List of participating nations at the Winter Olympic Games

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Flagbearers for each of the participating nations at the I Olympic Winter Games (1924) recite the athlete's oath. Athlete's oath at 1924 Winter Olympics.jpg
Flagbearers for each of the participating nations at the I Olympic Winter Games (1924) recite the athlete's oath.

This is a list of nations, as represented by National Olympic Committees (NOCs), that have participated in the Winter Olympic Games between 1924 and 2018. The Winter Olympic Games have been held every four years (once during each Olympiad) since 1924, except for the cancelled Games of 1940 and 1944, and in 1994 when the Winter Games were moved to the middle of the Olympiad, two years after the previous Games. 127 NOCs (116 of the current 206 NOCs and 11 obsolete NOCs) have participated in at least one Winter Games, and twelve nations (Austria, Canada, Finland, France, Great Britain, Hungary, Italy, Norway, Poland, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States) have participated in all twenty-three Winter Games to date. Including continuity from Czechoslovakia, the Czech Republic and Slovakia have also been represented in every edition.

Contents

History

Origin and early Games

The first winter sport to be contested at the modern Olympic Games was figure skating at the 1908 Games in London. A total of 21 skaters from six countries (Argentina, Germany, Great Britain, Sweden, Russia, and the United States) competed in four events on 28–29 October. [1] Skating was not in the program of the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm, but returned for the 1920 Games in Antwerp. Ice hockey was also part of the 1920 program of events, with seven teams competing. [2]

The first Winter Games were held in 1924, in Chamonix, France. They were originally called International Winter Sports Week and held in association with the 1924 Summer Olympics, but were in retrospect designated by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) as the I Olympic Winter Games. [3] Sixteen nations participated in these Games: fourteen from Europe and two from North America. [4] Four years later, 25 nations were represented at the 1928 Winter Olympics, in St. Moritz, Switzerland, including Argentina (the first nation from the Southern Hemisphere), Japan (the first Asian nation), and Mexico. [5] The 1932 Games, held in Lake Placid, United States, saw the participation of 17 nations. [6] The 1936 Winter Games, in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, had 28 participating nations, the largest number to that date. [7] These would be the last Winter Games for twelve years, as the planned 1940 Games and 1944 Games were cancelled due to World War II. [8]

Post-war years and Cold War era

After the war, 28 nations would return to St. Moritz for the 1948 Winter Olympics, but not Germany or Japan, who were not invited because of their roles in the war. [9] The 1952 Winter Games in Oslo, Norway, featured 30 participating nations. [10] The 1956 Games in Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy, marked the Winter Games debut of the Soviet Union, along with 31 other nations. [11] The NOCs of East Germany and West Germany would be represented by a single German team, an arrangement that would continue until 1964. [12] Thirty nations would participate at the 1960 Winter Olympics in Squaw Valley, United States, [13] including South Africa, the first African nation to participate in the Winter Games. Thirty-six nations were represented in Innsbruck, Austria, in 1964. [14]

The 1968 Winter Olympics in Grenoble, France, marked the first time that East Germany and West Germany competed as independent teams, two of the 37 nations that took part. [15] The Games of 1972 were held in Sapporo, Japan, the first time the Winter Games were held outside of Europe or North America. A total of 35 nations were represented, including the Philippines, the first appearance by a southeast Asian nation. [16] The Winter Games returned to Innsbruck, in 1976, with 37 participating nations. [17]

Lake Placid was the site of the Winter Games in 1980, with 37 competing nations. [18] The People's Republic of China made their Olympic debut but, in response, the Republic of China boycotted the Games, protesting their inability to use the name "China" after the decision by the IOC. Sarajevo, SFR Yugoslavia was host to the 1984 Winter Olympics, which welcomed 49 nations. [19] Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands were the first two Caribbean NOCs to compete in the Winter Games. Several more tropical nations would participate at the 1988 Winter Olympics, in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, including the famed Jamaica national bobsleigh team. [20]

Recent Games

The post-Cold War events of the early 1990s led to a large increase in participating nations at the Olympics. At the 1992 Games, in Albertville, France, a total of 64 NOCs were represented, including a single Germany team—following the German reunification in 1990—and a Unified Team composed of six of the ex-republics of the Soviet Union. [21] The Baltic states competed independently for the first time since 1936, and some of the ex-Yugoslav nations started to compete independently in 1992.

In October 1986, the IOC had voted to hold the Olympic Winter Games halfway through the four-year Olympiad, rather than in the same year as the summer Games, [22] and this change started with the XVIIth Olympic Winter Games in 1994 in Lillehammer, Norway. A total of 67 nations took part, including the Czech Republic and Slovakia as independent teams, and each of the ex-Soviet nations. [23]

The Winter Games have continued to grow in the recent past, with 72 nations at the 1998 Winter Olympics, in Nagano, Japan, [24] 77 nations at the 2002 Winter Olympics, in Salt Lake City, United States, [25] 80 nations at the 2006 Winter Olympics, in Turin, Italy, [26] 82 nations at the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, [27] 88 nations at the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, Russia, [28] and a record 92 nations at the 2018 Games. [29]

List of nations

Nations participated in the Winter Olympics Nations at the Winter Olympics.svg
Nations participated in the Winter Olympics

Description

This list includes 127 NOCs (116 of the current 206 NOCs and 11 obsolete NOCs), [30] arranged alphabetically. The three-letter country code is also listed for each NOC. Since the 1960s, these codes have been frequently used by the IOC and each Games organizing committee to identify NOCs, such as within the official report of each Games. [31] However, in this section, several countries uses long-form names designated by the United Nations uses short form common names such as for example: Laos (Lao People's Democratic Republic), North Korea (Democratic People's Republic of Korea), and Moldova (Republic of Moldova).

Several nations have changed during their Olympic history. Name changes due to geographical renaming are explained by footnotes after the nation's name, and other changes are explained by footnotes links within the table itself.

Obsolete nations

Obsolete nations are included in the table to more clearly illustrate past Olympic appearances for their successor nations.

Table legend

24 In the table headings, indicates the Games year, from 1924 through 2018
Participated in the specified Games
HHost nation for the specified Games
[A]Additional explanatory comments at the linked footnote
 The planned Games of 1940 and 1944 were cancelled due to World War II
 NOC superseded or preceded by other NOC(s) during these years

Alphabetical list

Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N P R S T U V Y Z Total
ACode24283236404448525660646872768084889294980206101418Total
Flag of Albania.svg  Albania ALB4
Flag of Algeria.svg  Algeria ALG3
Flag of American Samoa.svg  American Samoa ASA1
Flag of Andorra.svg  Andorra AND12
Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina ARG19
Flag of Armenia.svg  Armenia ARM Soviet Union Soviet Union EUN 7
Flag of Australia.svg  Australia AUS19
Flag of Austria.svg  Austria AUTHH23
Flag of Azerbaijan.svg  Azerbaijan AZE Soviet Union Soviet Union 6
BCode24283236404448525660646872768084889294980206101418Total
Flag of Belarus.svg  Belarus BLR Soviet Union Soviet Union EUN 7
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium BEL21
Flag of Bermuda.svg  Bermuda BER8
Flag of Bolivia.svg  Bolivia BOL6
Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg  Bosnia and Herzegovina BIH Yugoslavia Yugoslavia 7
Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil BRA8
Flag of the British Virgin Islands.svg  British Virgin Islands IVB2
Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria BUL20
CCode24283236404448525660646872768084889294980206101418Total
Flag of Cameroon.svg  Cameroon CMR1
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada CANHH23
Flag of the Cayman Islands.svg  Cayman Islands CAY2
Flag of Chile.svg  Chile CHI17
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China CHN11
Flag of Chinese Taipei for Olympic games.svg  Chinese Taipei [TPE] (Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Taiwan)TPE12
Flag of Colombia.svg  Colombia COL2
Flag of Costa Rica.svg  Costa Rica CRC [B] 6
Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia CRO Yugoslavia Yugoslavia 8
Flag of Cyprus.svg  Cyprus CYP11
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic CZE Czechoslovakia Czechoslovakia 7
Flag of Czechoslovakia.svg  Czechoslovakia [^] TCH16
DCode24283236404448525660646872768084889294980206101418Total
Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark DEN14
Flag of Dominica.svg  Dominica DMA1
ECode24283236404448525660646872768084889294980206101418Total
Flag of East Timor.svg  East Timor TLS2
Flag of Ecuador.svg  Ecuador ECU1
Flag of Egypt.svg  Egypt EGY1
Flag of Eritrea.svg  Eritrea ERI1
Flag of Estonia.svg  Estonia EST [A] Soviet Union 10
Flag of Ethiopia.svg  Ethiopia ETH2
FCode24283236404448525660646872768084889294980206101418Total
Flag of Fiji.svg  Fiji FIJ3
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland FIN23
Flag of France.svg  France FRAHHH23
GCode24283236404448525660646872768084889294980206101418Total
Flag of Georgia.svg  Georgia GEO Soviet Union Soviet Union 7
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany GERH EUA GDR , FRG 12
Flag of East Germany.svg  East Germany [^] GDR EUA 6
Flag of Germany.svg  West Germany [^] FRG EUA 6
Flag of the German Olympic Team (1960-1968).svg  United Team of Germany [^] EUA3
Flag of Ghana.svg  Ghana GHA2
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain GBR23
Flag of Greece.svg  Greece GRE19
Flag of Guam.svg  Guam GUM1
Flag of Guatemala.svg  Guatemala GUA1
HCode24283236404448525660646872768084889294980206101418Total
Flag of Honduras.svg  Honduras HON1
Flag of Hong Kong.svg  Hong Kong HKG5
Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary HUN23
ICode24283236404448525660646872768084889294980206101418Total
Flag of Iceland.svg  Iceland ISL18
Flag of India.svg  India IND [D] 10
Flag of Iran.svg  Iran IRI11
Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland IRL7
Flag of Israel.svg  Israel ISR7
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy ITAHH23
JCode24283236404448525660646872768084889294980206101418Total
Flag of Jamaica.svg  Jamaica JAM8
Flag of Japan.svg  Japan JPNHH21
KCode24283236404448525660646872768084889294980206101418Total
Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan KAZ Soviet Union Soviet Union EUN 7
Flag of Kenya.svg  Kenya KEN4
Unification flag of Korea (pre 2006).svg  Korea [^] COR1
Flag of North Korea.svg  North Korea PRK9
Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea KORH18
Flag of Kosovo.svg  Kosovo KOS Yugoslavia Yugoslavia SCG Serbia 1
Flag of Kyrgyzstan.svg  Kyrgyzstan KGZ Soviet Union Soviet Union 7
LCode24283236404448525660646872768084889294980206101418Total
Flag of Latvia.svg  Latvia LAT Soviet Union 11
Flag of Lebanon.svg  Lebanon LIB17
Flag of Liechtenstein.svg  Liechtenstein LIE19
Flag of Lithuania.svg  Lithuania LTU Soviet Union 9
Flag of Luxembourg.svg  Luxembourg LUX9
MCode24283236404448525660646872768084889294980206101418Total
Flag of Madagascar.svg  Madagascar MAD2
Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia MAS1
Flag of Malta.svg  Malta MLT2
Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico MEX9
Flag of Moldova.svg  Moldova MDA Romania Soviet Union 7
Flag of Monaco.svg  Monaco MON10
Flag of Mongolia.svg  Mongolia MGL14
Flag of Montenegro.svg  Montenegro MNE Yugoslavia Yugoslavia SCG 3
Flag of Morocco.svg  Morocco MAR7
NCode24283236404448525660646872768084889294980206101418Total
Flag of Nepal.svg  Nepal NEP4
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands NED21
Flag of the Netherlands Antilles (1986-2010).svg  Netherlands Antilles [^] AHO2
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand NZL16
Flag of Nigeria.svg  Nigeria NGR1
Flag of North Macedonia.svg  North Macedonia [MKD] MKD Yugoslavia Yugoslavia 6
Flag of Norway.svg  Norway NORHH23
PCode24283236404448525660646872768084889294980206101418Total
Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan PAK3
Flag of Paraguay.svg  Paraguay PAR1
Flag of Peru.svg  Peru PER2
Flag of the Philippines.svg  Philippines PHI5
Flag of Poland.svg  Poland POL23
Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal POR8
Flag of Puerto Rico.svg  Puerto Rico PUR7
RCode24283236404448525660646872768084889294980206101418Total
Flag of Romania.svg  Romania ROU21
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia RUS Soviet Union Soviet Union EUN H OAR 6
Olympic flag.svg  Unified Team [^] EUN1
Olympic flag.svg  Olympic Athletes from Russia [^] OAR1
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union [^] URS EUN 9
SCode24283236404448525660646872768084889294980206101418Total
Flag of San Marino.svg  San Marino SMR10
Flag of Senegal.svg  Senegal SEN5
Flag of Serbia.svg  Serbia SRB Yugoslavia Yugoslavia SCG 3
Flag of Serbia and Montenegro.svg  Serbia and Montenegro [SCG] [^] SCG Yugoslavia Yugoslavia 3
Flag of SFR Yugoslavia.svg  Yugoslavia [^] YUGH14
Flag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia SVK Czechoslovakia Czechoslovakia 7
Flag of Slovenia.svg  Slovenia SLO Yugoslavia Yugoslavia 8
Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore SGP1
Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa RSA7
Flag of Spain.svg  Spain ESP20
Flag of Swaziland.svg  Swaziland SWZ1
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden SWE23
Flag of Switzerland.svg  Switzerland SUIHH23
TCode24283236404448525660646872768084889294980206101418Total
Flag of Tajikistan.svg  Tajikistan TJK Soviet Union Soviet Union 4
Flag of Thailand.svg  Thailand THA4
Flag of Togo.svg  Togo TOG2
Flag of Tonga.svg  Tonga TGA2
Flag of Trinidad and Tobago.svg  Trinidad and Tobago TRI3
Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey TUR17
UCode24283236404448525660646872768084889294980206101418Total
Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine UKR Soviet Union Soviet Union EUN 7
Flag of the United States.svg  United States USAHHHH23
Flag of Uruguay.svg  Uruguay URU1
Flag of Uzbekistan.svg  Uzbekistan UZB Soviet Union Soviet Union EUN 7
VCode24283236404448525660646872768084889294980206101418Total
Flag of Venezuela.svg  Venezuela VEN4
Flag of the United States Virgin Islands.svg  Virgin Islands ISV [C] 7
ZCode24283236404448525660646872768084889294980206101418Total
Flag of Zimbabwe.svg  Zimbabwe ZIM1
Total NOCs number16251728283032303637353737495764677278808288921117

Nations that have never competed

90 of the 206 active NOCs have yet to compete in a Winter Olympics. [35]

NationCode
Flag of Afghanistan.svg  Afghanistan AFG
Flag of Angola.svg  Angola ANG
Flag of Antigua and Barbuda.svg  Antigua and Barbuda ANT
Flag of Aruba.svg  Aruba ARU
Flag of the Bahamas.svg  Bahamas BAH
Flag of Bahrain.svg  Bahrain BRN
Flag of Bangladesh.svg  Bangladesh BAN
Flag of Barbados.svg  Barbados BAR
Flag of Belize.svg  Belize BIZ
Flag of Benin.svg  Benin BEN
Flag of Bhutan.svg  Bhutan BHU
Flag of Botswana.svg  Botswana BOT
Flag of Brunei.svg  Brunei BRU
Flag of Burkina Faso.svg  Burkina Faso BUR
Flag of Burundi.svg  Burundi BDI
Flag of Cambodia.svg  Cambodia CAM
Flag of Cape Verde.svg  Cape Verde CPV
Flag of the Central African Republic.svg  Central African Republic CAF
Flag of Chad.svg  Chad CHA
Flag of the Comoros.svg  Comoros COM
Flag of the Republic of the Congo.svg  Republic of the Congo CGO
Flag of the Cook Islands.svg  Cook Islands COK
Flag of Cuba.svg  Cuba CUB
Flag of Djibouti.svg  Djibouti DJI
Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg  Dominican Republic DOM
Flag of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.svg  Democratic Republic of the Congo COD
Flag of El Salvador.svg  El Salvador ESA
Flag of Equatorial Guinea.svg  Equatorial Guinea GEQ
Flag of the Federated States of Micronesia.svg  Federated States of Micronesia FSM
Flag of Gabon.svg  Gabon GAB
Flag of The Gambia.svg  The Gambia GAM
Flag of Grenada.svg  Grenada GRN
Flag of Guinea.svg  Guinea GUI
Flag of Guinea-Bissau.svg  Guinea-Bissau GBS
Flag of Guyana.svg  Guyana GUY
Flag of Haiti.svg  Haiti HAI
Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia INA
Flag of Iraq.svg  Iraq IRQ
Flag of Cote d'Ivoire.svg  Ivory Coast CIV
Flag of Jordan.svg  Jordan JOR
Flag of Kiribati.svg  Kiribati KIR
Flag of Kuwait.svg  Kuwait KUW
Flag of Laos.svg  Laos LAO
Flag of Lesotho.svg  Lesotho LES
Flag of Liberia.svg  Liberia LBR
Flag of Libya.svg  Libya LBA
Flag of Malawi.svg  Malawi MAW
Flag of Maldives.svg  Maldives MDV
Flag of Mali.svg  Mali MLI
Flag of the Marshall Islands.svg  Marshall Islands MHL
Flag of Mauritania.svg  Mauritania MTN
Flag of Mauritius.svg  Mauritius MRI
Flag of Mozambique.svg  Mozambique MOZ
Flag of Myanmar.svg  Myanmar MYA
Flag of Namibia.svg  Namibia NAM
Flag of Nauru.svg  Nauru NRU
Flag of Nicaragua.svg  Nicaragua NCA
Flag of Niger.svg  Niger NIG
Flag of Oman.svg  Oman OMA
Flag of Palau.svg  Palau PLW
Flag of Palestine.svg  Palestine PLE
Flag of Panama.svg  Panama PAN
Flag of Papua New Guinea.svg  Papua New Guinea PNG
Flag of Qatar.svg  Qatar QAT
Flag of Rwanda.svg  Rwanda RWA
Flag of Saint Kitts and Nevis.svg  Saint Kitts and Nevis SKN
Flag of Saint Lucia.svg  Saint Lucia LCA
Flag of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.svg  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines VIN
Flag of Samoa.svg  Samoa SAM
Flag of Sao Tome and Principe.svg  São Tomé and Príncipe STP
Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg  Saudi Arabia KSA
Flag of Seychelles.svg  Seychelles SEY
Flag of Sierra Leone.svg  Sierra Leone SLE
Flag of the Solomon Islands.svg  Solomon Islands SOL
Flag of Somalia.svg  Somalia SOM
Flag of South Sudan.svg  South Sudan SSD
Flag of Sri Lanka.svg  Sri Lanka SRI
Flag of Sudan.svg  Sudan SUD
Flag of Suriname.svg  Suriname SUR
Flag of Syria.svg  Syria SYR
Flag of Tanzania.svg  Tanzania TAN
Flag of Tunisia.svg  Tunisia TUN
Flag of Turkmenistan.svg  Turkmenistan TKM
Flag of Tuvalu.svg  Tuvalu TUV
Flag of Uganda.svg  Uganda UGA
Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg  United Arab Emirates UAE
Flag of Vanuatu.svg  Vanuatu VAN
Flag of Vietnam.svg  Vietnam VIE
Flag of Yemen.svg  Yemen YEM
Flag of Zambia.svg  Zambia ZAM

Notes

Name changes notes

^  TPE: The Chinese Taipei was designated Republic of China (ROC) in 1972 [16] and 1976. [17] In 1979, the IOC started to use Chinese Taipei to refer to this NOC, a compromise that was acceptable for the People's Republic of China to start participating in the Olympic Games. [36] [37]
^  MKD:  North Macedonia was known as Macedonia, or more formally Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia due to a naming dispute with Greece , between 1998 [24] and 2018.
^  SCG: The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia , consisting of the Republic of Serbia and the Republic of Montenegro , participated at the Games since 1998. It was reconstituted as the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro in 2003. At the 1998 [24] and 2002 [25] Games, the nation was still designated Yugoslavia (YUG). The Serbia and Montenegro (SCG) designation and code were used at the Winter Games in 2006. [26]

Participation notes

  1. ^ A single speed skater from Estonia registered for the 1924 Winter Olympics and carried the flag in the opening ceremonies, but did not compete. [4]
  2. ^ Costa Rica did not take part in the Opening Ceremony of the 2002 Winter Olympics, but its athletes did compete; 78 nations participated in the 2002 Games, however the IOC web site states that 77 nations participated, probably erroneously not counting Costa Rica. [38]
  3. ^ Anne Abernathy was the lone competitor from the Virgin Islands at the 2006 Winter Olympics, but withdrew from the women's luge event after injuring herself during a practice run. [39]
  4. ^ India's athletes originally competed as Independent Olympic Participants and marched under the Olympic Flag during the opening ceremony due to the Indian Olympic Association's suspension. On 11 February, the Indian Olympic Association was reinstated and India's athletes were allowed the option to compete under their own flag from that time onward. [40]

See also

Related Research Articles

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Independent Olympians at the Olympic Games Sporting event delegation

Athletes have competed as Independent Olympians at the Olympic Games for various reasons, including political transition, international sanctions, suspensions of National Olympic Committees, and compassion. Independent athletes have come from the Republic of Macedonia, East Timor, South Sudan and Curaçao following geopolitical changes in the years before the Olympics, from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia as a result of international sanctions, from India and Kuwait due to the suspensions of their National Olympic Committees, and Russia for mass violations of anti-doping rules.

References

  1. Cook, Theodore Andrea (May 1909). The Fourth Olympiad London 1908 Official Report (PDF). London: British Olympic Association. pp. 284–295. Retrieved 9 September 2017.
  2. Olympic Games Antwerp 1920 — Official Report (PDF) (in French). Belgian Olympic Committee. 1957. pp. 144, 168–170. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 October 2018. Retrieved 9 September 2017.
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