start of the games. Due to a lack of security, medical records were subsequently stolen. [28] A 1994 letter from IOC Medical Commission chair Alexandre de Mérode claimed that Tony Daly, a member of the Los Angeles organizing committee had destroyed the records. [28] Dick Pound later wrote of his frustration that the organizing committee had removed evidence before it could be acted on by the IOC. Pound also claimed that IOC President Juan Antonio Samaranch and Primo Nebiolo, President of the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) had conspired to delay the announcement of positive tests so that the games could pass without controversy. [28]

The American cyclist Pat McDonough later admitted to "blood doping" at the 1984 Los Angeles Games. [31] Following the games it was revealed that one-third of the U.S. cycling team had received blood transfusions before the games, where they won nine medals, their first medal success since the 1912 Summer Olympics. [31] "Blood doping" was banned by the IOC in 1985 (at the time of the Olympics it was not banned), though no test existed for it at the time. [31]

1988 Seoul

NameCountrySportBanned substanceMedalsRef.
Ali Dad Flag of Afghanistan (1987-1992).svg  Afghanistan Wrestling Furosemide
Kerrith Brown Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain Judo Furosemide
Kalman Csengeri Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary Weightlifting Stanozolol
Mitko Grablev Flag of Bulgaria (1971-1990).svg  Bulgaria Weightlifting Furosemide Gold medal icon.svg (56 kg)
Angell Guenchev Flag of Bulgaria (1971-1990).svg  Bulgaria Weightlifting Furosemide Gold medal icon.svg (67.5 kg)
Ben Johnson Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada Athletics Stanozolol Gold medal icon.svg (men's 100 m) [27]
Fernando Mariaca Flag of Spain.svg  Spain Weightlifting Pemoline
Jorge Quesada Flag of Spain.svg  Spain Modern pentathlon Propanolol
Andor Szanyi Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary Weightlifting Stanozolol Silver medal icon.svg (100 kg)
Alexander Watson Flag of Australia.svg  Australia Modern Pentathlon Caffeine

1992 Barcelona

NameCountrySportBanned substanceMedalsRef.
Madina Biktagirova Olympic flag.svg  Unified Team Athletics Norephedrine [27]
Wu Dan Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China Volleyball Strychnine
Bonnie Dasse Flag of the United States.svg  United States Athletics Clenbuterol [27]
Jud Logan Flag of the United States.svg  United States Athletics Clenbuterol [27]
Nijolė Medvedeva Flag of Lithuania (1988-2004).svg  Lithuania Athletics Mesocarb [27]

1996 Atlanta

NameCountrySportBanned substanceMedalsRef.
Antonella Bevilacqua Flag of Italy.svg  Italy Athletics Ephedrine and pseudoephedrine [27] [32]
Dean Capobianco Flag of Australia.svg  Australia Athletics Stanozolol [27] [32]
Sandra Farmer-Patrick Flag of the United States.svg  United States Athletics Testosterone [27] [33]
Daniel Plaza Flag of Spain.svg  Spain Athletics Nandrolone [27] [34] [35]
Iva Prandzheva Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria Athletics Metadienone [27] [36]
Mary Slaney Flag of the United States.svg  United States Athletics Testosterone [27] [37]
Natalya Shekhodanova Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Athletics Stanozolol [27] [36] [38]

Five athletes tested positive for the stimulant bromantan and were disqualified by the IOC, but later reinstated after an appeal to the Court of Arbitration for Sport: swimmers Andrey Korneyev and Nina Zhivanevskaya, Greco-Roman wrestler Zafar Guliev and sprinter Marina Trandenkova, all from Russia, and the Lithuanian track cyclist Rita Razmaitė. Dr. Vitaly Slionssarenko, physician to the Lithuanian cycling team and team coach Boris Vasilyev were expelled from the games by the IOC for their role in the scandal. [39] [40] [41] [36] The athletes and officials were reprimanded. [42] [43] [44] [45] [46]

The Irish long-distance runner Marie McMahon (Davenport) got a reprimand after testing positive for the stimulant phenylpropanolamine, [36] [47] [48] and Cuban judoka Estella Rodriguez Villanueva got a reprimand after she tested positive for the diuretic furosemide. [36]

2000 Sydney

NameCountrySportBanned substanceMedalsRef.
Fritz Aanes Flag of Norway.svg  Norway Wrestling Norandrosterone and noretiochdandone
Lance Armstrong Flag of the United States.svg  United States Cycling
(Road race and Time trial)
Investigation by U.S. Anti-Doping Agency concluded in 2012:
Use, Possession, Trafficking, Administration of Prohibited Substances and Methods and Assisting, Encouraging, Aiding, Abetting, Covering Up or any other type of complicity involving one or more anti-doping rule violations and/or attempted anti-doping rule violations.
Bronze medal icon.svg (Time trial)
Ashot Danielyan Flag of Armenia.svg  Armenia Weightlifting Stanozolol Bronze medal icon.svg (+105 kg)
Izabela Dragneva Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria Weightlifting Furosemide Gold medal icon.svg (48 kg)
Stian Grimseth Flag of Norway.svg  Norway Weightlifting Nandrolone
Ivan Ivanov Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria Weightlifting Furosemide Silver medal icon.svg (56 kg)
Marion Jones Flag of the United States.svg  United States Athletics THG Gold medal icon.svg (women's 100 m), Gold medal icon.svg (women's 200 m),
Gold medal icon.svg (women's 4x400 m relay), Bronze medal icon.svg (women's long jump),
Bronze medal icon.svg (women's 4x100 m relay)
[27]
Alexander Leipold Flag of Germany.svg  Germany Wrestling Nandrolone Gold medal icon.svg (76 kg)
Sevdalin Minchev Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria Weightlifting Furosemide Bronze medal icon.svg (62 kg)
Antonio Pettigrew Flag of the United States.svg  United States Athletics EPO and HGH Gold medal icon.svg (men's 4 × 400 m relay) [27]
Svetlana Pospelova Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Athletics Stanozolol [27] [49]
Oyuunbilegiin Pürevbaatar Flag of Mongolia.svg  Mongolia Wrestling Furosemide
Andreea Răducan Flag of Romania.svg  Romania Gymnastics Pseudophedrine [50] Gold medal icon.svg (women's individual all-round)
Andris Reinholds Flag of Latvia.svg  Latvia Rowing Nandrolone
Jerome Young Flag of the United States.svg  United States Athletics Nandrolone Gold medal icon.svg (men's 4 × 400 m relay) [27]

2004 Athens

NameCountrySportAnti-doping rule violationMedalsRef.
Wafa Ammouri Flag of Morocco.svg  Morocco Weightlifting Anabolic steroid [51]
Adrián Annus Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary Athletics Falsified test result, evasion of doping controlGold medal icon.svg (men's hammer throw) [27] [51]
Ludger Beerbaum Flag of Germany.svg  Germany Equestrian Betamethasone (to horse Goldfever)Gold medal icon.svg (team jumping)
Yuriy Bilonog Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine Athletics Oxandrolone (positive after retest in 2012)Gold medal icon.svg (men's shot put) [27] [52] [53]
Zhanna Block Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine Athletics BALCO investigation [27]
Andrew Brack Flag of Greece.svg  Greece Baseball Stanozolol (pre-Games test) [54]
Viktor Chislean Flag of Moldova.svg  Moldova Weightlifting Anabolic steroid [51]
Crystal Cox Flag of the United States.svg  United States Athletics Anabolic agents and hormones (investigation completed 2010)Gold medal icon.svg (women's 4 × 400 m relay) [27] [55]
Róbert Fazekas Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary Athletics Refused to submit sampleGold medal icon.svg (men's discus throw) [27] [51] [56]
Mabel Fonseca Flag of Puerto Rico.svg  Puerto Rico Wrestling Stanozolol [51]
Anton Galkin Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Athletics Stanozolol [27] [51]
Ferenc Gyurkovics Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary Weightlifting Oxandrolone Silver medal icon.svg (105 kg) [51]
Tyler Hamilton Flag of the United States.svg  United States Cycling Use of prohibited substances and methods (self admission)Gold medal icon.svg (men's road time trial) [57]
Marion Jones Flag of the United States.svg  United States Athletics BALCO investigation [27]
Zoltan Kecskes Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary Weightlifting Anabolic steroid [51]
Konstantinos Kenteris Flag of Greece.svg  Greece Athletics Evasion of doping control [51] [56]
Albina Khomich Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Weightlifting Testosterone [51]
Aye Khine Nan Flag of Myanmar (1974-2010).svg  Myanmar Weightlifting Anabolic steroid [51]
Irina Korzhanenko Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Athletics Stanozolol Gold medal icon.svg (women's shot put) [27] [51] [56]
Zoltán Kovács Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary Weightlifting Refused to submit sample [51]
Svetlana Krivelyova Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Athletics Oxandrolone (positive after retest in 2012)Bronze medal icon.svg (women's shot put) [27] [53] [58] [59]
Pratima Kumari Na Flag of India.svg  India Weightlifting Anabolic steroid [51]
Aleksey Lesnichiy Flag of Belarus (1995-2012).svg  Belarus Athletics Clenbuterol [27] [51] [56]
David Munyasia Flag of Kenya.svg  Kenya Boxing Cathine [51]
Derek Nicholson Flag of Greece.svg  Greece Baseball Diuretic (pre-Games test) [54]
Cian O'Connor Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland Equestrian Antipsychotics (to horse Waterford Crystal)Gold medal icon.svg (individual jumping)
Olena Olefirenko Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine Rowing Ethamivan Bronze medal icon.svg (women's quadruple sculls) [51]
Oleg Perepetchenov Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Weightlifting Clenbuterol (positive after retest in 2012)Bronze medal icon.svg (77 kg) [60] [61]
Duane Ross Flag of the United States.svg  United States Athletics BALCO investigation [27]
Leonidas Sampanis Flag of Greece.svg  Greece Weightlifting Testosterone Bronze medal icon.svg (62 kg) [51]
Thinbaijam Sanamcha Chanu Flag of India.svg  India Weightlifting Furosemide [51]
Mital Sharipov Flag of Kyrgyzstan.svg  Kyrgyzstan Weightlifting Furosemide [51]
Olga Shchukina Flag of Uzbekistan.svg  Uzbekistan Athletics Clenbuterol [27] [51] [56]
Şule Şahbaz Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey Weightlifting Anabolic steroid [51]
Ekaterini Thanou Flag of Greece.svg  Greece Athletics Evasion of doping control [51] [56]
Ivan Tsikhan Flag of Belarus (1995-2012).svg  Belarus Athletics Methandienone (positive after retest in 2012)Silver medal icon.svg (men's hammer throw) [27] [53]
Irina Yatchenko Flag of Belarus (1995-2012).svg  Belarus Athletics Methandienone (positive after retest in 2012)Bronze medal icon.svg (women's discus throw)

December 2012

[27] [53]

2008 Beijing

"Zero Tolerance for Doping" was adopted as an official slogan for the Beijing Olympic Games. [62] A number of athletes were already eliminated by testing prior to coming to Beijing. [62]

Out of the 4,500 samples that were collected from participating athletes at the games, six athletes with positive specimens were ousted from the competition. Further positive tests were found in 2016, as samples had been sealed and stored for eight years. The quality of the original testing was questioned when the BBC reported that samples positive for EPO were labeled as negative by Chinese laboratories in July, 2008. [63] The initial rate of positive findings was lower than at Athens in 2004, but the prevalence of doping had not necessarily decreased; the technology for creating and concealing drugs had become more sophisticated, and a number of drugs could not be detected. [62] [63] [64]

In August 2015, the Turkish Athletics Federation confirmed that an in-competition test of Elvan Abeylegesse at the 2007 IAAF World Championships in Athletics had been retested and found to be positive for a controlled substance, and that she had been temporarily suspended. [65] On 29 March 2017, the IAAF confirmed the positive test, announced retroactive disqualifications and voided all of her results from 25 August 2007 until 25 August 2009, including the 2008 Summer Olympics. [66] As a result, she was stripped of two silver medals she had won in the women's 5,000 and 10,000 meter races.

In May 2016, following the Russian doping scandal, the IOC announced that 32 targeted retests had come back positive for performance-enhancing drugs, of which Russian News Agency TASS announced that 14 were from Russian athletes, 11 of them track and field athletes, including 2012 Olympic champion high jumper Anna Chicherova. Authorities have sent the B-samples for confirmation testing. Those confirmed as having taken doping agents stand to lose records and medals from the 2008 games to 2016 under IOC and WADA rules. [67]

On 18 June 2016, the IWF reported that as a consequence of the IOC's reanalyses of samples from the 2008 Olympic Games, the samples of the following seven weightlifters had returned positive results: Hripsime Khurshudyan (Armenia), Intigam Zairov (Azerbaijan), Alexandru Dudoglo (Moldova), gold medalist Ilya Ilyin (Kazakhstan), bronze medalist Nadezda Evstyukhina and silver medalist Marina Shainova (both from Russia), and Nurcan Taylan (Turkey). In line with the relevant rules and regulations, the IWF imposed mandatory provisional suspensions upon the athletes. Zairov and Ilyin had been serving previous suspensions. [68] In November 2016, Ilyin was stripped of the gold medal. [69]

On 22 July 2016, Sibel Özkan (TUR) was disqualified due to an anti-doping rule violation and stripped of her silver medal. [70] Medals have not been reallocated as yet.

On 28 July 2016, it was announced that retests of samples from the 2008 Summer Olympics detected a positive sample for performance-enhancing drugs from Aksana Miankova of Belarus, who won a gold medal in the women's hammer throw. [71] [72] There have been no decisions about stripping and reallocation of medals as yet.

On 16 August 2016, the Russian women's 4 × 100 metres relay team was disqualified for doping. Russian teammates were stripped of their gold Olympic medals, as Yuliya Chermoshanskaya had her samples reanalyzed and tested positive for two prohibited substances. [73] The IAAF was requested to modify the results accordingly and to consider any further action within its own competence. [74]

On 19 August 2016, the Russian women's 4 × 400 metres relay team was disqualified for doping. [75] Russian teammates were stripped of their silver Olympic medals, as Anastasiya Kapachinskaya had her samples reanalyzed and tested positive for the same two prohibited substances as Chermoshanskaya. [76]

On 24 August 2016, the IWF reported that as a consequence of the IOC's reanalyses of samples from the 2008 Olympic Games, the samples of the following athletes had returned positive results: Nizami Pashayev (Azerbaijan), Iryna Kulesha, Nastassia Novikava, Andrei Rybakou (all from Belarus), Cao Lei, Chen Xiexia, Liu Chunhong (all from China), Mariya Grabovetskaya, Maya Maneza, Irina Nekrassova, Vladimir Sedov (all from Kazakhstan), Khadzhimurat Akkaev, Dmitry Lapikov (both from Russia), and Natalya Davydova and Olha Korobka (both from Ukraine). In line with the relevant rules and regulations, the IWF imposed mandatory provisional suspensions upon the athletes, who remain provisionally suspended in view of potential anti-doping rule violations until their cases are closed. [77]

On 29 August 2016, some non-official reports indicated that Artur Taymazov of Uzbekistan had been stripped of the 2008 Olympic gold medal in the freestyle wrestling 120 kg event due to a positive test for doping. [78]

On 31 August 2016, the IOC disqualified six sportspeople for failing doping tests at the 2008 Games. They included three Russian medalists: weightlifters Nadezhda Evstyukhina (bronze medal in the women's 75 kg event), Marina Shainova (silver medal in the women's 58 kg event), and Tatyana Firova, who finished second with teammates in the 4 × 400 m relay. Bronze medal weightlifter Tigran Martirosyan of Armenia (men's 69 kg event) and fellow weightlifters Alexandru Dudoglo (9th place) of Moldova and Intigam Zairov (9th place) of Azerbaijan were also disqualified. [79]

On 1 September 2016, the IOC disqualified a further two athletes. Cuban discus thrower Yarelys Barrios, who won a silver medal in the women's discus, was disqualified after testing positive for Acetazolamide and ordered to return her medal. Qatari sprinter Samuel Francis, who finished 16th in the 100 meters, was also disqualified after testing positive for Stanozolol. [80]

On 13 September 2016, four more Russian athletes were disqualified for doping offenses. Two of those were medalists from the 2008 Summer Olympics: silver medalist Mariya Abakumova in the women's javelin throw and Denis Alekseyev, who was part of the bronze medal team in the men's 4 × 400 m relay. Inga Abitova, who finished 6th in the 10,000 meters, and cyclist Ekaterina Gnidenko also tested positive for a banned substance and were disqualified. [81]

On 23 September 2016, some non-official reports indicate wrestler Vasyl Fedoryshyn of Ukraine has been stripped of the 2008 Olympic silver medal in the freestyle 60 kg event due to a positive test for doping. [82]

On 6 October 2016, the IOC disqualified Anna Chicherova of the Russian Federation for testing positive for performance-enhancing drugs. She won a bronze medal in the women's high jump. Russia would likely keep the bronze medal, as the fourth-place athlete in the competition was also from Russia. [83] Through 6 October 2016, the IOC has reported Adverse Analytical Findings for 25 weightlifters from its 2016 retests of samples from the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, all but three of whom tested positive for anabolic agents (three Chinese weightlifters were positive for growth hormones). [84]

On 26 October 2016, the IOC disqualified nine more athletes for failing drugs tests at the 2008 Games. Among them were six medal winners: weightlifters Andrei Rybakou and Nastassia Novikava, both from Belarus, and Olha Korobka of Ukraine; women's steeplechase bronze medalist Ekaterina Volkova of Russia; and freestyle wrestlers Soslan Tigiev of Uzbekistan and Taimuraz Tigiyev of Kazakhstan. The others were men's 62 kg weightlifter Sardar Hasanov of Azerbaijan, long jumper Wilfredo Martinez of Cuba, and 100m-hurdler Josephine Nnkiruka Onyia of Spain. [85]

On 17 November 2016, the IOC disqualified 16 more athletes for failing drugs tests at the 2008 games. Among them were 10 medal winners: weightlifters Khadzhimurat Akkaev and Dmitry Lapikov and wrestler Khasan Baroev from the Russian Federation, weightlifters Mariya Grabovetskaya, Irina Nekrassova and wrestler Asset Mambetov from Kazakhstan, weightlifter Nataliya Davydova and pole vaulter Denys Yurchenko from Ukraine, long/triple jumper Hrysopiyí Devetzí of Greece and wrestler Vitaliy Rahimov of Azerbaijan. The others were women's 75 kg weightlifter Iryna Kulesha of Belarus, women's +63 kg weightlifter Maya Maneza of Kazakhstan, women's high jumper Vita Palamar of Ukraine, men's 94 kg weightlifter Nizami Pashayev of Azerbaijan, men's 85 kg weightlifter Vladimir Sedov of Kazakhstan, and women's high jumper Elena Slesarenko of the Russian Federation. [86]

On 25 November 2016, the IOC disqualified 5 more athletes for failing drugs tests at the 2008 games. Among them were 3 medal winners: gold-medalists 94 kg weightlifter Ilya Ilin of Kazakhstan and hammer thrower Aksana Miankova of Belarus and silver-medalist shot putter Natallia Mikhnevich of Belarus. The others were shot putter Pavel Lyzhyn and 800m runner Sviatlana Usovich, both of Belarus. [87]

On 12 January 2017, the IOC disqualified five more athletes for failing drug tests at the 2008 Games. These included three Chinese women's weightlifting gold medalists: Lei Cao (75 kg), Xiexia Chen (48 kg) and Chunhong Liu (69 kg). Two women athletes from Belarus were disqualified: bronze medalist shot putter Nadzeya Ostapchuk and hammer thrower Darya Pchelnik, who did not medal. [88]

On 25 January 2017, the IOC stripped Jamaica of the athletics gold medal in the men's 4 × 100 m relay due to Nesta Carter testing positive for the prohibited substance methylhexaneamine. [89] [90] [91] The IOC also stripped Russian jumper Tatyana Lebedeva of two silver medals in women's triple jump and long jump due to use of turinabol. [89]

On 1 March 2017, the IOC disqualified Victoria Tereshchuk of Ukraine due to use of turinabol and stripped her of the bronze medal in modern pentathlon. [92]

By April 2017, the 2008 Summer Olympics has had the most (50) Olympic medals stripped for doping violations. Russia is the leading country with 14 medals stripped.

Disqualified

NameCountrySportBanned substanceMedalsDetails
Elvan Abeylegesse Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey Athletics
5000 Metres
10,000 metres
Silver medal icon.svg (5,000 meters)
Silver medal icon.svg (10,000 meters)
disqualification following post-event testing for 2007 IAAF World Championships [66]
Christian Ahlmann Flag of Germany.svg  Germany Equestrian
Individual jumping
Team jumping
Capsaicin
Bernardo Alves Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil Equestrian
Individual jumping
Team jumping
Capsaicin
Lyudmila Blonska Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine Athletics
Heptathlon
Methyltestosterone Silver medal icon.svg (heptathlon)IOC post-event testing [27] [93]
Tony André Hansen Flag of Norway.svg  Norway Equestrian
Individual jumping
Team jumping
Capsaicin Bronze medal icon.svg (team jumping)
Alissa Kallinikou Flag of Cyprus.svg  Cyprus Athletics
400 metres
Testosterone In competition test in July 2008 [27] [94]
Kim Jong-su Flag of North Korea.svg  North Korea Shooting
10 m air pistol
50 m pistol
Propranolol Bronze medal icon.svg (men's 10 m air pistol), Silver medal icon.svg (50 m pistol)
Courtney King Flag of the United States.svg  United States Equestrian
Individual dressage
Team dressage
Felbinac
Denis Lynch Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland Equestrian
Individual jumping
Capsaicin
Andrei Mikhnevich Flag of Belarus (1995-2012).svg  Belarus Athletics
Shot put
Retest of sample from 2005 WCh: Clenbuterol, Methandienone and Oxandrolone Bronze medal icon.svg (men's shot put)IAAF retest of sample from the 2005 IAAF World Championships. All results from August 2005 onwards annulled. [27] [95] [96]
Tezdzhan Naimova Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria Athletics
100 metres
Tampering with doping controlIAAF out-of-competition test in June 2008. [27] [94]
Rodrigo Pessoa Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil Equestrian
Individual jumping
Team jumping
Nonivamide
Igor Razoronov Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine Weightlifting
105 kg
Nandrolone [97]
Adam Seroczyński Flag of Poland.svg  Poland Canoeing
K-2 1000 metres
Clenbuterol
Do Thi Ngan Thuong Flag of Vietnam.svg  Vietnam Gymnastics
Artistic qualification
Furosemide
Vanja Perisic Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia Athletics
800 Metres
CERA IOC re-analysis of sample in 2009 [27] [98]
Rashid Ramzi Flag of Bahrain.svg  Bahrain Athletics
1500 Metres
CERA Gold medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2009 [27] [98]
Davide Rebellin Flag of Italy.svg  Italy Cycling
Road Race
CERA Silver medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2009 [98]
Stefan Schumacher Flag of Germany.svg  Germany Cycling
Time Trial
CERA IOC re-analysis of sample in 2009 [98]
Athanasia Tsoumeleka Flag of Greece.svg  Greece Athletics
20 Kilometre Walk
CERA IOC re-analysis of sample in 2009 [27] [98]
Yuliya Chermoshanskaya Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Athletics
200 Metres
4 × 100 Metres Relay
Stanozolol & Turinabol Gold medal icon.svg (4x100 metre relay) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [99]
Tatyana Firova Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Athletics
400 Metres
4 × 400 Metres Relay
Turinabol & Metabolite of 1-Testosterone, 1-Androstenedione or 1-Androstenediol Silver medal icon.svg (4×400 metre relay) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [79]
Anastasia Kapachinskaya Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Athletics
400 Metres
4 × 400 Metres Relay
Stanozolol & Turinabol Silver medal icon.svg (4x400 metre relay) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [100]
Hripsime Khurshudyan Flag of Armenia.svg  Armenia Weightlifting
75 kg
Stanozolol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [101]
Tigran Gevorg Martirosyan Flag of Armenia.svg  Armenia Weightlifting
69 kg
Stanozolol & Turinabol Bronze medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [79]
Samuel Adelebari Francis Flag of Qatar.svg  Qatar Athletics
100 Metres
200 Metres
Stanozolol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [102]
Nadezhda Evstyukhina Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Weightlifting
75 kg
Turinabol & EPO Bronze medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [79]
Alexander Pogorelov Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Athletics
Decathlon
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [100]
Marina Shainova Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Weightlifting
58 kg
Stanozolol and Turinabol Silver medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [79]
Alexandru Dudoglo Flag of Moldova.svg  Moldova Weightlifting
69 kg
Stanozolol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [79]
Nurcan Taylan Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey Weightlifting
48 kg
Stanozolol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [101]
Yarelys Barrios Flag of Cuba.svg  Cuba Athletics
Discus Throw
Acetazolamide Silver medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [102]
Intigam Zairov Flag of Azerbaijan.svg  Azerbaijan Weightlifting
85 kg
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [79]
Ivan Yushkov Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Athletics
Shot Put
Stanozolol, Oxandrolone & Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [100]
Sibel Özkan Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey Weightlifting
48 kg
Stanozolol Silver medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [103]
Ilya Ilyin Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan Weightlifting
94 kg
Stanozolol Gold medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [87]
Mariya Abakumova Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Athletics
Javelin Throw
Turinabol Silver medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [104]
Inga Abitova Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Athletics
10,000 Metres
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [104]
Denis Alexeev Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Athletics
400 Metres
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [104]
Anna Chicherova Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Athletics
High Jump
Turinabol Bronze medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [83]
Sardar Hasanov Flag of Azerbaijan.svg  Azerbaijan Weightlifting
62 kg
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [85]
Wilfredo Martínez Flag of Cuba.svg  Cuba Athletics
Long Jump
Acetazolamide IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [85]
Josephine Nnkiruka Onyia Flag of Spain.svg  Spain Athletics
100 Metre Hurdles
Methylhexanamine IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [85]
Soslan Tigiev Flag of Uzbekistan.svg  Uzbekistan Wrestling
Freestyle 74 kg
Turinabol Silver medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [85]
Ekaterina Volkova Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Athletics
3000 Metre Steeplechase
Turinabol Bronze medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [85]
Olha Korobka Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine Weightlifting
+75 kg
Turinabol Silver medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [85]
Nastassia Novikava Flag of Belarus (1995-2012).svg  Belarus Weightlifting
53 kg
Turinabol & Stanozolol Bronze medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [85]
Andrei Rybakou Flag of Belarus (1995-2012).svg  Belarus Weightlifting
85 kg
Stanozolol & Turinabol Silver medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [85]
Taimuraz Tigiyev Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan Wrestling
Freestyle 96 kg
Turinabol Silver medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [85]
Khadzhimurat Akkaev Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Weightlifting
94 kg
Turinabol Bronze medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [86]
Khasan Baroev Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Wrestling
Greco-Roman 120 kg
Turinabol Silver medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [86]
Nataliya Davydova Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine Weightlifting
69 kg
Turinabol Bronze medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [86]
Chrysopigi Devetzi Flag of Greece.svg  Greece Athletics
Triple Jump
Stanozolol Bronze medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [86]
Mariya Grabovetskaya Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan Weightlifting
+75 kg
Turinabol, Oxandrolone & Stanozolol Bronze medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [86]
Iryna Kulesha Flag of Belarus (1995-2012).svg  Belarus Weightlifting
75 kg
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [86]
Dmitry Lapikov Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Weightlifting
105 kg
Turinabol Bronze medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [86]
Asset Mambetov Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan Wrestling
Greco-Roman 96 kg
Stanozolol Bronze medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [86]
Maya Maneza Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan Weightlifting
63 kg
Stanozolol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [86]
Irina Nekrassova Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan Weightlifting
63 kg
Stanozolol Silver medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [86]
Vita Palamar Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine Athletics
High Jump
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [86]
Nizami Pashayev Flag of Azerbaijan.svg  Azerbaijan Weightlifting
94 kg
Turinabol, Oxandrolone & Stanozolol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [86]
Vitaliy Rahimov Flag of Azerbaijan.svg  Azerbaijan Wrestling
Greco-Roman 60 kg
Turinabol Silver medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [86]
Vladimir Sedov Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan Weightlifting
85 kg
Stanozolol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [86]
Elena Slesarenko Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Athletics
High Jump
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [86]
Denys Yurchenko Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine Athletics
Pole Vault
Turinabol Bronze medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [86]
Pavel Lyzhyn Flag of Belarus (1995-2012).svg  Belarus Athletics
Shot Put
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [87]
Aksana Miankova Flag of Belarus (1995-2012).svg  Belarus Athletics
Hammer Throw
Turinabol & Oxandrolone Gold medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [87]
Natallia Mikhnevich Flag of Belarus (1995-2012).svg  Belarus Athletics
Shot Put
Metandienone & Stanozolol Silver medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [87]
Sviatlana Vusovich Flag of Belarus (1995-2012).svg  Belarus Athletics
800 Metres
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [87]
Nadzeya Ostapchuk Flag of Belarus (1995-2012).svg  Belarus Athletics
Shot Put
Turinabol & Tamoxifen Bronze medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2017 [88]
Darya Pchelnik Flag of Belarus (1995-2012).svg  Belarus Athletics
Hammer Throw
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017 [88]
Cao Lei Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China Weightlifting
75 kg
GHRP-2 & Metabolite Gold medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2017 [88]
Chen Xiexia Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China Weightlifting
48 kg
GHRP-2 & Metabolite Gold medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2017 [88]
Liu Chunhong Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China Weightlifting
69 kg
GHRP-2 , Metabolite & Sibutramine Gold medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2017 [88]
Nesta Carter Flag of Jamaica.svg  Jamaica Athletics
4 × 100 Metres Relay
Methylhexanamine Gold medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2017 [105]
Tatyana Lebedeva Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Athletics
Triple Jump
Long Jump
Turinabol Silver medal icon.svg
Silver medal icon.svg
IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017 [105]
Victoria Tereshchuk Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine Modern Pentathlon
Individual
Turinabol Bronze medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2017 [106]
Vasyl Fedoryshyn Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine Wrestling
Freestyle 60 kg
Turinabol Silver medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2017 [107]
Artur Taymazov Flag of Uzbekistan.svg  Uzbekistan Wrestling
Freestyle 120 kg
Turinabol & Stanozolol Gold medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2017 [107]
Tatyana Chernova Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Athletics
Heptathlon
Turinabol Bronze medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2017 [108]
Denis Alexeev Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Athletics
Men's 4 × 400 m relay
Turinabol Bronze medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2017 [81]

Did not start

Athletes who were selected for the Games, but provisionally suspended before competing.

NameCountrySportBanned substanceDetails
Marta Bastianelli Flag of Italy.svg  Italy Cycling Fenfluramine Testing at the U-23 world championships [109]
Fani Halkia Flag of Greece.svg  Greece Athletics Methyltrienolone Pre-Games testing in Japan [110] [111] [112]
Maria Isabel Moreno Flag of Spain.svg  Spain Cycling Erythropoietin Pre-Games testing in Olympic village, Beijing [113]
Tatyana Tomashova Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Athletics IAAF out-of-competition tests in May and August 2007 [114]
Yelena Soboleva Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Athletics IAAF out-of-competition tests in May and August 2007 [114]
Svetlana Cherkasova Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Athletics IAAF out-of-competition tests in May and August 2007 [114]
Yuliya Fomenko Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Athletics IAAF out-of-competition tests in May and August 2007 [114]
Darya Pishchalnikova Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Athletics IAAF out-of-competition tests in May and August 2007 [114]
Gulfiya Khanafeyeva Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Athletics IAAF out-of-competition tests in May and August 2007 [114]
Olga Yegorova Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Athletics IAAF out-of-competition tests in May and August 2007 [114]

2012 London

It was announced prior to the Summer games that half of all competitors would be tested for drugs, with 150 scientists set to take 6,000 samples between the start of the games and the end of the Paralympic games at GlaxoSmithKline's New Frontiers Science Park site in Harlow, Essex. [115] All medalists would also be tested. The Olympic anti-doping laboratory would test up to 400 samples every day for more than 240 prohibited substances. [115]

The head of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), John Fahey, announced on 24 July that 107 athletes had been sanctioned for doping offences in the six months to 19 June. [116] The "In-competition" period began on 16 July. During the "In-competition" period Olympic competitors can be tested at any time without notice or in advance. [117]

British sprinter Dwain Chambers, cyclist David Millar and shot putter Carl Myerscough [118] competed in London after the British Olympic Association's policy of punishing drug cheats with lifetime bans was overturned by the Court of Arbitration for Sport. [115]

Russian Darya Pishchalnikova participated in the 2012 Olympics and was awarded a silver medal. However, she tested positive for the anabolic steroid oxandrolone in the samples taken in May 2012. In December 2012, she sent an email to WADA containing details on an alleged state-run doping program in Russia. According to The New York Times , the email reached three top WADA officials but the agency decided not to open an inquiry and instead sent her email to Russian sports officials. [119] In April 2013 Pishchalnikova was banned by the Russian Athletics Federation for ten years, and her results from May 2012 were annulled, meaning she was set on track to lose her Olympic medal. [120] Her ban by the Russian Athletics Federation was likely in retaliation.

Gold medalists at the games who had been involved in previous doping offences included Alexander Vinokourov, the winner of the men's road race, [121] Tatyana Lysenko, the winner of the women's hammer throw, Aslı Çakır Alptekin winner of the women's 1500 meters and Sandra Perković, winner of the women's discus throw. [122] [123] Other competitors at the Summer games involved in previous doping cases included American athletes Justin Gatlin and LaShawn Merritt, [124] and Jamaican sprinter Yohan Blake. [125]

Spanish athlete Ángel Mullera was first selected for the 3000 m steeplechase and later removed when emails were published in which he discussed EPO use with a trainer. [126] Mullera appealed to CAS which ordered the Spanish Olympic Committee to allow him to participate. [127]

Prior to the Olympic competition, several prominent track and field athletes were ruled out of the competition due to failed tests. World indoor medallists Dimitrios Chondrokoukis, Debbie Dunn, and Mariem Alaoui Selsouli were withdrawn from their Olympic teams in July for doping, as was 2004 Olympic medallist Zoltán Kővágó. [128] [129] [130] At the Olympic competition, Tameka Williams admitted to taking a banned stimulant and was removed from the games. [131] Ivan Tsikhan did not compete in the hammer throw as a retest of his sample from the 2004 Athens Olympics, where he won silver, was positive. [132] Amine Laâlou, [133] Marina Marghieva, [134] Diego Palomeque, [135] and defending 50 km walk champion Alex Schwazer were also suspended before taking part in their events. [136]

Syrian hurdler Ghfran Almouhamad became the first track-and-field athlete to be suspended following a positive in-competition doping sample. [137] Nadzeya Astapchuk was stripped of the women's shot put title after her sample came back positive for the banned anabolic agent metenolone. [138] Karin Melis Mey was withdrawn before the long jump final when an earlier failed doping test was confirmed. [139]

A WADA report released in 2015 detailed an extensive Russian state-sponsored doping program implicating athletes, coaches, various Russian institutions, doctors and labs. The report stated that the London Olympic Games "were, in a sense, sabotaged by the admission of athletes who should have not been competing" and detailed incidents of bribery and bogus urine samples. The report recommended that Russia be barred from track and field events for the 2016 Olympics. It also recommended lifetime bans for five coaches and five athletes from the country, including runners Mariya Savinova, Ekaterina Poistogova, Anastasiya Bazdyreva, Kristina Ugarova, and Tatjana Myazina. [140] [141]

On 15 June 2016, it was announced that four London 2012 Olympic weightlifting champions had tested positive for performance-enhancing drugs. They include Kazakhstan's Ilya Ilyin (94 kg), Zulfiya Chinshanlo (53 kg), Maiya Maneza (63 kg) and Svetlana Podobedova (75 kg). If confirmed, Kazakhstan would drop from 12th to 23rd in the 2012 medal standings. Six other lifters who competed at the 2012 Games also tested positive after hundreds of samples were reanalysed. Among them are Russia's Apti Aukhadov (silver at 85 kg), Ukraine's Yuliya Kalina (bronze at 58 kg), Belarusian Maryna Shkermankova (bronze at 69 kg), Azerbaijan's Boyanka Kostova and Belarus duo Dzina Sazanavets and Yauheni Zharnasek. [142] On 27 July 2016, IWF has reported in the second wave of re-sampling that three silver medalists from Russia, namely Natalya Zabolotnaya (at 75 kg), Aleksandr Ivanov (at 94 kg) and Svetlana Tsarukaeva (at 63 kg), together with bronze medalists Armenian Hripsime Khurshudyan (at 75+ kg), Belarusian Iryna Kulesha (at 75 kg) and Moldovan Cristina Iovu (at 53 kg) have tested positive for steroid dehydrochlormethyltestosterone. [143] Aukhadov was stripped of his silver medal by the IOC on 18 October 2016. [144] On 27 October 2016 Maiya Maneza was stripped of her gold medal. [145] In November 2016, Ilyin was stripped of the London gold medal. [69]

On 13 July 2016, the IOC announced that Yuliya Kalina of Ukraine had been disqualified from the 2012 Summer Olympics and ordered to return the bronze medal from the 58 kg weightlifting event. Reanalysis of Kalina's samples from London 2012 resulted in a positive test for the prohibited substance dehydrochlormethyltestosterone (turinabol). [146] The positions were adjusted accordingly. [147]

On 9 August 2016, the IOC announced that Oleksandr Pyatnytsya of Ukraine would be stripped of his silver medal in the javelin throw after he tested positive for the prohibited substance dehydrochlormethyltestosterone (turinabol). [148] Redistribution of medals has not yet been announced, but the likely case is the silver and bronze medals will be given to Finland and Czech Republic instead. [149]

On 20 August 2016, the IOC announced that Yevgeniya Kolodko of Russia would be stripped of her silver medal in shot put after she tested positive of dehydrochlormethyltestosterone (turinabol) and ipamorelin. [150] Medals are not reallocated yet.

On 29 August 2016, a report indicated that a retested sample for Besik Kudukhov of Russia, the silver medalist in the men's 60 kg freestyle wrestling event, had returned a positive result (later disclosed as dehydrochlormethyltestosterone). [78] Kudakhov died in a car crash in December 2013. On 27 October 2016, the IOC dropped all disciplinary proceedings against Kudukhov, stating that such proceedings cannot be conducted against a deceased person. As a result, it said, Olympic results that would have been reviewed will remain uncorrected, which is the unavoidable consequence of the fact that the proceedings cannot move forward. [151]

On 13 September 2016, the IWF reported that the men's 94 kg weightlifting bronze medalist, Moldova's Anatolie Cîrîcu, had tested positive for the dehydrochlormethyltestosterone. [152]

On 6 October 2016, the IWF reported that as a consequence of the IOC's reanalyses of samples from the 2012 Olympic Games, a sample of Norayr Vardanyan, who represented Armenia, had returned a positive result. In line with the relevant rules and regulations, the IWF imposed mandatory provisional suspensions upon Vardanyan, who remains provisionally suspended until his case is closed. [153] On 12 January 2017, the IOC disqualified Vardanyan. Through 6 October 2016, the IOC had reported Adverse Analytical Findings for 23 weightlifters from its 2016 retests of samples from the 2012 London Olympic Games, all of whom tested positive for anabolic agents. [84]

On 11 October 2016, Tatyana Lysenko of the Russian Federation was disqualified from the women's hammer throw, in which she won the gold medal. She had tested positive for a banned substance. The IOC requested the IAAF to modify the results of this event accordingly. The silver medalist Anita Włodarczyk of Poland would likely take the gold medal in her place. [154]

On 18 October 2016, the IOC disqualified Apti Aukhadov of the Russian Federation for doping and stripped him of the silver medal. [155] The IOC requested the IWF to modify the results of this event accordingly; it has not yet published modified results. [147]

On 18 October 2016, the IOC reported that Maksym Mazuryk of Ukraine, who competed in the Men's Pole Vault event, was disqualified from the 2012 London Games, in which he ranked 18th. Re-analysis of Mazuryk's samples resulted in a positive test for dehydrochlormethyltestosterone.

On 27 October 2016 the IOC disqualified a further eight athletes for failing doping tests at the games. This included four medal winners in weightlifting: Zulfiya Chinshanlo, Maiya Maneza and Svetlana Podobedova, all from Kazakhstan, and Maryna Shkermankova of Belarus. The others were hammer thrower Kirill Ikonnikov of Russia, women's 69 kg weightlifter Dzina Sazanavets of Belarus, pole vaulter Dmitry Starodubtsev of Russia, and men's +105 kg weightlifter Yauheni Zharnasek of Belarus. [145]

On 21 November 2016 the IOC disqualified a further 12 athletes for failing doping tests at the games. This included 6 medal winners in weightlifting, including Alexandr Ivanov (Russia), Anatoli Ciricu (Moldova), Cristina Iovu (Moldova), Natalya Zabolotnaya (Russia), Iryna Kulesha (Belarus), and Hripsime Khurshudyan (Armenia). [156] Moldova has lost all its 2012 London medals. The others were hammer thrower Oleksandr Drygol and long jumper Margaryta Tverdokhlib, both of Ukraine, 85 kg weightlifter Rauli Tsirekidze of Georgia, 94 kg weightlifter Almas Uteshov of Kazakhstan, 94 kg weightlifter Andrey Demanov of Russia and 3000m steeplechaser Yuliya Zaripova of Russia, who had previously been sanctioned in March 2016 by the Court of Arbitration for Sport.

On 25 November 2016, the IOC disqualified 4 more athletes for failing drug tests at the 2012 games. They were gold medalist 94 kg weightlifter Ilya Ilin of Kazakhstan, hammer thrower Aksana Miankova and long jumper Nastassia Mironchyk-Ivanova, both of Belarus, and 58 kg weightlifter Boyanka Kostova of Azerbaijan. [87]

On 29 November 2016 the Court of Arbitration for Sport issued a decision that all results achieved by 2012 Olympic heptathlon bronze medalist Tatyana Chernova of Russia between 15 August 2011 and 22 July 2013 are annulled. It also annulled all of Yekaterina Sharmina's results between 17 June 2011 and 5 August 2015, including her 33rd-place finish in the 2012 women's 1500m. [157] CAS ruled that they "have been found to have committed an anti-doping rule violation ... of the International Athletic Association Federation (IAAF) Competition Rules after analysis of their Athlete Biological Passports (ABP) showed evidence of blood doping." [158]

On 12 January 2017, the IOC disqualified three weightlifters for failing drug tests at the 2012 games. Two competed in men's 94 kg weightlifting: Intigam Zairov of Azerbaijan and Norayr Vardanyan of Armenia. Women's 63 kg weightlifter Sibel Simsek of Turkey was disqualified. None was a medalist at these games. [88]

On 1 February 2017, the IOC disqualified three athletes due to failed doping tests, all of whom tested positive for turinabol. Russian women's discus thrower Vera Ganeeva, who finished 23rd, Turkish boxer Adem Kilicci, who ranked 5th in men's 69–75 kg boxing, and Russian 400m runner Antonina Krivoshapka, who finished 6th, were disqualified. Krivoshapka also was part of the Russian silver medal-winning women's 4 × 400 m relay team, which was stripped of the silver medals. [159]

In December 2014, a documentary aired on German TV in which 800m gold medalist Mariya Savinova allegedly admitted to using banned substances on camera. [160] In November 2015, Savinova was one of five Russian runners the World Anti-Doping Agency recommended to receive a lifetime ban for doping during the London Olympics, along with 800m bronze medalist Ekaterina Poistogova. On 10 February 2017, the Court of Arbitration for Sport upheld a four-year ban that effectively stripped Savinova of her Olympic gold and other medals. [161] On 7 April 2017, CAS refused to decide on disqualification from 2012, and disqualify Ekaterina Poistogova from 2015. [162] Thus, Ekaterina Poistogova retained her Olympic 2012 medal at women's 800 metres athletic event.

In April 2017, the Olympics has had 29 Olympic medals stripped for doping violations. Russia is the leading country with 13 medals stripped.

Disqualified

NameCountrySportBanned substanceMedalsDetails of test
Hussain Al-Hamdah Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg  Saudi Arabia Athletics
5000 metres
Biological passport abnormalitiesIAAF sanction imposed 2013 w/results annulled from 26 March 2009 onwards. [27] [163]
Gamze Bulut Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey Athletics
1500 metres
Biological passport abnormalitiesSilver medal icon.svgIAAF sanction imposed in 2017 [164]
Mariya Savinova Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Athletics
800 metres
Biological passport abnormalitiesGold medal icon.svgCAS confirmed all results annulled from July 2010 to August 2013 [165]
Ghfran Almouhamad Flag of Syria.svg  Syria Athletics
400 metres hurdles
Methylhexaneamine IOC pre-competition testing at 2012 Summer Olympics [27] [166]
Elena Arzhakova Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Athletics
800 metres
Biological passport abnormalitiesIAAF sanction imposed 2013 w/results annulled from 12 July 2011 onwards. [27] [167] [168]
Sergey Bakulin Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Athletics
50 km race walk
Biological passport abnormalitiesIAAF/CAS sanction imposed 2016 w/results annulled from 25 February 2011 to 24 December 2012. [169] [170]
Andrey Krivov Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Athletics
20 km race walk
Biological passport abnormalitiesIAAF/CAS sanction imposed 2017 w/ results annulled from 20 May 2011 to 6 July 2013 [171]
Valeriy Borchin Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Athletics
20 km race walk
Biological passport abnormalitiesIAAF/CAS sanction imposed 2016 w/results annulled from 14 August 2009 to 15 October 2012. [169] [170]
Abderrahime Bouramdane Flag of Morocco.svg  Morocco Athletics
Marathon
Biological passport abnormalitiesIAAF sanction imposed 2015 w/results annulled from 14 April 2011 onwards. [169] [172]
Yolanda Caballero Flag of Colombia.svg  Colombia Athletics
Marathon
Biological passport abnormalitiesIAAF sanction imposed 2014 w/results annulled from 24 October 2011 onwards. [169] [172]
Aslı Çakır-Alptekin Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey Athletics
1500 metres
Biological passport abnormalitiesGold medal icon.svgIAAF/CAS sanction imposed 2015 w/results annulled from 29 July 2010 onwards. [173] [174]
Yekaterina Sharmina Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Athletics
1500 metres
Biological passport abnormalitiesIAAF/CAS sanction imposed 2016 w/ results annulled from 17 June 2011 to 5 August 2015 [175]
Nicholas Delpopolo Flag of the United States.svg  United States Judo
73 kg
Cannabis IOC post-event testing at 2012 Summer Olympics. [176]
Bahar Doğan Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey Athletics
Marathon
Biological passport abnormalitiesIAAF sanction imposed 2015 w/results annulled from 3 June 2011 onwards. [169] [172]
Marta Domínguez Flag of Spain.svg  Spain Athletics
Steeplechase
Biological passport abnormalitiesIAAF/CAS sanction imposed 2015 w/results annulled from 5 August 2009 onwards. [169] [177]
Hamza Driouch Flag of Qatar.svg  Qatar Athletics
1500 metres
Biological passport abnormalitiesIAAF sanction imposed 2015 w/results annulled from 2 August 2012 onwards. [27] [178] [179]
Tyson Gay Flag of the United States.svg  United States Athletics
100 metres
4 × 100 meters
Anabolic androgenic steroidsSilver medal icon.svg (4 × 100 meters)USADA investigation after positive for anabolic androgenic steroids in 2013; admittance. [27] [180] [181] [182]
Yelizaveta Grechishnikova Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Athletics
10,000 metres
Biological passport abnormalitiesIAAF sanction imposed 2013 w/results annulled from 18 August 2009 onwards. [27] [168] [183]
Semoy Hackett Flag of Trinidad and Tobago.svg  Trinidad and Tobago Athletics
100 metres
200 metres
4 × 100 metres relay
Methylhexaneamine Positive from Division I Outdoor Track & Field Championships in June 2012 [27] [184] [185]
Tetyana Hamera-Shmyrko Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine Athletics
Marathon
Biological passport abnormalitiesIAAF sanction imposed 2015 w/results annulled from 26 August 2011 onwards. [169] [172]
Hassan Hirt Flag of France.svg  France Athletics
5000 metres
EPO IOC pre-Games testing. [27] [186]
Vladimir Kanaikin Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Athletics
20 km race walk
Biological passport abnormalitiesIAAF/CAS sanction imposed 2016 w/results annulled from 25 February 2011 to 17 December 2012. [169] [170]
Olga Kaniskina Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Athletics
20 km race walk
Biological passport abnormalitiesSilver medal icon.svgIAAF/CAS sanction imposed 2016 w/results annulled from 15 August 2009 to 15 October 2012. [169] [170]
Natallia Kareiva Flag of Belarus (1995-2012).svg  Belarus Athletics
1500 metres
Biological passport abnormalitiesIAAF sanction imposed 2014 w/results annulled from 28 July 2010 onwards. [27] [168] [187] [188]
Ümmü Kiraz Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey Athletics
Marathon
Biological passport abnormalitiesIAAF sanction imposed 2015 w/results annulled from 3 June 2011 onwards. [169] [172]
Sergey Kirdyapkin Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Athletics
50 km race walk
Biological passport abnormalitiesGold medal icon.svgIAAF/CAS sanction imposed 2016 w/results annulled from 20 August 2009 to 15 October 2012. [169] [170]
Blaža Klemenčič Flag of Slovenia.svg  Slovenia Cycling
MTB
EPO UCI reanalysis of sample from 27 March 2012 in 2015. All results annulled from 27 March 2012 until 31 December 2012. [189]
Yekaterina Kostetskaya Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Athletics
1500 metres
Biological passport abnormalitiesIAAF sanction imposed 2014 w/results annulled from 30 August 2011 onwards. [27] [190] [191]
Zalina Marghieva Flag of Moldova.svg  Moldova Athletics
Hammer throw
2009 WCh retest: Stanozolol, Oral Turinabol IAAF retesting of samples from 2009 IAAF World Championships [27] [192]
Karin Melis Mey Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey Athletics
Long jump
TestosteronePositive from the 2012 European Athletics Championships in June. [27] [192] Provisionally suspended after the qualifying round at the Games.
Andrei Mikhnevich Flag of Belarus (1995-2012).svg  Belarus Athletics
Shot put
2005 WCh retest: Clenbuterol, Methandienone and OxandroloneIAAF retest of sample from the 2005 IAAF World Championships. All results from August 2005 onwards annulled. [27] [95]
Anna Mishchenko Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine Athletics
1500 m
Biological passport abnormalitiesIAAF sanction imposed 2015 w/results annulled from 28 June 2012 onwards. [169] [172]
Andriy Semenov Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine Athletics
Shot put
Re-analysis of sample taken in 2011AIU sanction imposed 2019 [193]
Semiha Mutlu Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey Athletics
20 km race walk
Biological passport abnormalitiesIAAF sanction imposed 2015 w/results annulled from 20 August 2011 onwards. [169] [172]
Nadzeya Ostapchuk Flag of Belarus (1995-2012).svg  Belarus Athletics
Shot put
Methenolone Gold medal icon.svgIOC post-event testing at 2012 Summer Olympics (two separate positive samples). [27] [194]
Darya Pishchalnikova Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Athletics
Discus throw
Oxandrolone Silver medal icon.svgRandom out of competition test in May 2012. All her results (Including those at the 2012 Summer Olympics) since May 2012 were annulled by the IAAF in April 2013. [27] [195]
Hysen Pulaku Flag of Albania.svg  Albania Weightlifting
77 kg
Stanozolol IOC pre-competition testing at 2012 Summer Olympics. [196]
Meliz Redif Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey Athletics
4 x 400 metres
Biological passport abnormalitiesIAAF sanction imposed 2015 w/results annulled from 26 June 2012 onwards. [169] [172]
Pınar Saka Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey Athletics
400 metres
4 x 400 metres
Biological passport abnormalitiesIAAF sanction imposed 2014 w/results annulled from 18 June 2010 onwards. [27] [168] [197]
Mohammed Shaween Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg  Saudi Arabia Athletics
1500 metres
Biological passport abnormalitiesIAAF sanction imposed 2014 w/results annulled from 12 June 2011 onwards. [27] [190] [191]
Anzhelika Shevchenko Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine Athletics
1500 metres
Biological passport abnormalitiesIAAF sanction imposed 2013 w/results annulled from 2 July 2011 onwards. [27] [168]
Liliya Shobukhova Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Athletics
Marathon
Biological passport abnormalitiesIAAF sanction imposed 2015 w/results annulled from 9 October 2009 onwards. [198] [199]
Svitlana Shmidt Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine Athletics
Steeplechase
Biological passport abnormalitiesIAAF sanction imposed 2015 w/results annulled from 8 March 2012 onwards. [27] [200] [201] [202]
Soslan Tigiev Flag of Uzbekistan.svg  Uzbekistan Wrestling
Freestyle 74 kg
Methylhexaneamine Bronze medal icon.svgIOC post-event testing at 2012 Summer Olympics. [203]
Binnaz Uslu Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey Athletics
Steplechase
2011 WCh retest: Stanozolol IAAF retest of sample from 2011 World Championships [27] [192] [204]
Wang Jiali Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China Athletics
Marathon
Biological passport abnormalitiesIAAF sanction imposed 2014 w/results annulled from 29 May 2012 onwards. [27] [205]
Nevin Yanit Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey Athletics
100 metres hurdles
Biological passport abnormalitiesIAAF/CAS sanction imposed 2015 w/results annulled from 28 June 2012 onwards. [27] [206] [207] [208]
Igor Yerokhin Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Athletics
50 km walk
Biological passport abnormalitiesIAAF sanction imposed 2013 w/results annulled from 25 February 2011 onwards. [27] [209]
Lyudmyla Yosypenko Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine Athletics
Heptathlon
Biological passport abnormalitiesIAAF sanction imposed 2013 w/results annulled from 25 August 2011 onwards. [27] [192]
Dilshod Nazarov Flag of Tajikistan.svg  Tajikistan Athletics
Hammer Throw
Turinabol AIU sanction imposed 2021 w/results annulled from 29 August 2011 to 29 August 2013 [210]
Olga Beresnyeva Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine Swimming
Open water
EPO IOC re-analysis of sample in 2015 [211] [212]
Yuliya Kalina Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine Weightlifting
58 kg
Turinabol Bronze medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2016. [213]
Pavel Kryvitski Flag of Belarus (1995-2012).svg  Belarus Athletics
Hammer throw
Turinabol & Stanozolol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [101]
Oleksandr Pyatnytsya Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine Athletics
Javelin throw
Turinabol Silver medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [101]
Yuliya Zaripova Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Athletics
3000 Metres Steeplechase
Turinabol Gold medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [214]
Maiya Maneza Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan Weightlifting
63 kg
Stanozolol Gold medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [145]
Zulfiya Chinshanlo Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan Weightlifting
53 kg
Stanozolol & Oxandrolone Gold medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [145]
Svetlana Podobedova Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan Weightlifting
75 kg
Stanozolol Gold medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [145]
Yevgeniya Kolodko Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Athletics
Shot Put
Turinabol & Ipamorelin Silver medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [150]
Ekaterina Gnidenko Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Cycling
Keirin
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [81]
Tatyana Lysenko Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Athletics
Hammer Throw
Turinabol Gold medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [154]
Apti Aukhadov Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Weightlifting
85 kg
Turinabol & Drostanolone Silver medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [144]
Maksym Mazuryk Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine Athletics
Pole Vault
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [144]
Kirill Ikonnikov Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Athletics
Hammer Throw
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [145]
Dzina Sazanavets Flag of Belarus (1995-2012).svg  Belarus Weightlifting
69 kg
Drostanolone & Stanozolol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [145]
Maryna Shkermankova Flag of Belarus (1995-2012).svg  Belarus Weightlifting
69 kg
Turinabol & Stanozolol Bronze medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [145]
Dmitry Starodubtsev Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Athletics
Pole Vault
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [145]
Yauheni Zharnasek Flag of Belarus (1995-2012).svg  Belarus Weightlifting
+105 kg
Turinabol, Oxandrolone & Stanozolol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [145]
Besik Kudukhov Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Wrestling
Freestyle 60 kg
Turinabol Silver medal icon.svg (medal retained due to athlete's death in December 2013)IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [145]
Andrey Demanov Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Weightlifting
94 kg
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [214]
Oleksandr Drygol Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine Athletics
Hammer Throw
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [214]
Cristina Iovu Flag of Moldova.svg  Moldova Weightlifting
53 kg
Turinabol Bronze medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [214]
Aleksandr Ivanov Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Weightlifting
94 kg
Turinabol & Tamoxifen Silver medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [214]
Hripsime Khurshudyan Flag of Armenia.svg  Armenia Weightlifting
+75 kg
Turinabol & Stanozolol Bronze medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [214]
Iryna Kulesha Flag of Belarus (1995-2012).svg  Belarus Weightlifting
75 kg
Turinabol & Stanozolol Bronze medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [214]
Rauli Tsirekidze Flag of Georgia.svg  Georgia Weightlifting
85 kg
Turinabol & Stanozolol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [214]
Marharyta Tverdokhlib Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine Athletics
Long Jump
Turinabol & Stanozolol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [214]
Almas Uteshov Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan Weightlifting
94 kg
Turinabol & Stanozolol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [214]
Natalya Zabolotnaya Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Weightlifting
75 kg
Turinabol Silver medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [214]
Anatolie Cîrîcu Flag of Moldova.svg  Moldova Weightlifting
94 kg
Turinabol Bronze medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [214]
Ilya Ilyin Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan Weightlifting
94 kg
Turinabol & Stanozolol Gold medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [87]
Aksana Miankova Flag of Belarus (1995-2012).svg  Belarus Athletics
Hammer Throw
Turinabol & Stanozolol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [87]
Nastassia Mironchyk-Ivanova Flag of Belarus (1995-2012).svg  Belarus Athletics
Long Jump
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [87]
Boyanka Kostova Flag of Azerbaijan.svg  Azerbaijan Weightlifting
58 kg
Turinabol & Stanozolol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016 [87]
Sibel Simsek Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey Weightlifting
63 kg
Turinabol & Stanozolol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017 [88]
Intigam Zairov Flag of Azerbaijan.svg  Azerbaijan Weightlifting
94 kg
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017 [88]
Norayr Vardanyan Flag of Armenia.svg  Armenia Weightlifting
94 kg
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017 [88]
Vera Ganeeva Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Athletics
Discus Throw
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017 [215]
Adem Kilicci Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey Boxing
Middleweight
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017 [215]
Antonina Krivoshapka Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Athletics
400 Metres
4 x 400 Metres Relay
Turinabol Silver medal icon.svg (4 x 400 metres) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017 [215]
Mariya Bespalova Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Athletics
Hammer Throw
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017 [216]
Khadzhimurat Akkaev Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Weightlifting
105 kg
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017 [216]
Gulfiya Khanafeyeva Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Athletics
Hammer Throw
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017 [216]
Victoria Valyukevich Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Athletics
Triple Jump
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017 [216]
Svetlana Tsarukaeva Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Weightlifting
63 kg
Turinabol Silver medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2017 [107]
Maksim Dyldin Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Athletics
400 Metres
4 x 400 Metres Relay
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017 [108]
Tatyana Chernova Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Athletics
Heptathlon
Turinabol Bronze medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2017 [217]
Anna Nazarova Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Athletics
Long Jump
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017 [218]
Yulia Gushchina Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Athletics
400 Metres
4 x 400 Metres Relay
Turinabol & Stanozolol Silver medal icon.svg (4 x 400 metres) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017 [218]
Davit Modzmanashvili Flag of Georgia.svg  Georgia Wrestling
Freestyle 120 kg
Turinabol Silver medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2019 [219]
Valentin Hristov Flag of Azerbaijan.svg  Azerbaijan Weightlifting
56 kg
Turinabol Bronze medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2019 [220]
Alena Matoshka Flag of Belarus (1995-2012).svg  Belarus Athletics
Hammer Throw
Oxandrolone IOC re-analysis of sample in 2019 [220]
Anis Ananenka Flag of Belarus (1995-2012).svg  Belarus Athletics
800 Metres
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2019 [220]
Meline Daluzyan Flag of Armenia.svg  Armenia Weightlifting
69 kg
Turinabol & Stanozolol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2019 [221]
Ineta Radēviča Flag of Latvia.svg  Latvia Athletics
Long Jump
Oxandrolone IOC re-analysis of sample in 2019 [221]
Florin Croitoru Flag of Romania.svg  Romania Weightlifting
56 kg
Turinabol, Metenolone & Stanozolol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2019 [222]
Jevgenij Shuklin Flag of Lithuania.svg  Lithuania Canoeing
C-1 200 Metres
Turinabol Silver medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2019 [223]
Artur Taymazov Flag of Uzbekistan.svg  Uzbekistan Wrestling
Freestyle 120 kg
Turinabol Gold medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2019 [224]
Oleksiy Torokhtiy Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine Weightlifting
105 kg
Turinabol Gold medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2019 [225]
Klodiana Shala Flag of Albania.svg  Albania Athletics
200 Metres
Stanozolol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2020 [226]
Gülcan Mıngır Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey Athletics
3000 Metres Steeplechase
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2020 [227]
Mete Binay Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey Weightlifting
69 kg
Stanozolol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2020 [228]
Erol Bilgin Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey Weightlifting
62 kg
Turinabol & Stanozolol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2020 [229]
Razvan Martin Flag of Romania.svg  Romania Weightlifting
69 kg
Turinabol, Metenolone & Stanozolol Bronze medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2020 [230]
Roxana Cocoș Flag of Romania.svg  Romania Weightlifting
69 kg
Metenolone & Stanozolol Silver medal icon.svgIOC re-analysis of sample in 2020 [230]
Gabriel Sincraian Flag of Romania.svg  Romania Weightlifting
85 kg
Metenolone & Stanozolol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2020 [230]
Tatyana Firova Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Athletics
4 x 400 Metres Relay
Silver medal icon.svgCAS decision imposed in 2019 [231]
Svetlana Shkolina Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Athletics
High Jump
Bronze medal icon.svgCAS decision imposed in 2019 [231]
Ivan Ukhov Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Athletics
High Jump
Gold medal icon.svgCAS decision imposed in 2019 [231]
Lyukman Adams Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Athletics
Triple Jump
CAS decision imposed in 2019 [231]
Yekaterina Galitskaya Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Athletics
100 Metres Hurdles
CAS decision imposed in 2019 [231]
Yuliya Kondakova Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Athletics
100 Metres Hurdles
CAS decision imposed in 2019 [231]
Ruslan Nurudinov Flag of Uzbekistan.svg  Uzbekistan Weightlifting
105 kg
Turinabol CAS decision imposed in 2019 [232]
Mikalai Novikau Flag of Belarus (1995-2012).svg  Belarus Weightlifting
85 kg
Turinabol & Stanozolol CAS decision imposed in 2019 [232]

Did not start

Athletes who were selected for the Games, but provisionally suspended before competing.

NameCountrySportBanned substanceMedalsDetails of test
Victoria Baranova Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Cycling
Track - sprint
Testosterone IOC pre-Games testing in Belarus [233]
Kissya Cataldo Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil Rowing
Single sculls
EPO International Rowing Federation pre-Games testing in Brazil [124] [234]
Luiza Galiulina Flag of Uzbekistan.svg  Uzbekistan Gymnastics Furosemide IOC pre-Games testing in Uzbekistan. [235]
Amine Laâlou Flag of Morocco.svg  Morocco Athletics
1500 metres
Furosemide IAAF post-competition testing at Diamond League meeting in Monte Carlo. [236]
Marina Marghieva
(Marina Nichișenco)
Flag of Moldova.svg  Moldova Athletics
Hammer throw
Stanozolol IOC pre-Games testing. [27] [192] [237]
Diego Palomeque Flag of Colombia.svg  Colombia Athletics
400 metres
Exogenous testosterone IOC pre-competition testing at 2012 Summer Olympics. [238]
Alex Schwazer Flag of Italy.svg  Italy Athletics
50 km walk
EPO IOC pre-Games testing in Italy. [239]
Tameka Williams Flag of Saint Kitts and Nevis.svg  Saint Kitts and Nevis Athletics
100 metres
"Blast Off Red"Did not fail test but confessed to have used an illegal "veterinary medicine". [240]

2016 Rio de Janeiro

Originally, Russia submitted a list of 389 athletes for competition. On 7 August 2016, the IOC cleared 278 athletes, and 111 were removed because of the state-sponsored doping scandal. [241]

The Taiwanese weightlifter Lin Tzu-chi was withdrawn from the games hours before her event by her country's delegation for an abnormal drugs test. [242]

Kenyan athletics coach, John Anzrah who travelled to Rio independently of his country's delegation, was sent home after being caught posing as an athlete during a doping test, [243] and was followed by Kenya's track and field manager, Michael Rotich, who was filmed by a newspaper offering to give athletes advanced notice of any pending drugs test in return for a one-off payment. [244]

On 13 October 2016, the IWF reported that weightlifter Gabriel Sincraian of Romania, who won bronze in the men's 85-kg event, tested positive for excess testosterone in a test connected to the Rio Olympics. [245] On 8 December 2016, the CAS affirmed the disqualification of Sincraian and stripped him of the bronze medal. [246] The CAS also disqualified silver medalist 52 kg boxer Misha Aloian of Russia after he tested positive for tuaminoheptane. [247]

Disqualified

NameCountrySportBanned substanceMedalsDetails of test
Izzat Artykov Flag of Kyrgyzstan.svg  Kyrgyzstan Weightlifting
69 kg
Strychnine Bronze medal icon.svg (69 kg)Positive test for strychnine and forfeiture of medal announced by CAS. [248]
Chen Xinyi Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China Swimming
100 metre butterfly
Hydrochlorothiazide Tested positive for the diuretic hydrochlorothiazide; applied for B sample to be tested and hearing to be held. [249]
Anastassya Kudinova Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan Athletics
400 metres
Drostanolone Out-of-competition test in Almaty, Kazakhstan on 13 July 2016 [250]
Kléber Ramos Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil Cycling
Road race
CERA IOC pre-games test 31 July and out-of-competition test (blood and urine) 4 August. [251] Provisionally suspended by UCI on 12 August. [252]
Serghei Tarnovschi Flag of Moldova.svg  Moldova Canoeing
C-1 1000 metres
C-2 1000 metres
GHRP-2 Bronze medal icon.svg (C-1 1000 metres)Result from pre-game test. Provisionally suspended on 18 August. [253] [254] On 11 July 2017, the Court of Arbitration for Sport upheld the International Canoe Federation's decision of 30 January 2017 imposing a period of ineligibility of four years and the disqualification of all results from 8 July 2016 onwards. [255]
Chagnaadorj Usukhbayar Flag of Mongolia.svg  Mongolia Weightlifting
56 kg
Exogenous testosteroneIOC out-of-competition test on 7. August. [256]
Misha Aloian Flag of Russia.svg  Russia  (RUS)Boxing
Men's flyweight
Tuaminoheptane Silver medal icon.svg (Men's flyweight)On 8 December 2016, the CAS disqualified weightlifter Gabriel Sîncrăian of Romania and boxer Misha Aloian of Russia for doping. [257]
Gabriel Sîncrăian Flag of Romania.svg  Romania  (ROM)Weightlifting
Men's 85 kg
Bronze medal icon.svg (Men's 85 kg)On 8 December 2016, the CAS disqualified weightlifter Gabriel Sîncrăian of Romania and boxer Misha Aloian of Russia for doping. [257]

Did not start

Athletes who were selected for the Games, but provisionally suspended before competing.

NameCountrySportBanned substanceDetails of test
Sergey Fedorovtsev Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Rowing
Men's quadruple sculls
Trimetazidine Disqualified from competing at the 2016 Olympics after a positive out-of-competition drug test. [258]
Silvia Danekova Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria Athletics
Steeplechase
EPO Provisionally suspended after a failed A-sample test given a few days after arriving in Brazil. [259]
Theodora Giareni Flag of Greece.svg  Greece Swimming
50 metre freestyle
Sent home from the Olympics on the day of the opening ceremony after failing a pre-games test conducted in July. [260] [261]
Antonis Martasidis