This is a list of nations, as represented by National Olympic Committees (NOCs), that have participated in the Winter Olympic Games between 1924 and 2018. The Winter Olympic Games have been held every four years (once during each Olympiad) since 1924, except for the cancelled Games of 1940 and 1944, and in 1994 when the Winter Games were moved to the middle of the Olympiad, two years after the previous Games. 127 NOCs (116 of the current 206 NOCs and 11 obsolete NOCs) have participated in at least one Winter Games, and twelve nations (Austria, Canada, Finland, France, Great Britain, Hungary, Italy, Norway, Poland, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States) have participated in all twenty-three Winter Games to date. Including continuity from Czechoslovakia, the Czech Republic and Slovakia have also been represented in every edition.
The first winter sport to be contested at the modern Olympic Games was figure skating at the 1908 Games in London. A total of 21 skaters from six countries (Argentina, Germany, Great Britain, Sweden, Russia, and the United States) competed in four events on 28–29 October.Skating was not in the program of the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm, but returned for the 1920 Games in Antwerp. Ice hockey was also part of the 1920 program of events, with seven teams competing.
The first Winter Games were held in 1924, in Chamonix, France. They were originally called International Winter Sports Week and held in association with the 1924 Summer Olympics, but were in retrospect designated by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) as the I Olympic Winter Games. Sixteen nations participated in these Games: fourteen from Europe and two from North America. Four years later, 25 nations were represented at the 1928 Winter Olympics, in St. Moritz, Switzerland, including Argentina (the first nation from the Southern Hemisphere), Japan (the first Asian nation), and Mexico. The 1932 Games, held in Lake Placid, United States, saw the participation of 17 nations. The 1936 Winter Games, in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, had 28 participating nations, the largest number to that date. These would be the last Winter Games for twelve years, as the planned 1940 Games and 1944 Games were cancelled due to World War II.
After the war, 28 nations would return to St. Moritz for the 1948 Winter Olympics, but not Germany or Japan, who were not invited because of their roles in the war.The 1952 Winter Games in Oslo, Norway, featured 30 participating nations. The 1956 Games in Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy, marked the Winter Games debut of the Soviet Union, along with 31 other nations. The NOCs of East Germany and West Germany would be represented by a single German team, an arrangement that would continue until 1964. Thirty nations would participate at the 1960 Winter Olympics in Squaw Valley, United States, including South Africa, the first African nation to participate in the Winter Games. Thirty-six nations were represented in Innsbruck, Austria, in 1964.
The 1968 Winter Olympics in Grenoble, France, marked the first time that East Germany and West Germany competed as independent teams, two of the 37 nations that took part.The Games of 1972 were held in Sapporo, Japan, the first time the Winter Games were held outside of Europe or North America. A total of 35 nations were represented, including the Philippines, the first appearance by a southeast Asian nation. The Winter Games returned to Innsbruck, in 1976, with 37 participating nations.
Lake Placid was the site of the Winter Games in 1980, with 37 competing nations.The People's Republic of China made their Olympic debut but, in response, the Republic of China boycotted the Games, protesting their inability to use the name "China" after the decision by the IOC. Sarajevo, SFR Yugoslavia was host to the 1984 Winter Olympics, which welcomed 49 nations. Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands were the first two Caribbean NOCs to compete in the Winter Games. Several more tropical nations would participate at the 1988 Winter Olympics, in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, including the famed Jamaica national bobsleigh team.
The post-Cold War events of the early 1990s led to a large increase in participating nations at the Olympics. At the 1992 Games, in Albertville, France, a total of 64 NOCs were represented, including a single Germany team—following the German reunification in 1990—and a Unified Team composed of six of the ex-republics of the Soviet Union.The Baltic states competed independently for the first time since 1936, and some of the ex-Yugoslav nations started to compete independently in 1992.
In October 1986, the IOC had voted to hold the Olympic Winter Games halfway through the four-year Olympiad, rather than in the same year as the summer Games,and this change started with the XVIIth Olympic Winter Games in 1994 in Lillehammer, Norway. A total of 67 nations took part, including the Czech Republic and Slovakia as independent teams, and each of the ex-Soviet nations.
The Winter Games have continued to grow in the recent past, with 72 nations at the 1998 Winter Olympics, in Nagano, Japan,77 nations at the 2002 Winter Olympics, in Salt Lake City, United States, 80 nations at the 2006 Winter Olympics, in Turin, Italy, 82 nations at the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, 88 nations at the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, Russia, and a record 92 nations at the 2018 Games.
This list includes 127 NOCs (116 of the current 206 NOCs and 11 obsolete NOCs),arranged alphabetically. The three-letter country code is also listed for each NOC. Since the 1960s, these codes have been frequently used by the IOC and each Games organizing committee to identify NOCs, such as within the official report of each Games. However, in this section, several countries uses long-form names designated by the United Nations uses short form common names such as for example: Laos (Lao People's Democratic Republic), North Korea (Democratic People's Republic of Korea), and Moldova (Republic of Moldova).
Several nations have changed during their Olympic history. Name changes due to geographical renaming are explained by footnotes after the nation's name, and other changes are explained by footnotes links within the table itself.
Obsolete nations are included in the table to more clearly illustrate past Olympic appearances for their successor nations.
|24||In the table headings, indicates the Games year, from 1924 through 2018|
|•||Participated in the specified Games|
|H||Host nation for the specified Games|
|[A]||Additional explanatory comments at the linked footnote|
|The planned Games of 1940 and 1944 were cancelled due to World War II|
|NOC superseded or preceded by other NOC(s) during these years|
|Contents:||A B C D E F G H I J K L M N P R S T U V Y Z Total|
|Armenia||ARM||Soviet Union||Soviet Union||EUN||•||•||•||•||•||•||•||7|
|Azerbaijan||AZE||Soviet Union||Soviet Union||•||•||•||•||•||•||6|
|Belarus||BLR||Soviet Union||Soviet Union||EUN||•||•||•||•||•||•||•||7|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||BIH||Yugoslavia||Yugoslavia||•||•||•||•||•||•||•||7|
|British Virgin Islands||IVB||•||•||2|
|Chinese Taipei [TPE] ( Taiwan)||TPE||•||•||•||•||•||•||•||•||•||•||•||•||12|
|Costa Rica||CRC||•||•||•||•||• [B]||•||6|
|Georgia||GEO||Soviet Union||Soviet Union||•||•||•||•||•||•||•||7|
|Germany||GER||•||•||H||•||EUA||GDR , FRG||•||•||•||•||•||•||•||•||12|
|East Germany [^]||GDR||EUA||•||•||•||•||•||•||6|
|West Germany [^]||FRG||EUA||•||•||•||•||•||•||6|
|United Team of Germany [^]||EUA||•||•||•||3|
|Kazakhstan||KAZ||Soviet Union||Soviet Union||EUN||•||•||•||•||•||•||•||7|
|Kyrgyzstan||KGZ||Soviet Union||Soviet Union||•||•||•||•||•||•||•||7|
|Netherlands Antilles [^]||AHO||•||•||2|
|North Macedonia [MKD]||MKD||Yugoslavia||Yugoslavia||•||•||•||•||•||•||6|
|Russia||RUS||Soviet Union||Soviet Union||EUN||•||•||•||•||•||H||OAR||6|
|Unified Team [^]||EUN||•||1|
|Olympic Athletes from Russia [^]||OAR||•||1|
|Soviet Union [^]||URS||•||•||•||•||•||•||•||•||•||EUN||9|
|Serbia and Montenegro [SCG] [^]||SCG||Yugoslavia||Yugoslavia||•||•||•||3|
|Tajikistan||TJK||Soviet Union||Soviet Union||•||•||•||•||4|
|Trinidad and Tobago||TRI||•||•||•||3|
|Ukraine||UKR||Soviet Union||Soviet Union||EUN||•||•||•||•||•||•||•||7|
|Uzbekistan||UZB||Soviet Union||Soviet Union||EUN||•||•||•||•||•||•||•||7|
|Virgin Islands||ISV||•||•||•||•||•||• [C]||•||7|
|Total NOCs number||16||25||17||28||28||30||32||30||36||37||35||37||37||49||57||64||67||72||78||80||82||88||92||1117|
90 of the 206 active NOCs have yet to compete in a Winter Olympics.
|Antigua and Barbuda||ANT|
|Central African Republic||CAF|
|Republic of the Congo||CGO|
|Democratic Republic of the Congo||COD|
|Federated States of Micronesia||FSM|
|Papua New Guinea||PNG|
|Saint Kitts and Nevis||SKN|
|Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||VIN|
|São Tomé and Príncipe||STP|
|United Arab Emirates||UAE|
^ TPE: The Chinese Taipei was designated Republic of China (ROC) in 1972 and 1976. In 1979, the IOC started to use Chinese Taipei to refer to this NOC, a compromise that was acceptable for the People's Republic of China to start participating in the Olympic Games.
^ MKD: North Macedonia was known as Macedonia, or more formally Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia due to a naming dispute with Greece , between 1998 and 2018.
^ SCG: The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia , consisting of the Republic of Serbia and the Republic of Montenegro , participated at the Games since 1998. It was reconstituted as the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro in 2003. At the 1998 and 2002 Games, the nation was still designated Yugoslavia (YUG). The Serbia and Montenegro (SCG) designation and code were used at the Winter Games in 2006.
The modern Olympic Games or Olympics are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions. The Olympic Games are considered the world's foremost sports competition with more than 200 nations participating. The Olympic Games are normally held every four years, alternating between the Summer and Winter Olympics every two years in the four-year period.
The Winter Olympic Games is a major international multi-sport event held once every four years for sports practiced on snow and ice. The first Winter Olympic Games, the 1924 Winter Olympics, were held in Chamonix, France. The modern Olympic Games were inspired by the ancient Olympic Games, which were held in Olympia, Greece, from the 8th century BC to the 4th century AD. Baron Pierre de Coubertin founded the International Olympic Committee (IOC) in 1894, leading to the first modern Summer Olympic Games in Athens, Greece in 1896. The IOC is the governing body of the Olympic Movement, with the Olympic Charter defining its structure and authority.
The 1924 Winter Olympics, officially known as the I Olympic Winter Games, were a winter multi-sport event which was held in 1924 in Chamonix, France. Originally held in association with the 1924 Summer Olympics, the sports competitions were held at the foot of Mont Blanc in Chamonix, and Haute-Savoie, France between 25 January and 5 February 1924. The Games were organized by the French Olympic Committee, and were originally reckoned as the "International Winter Sports Week." With the success of the event, it was retroactively designated by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) as "the first Olympic Winter Games".
The 1924 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the VIII Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event which was celebrated in 1924 in Paris, France.
The 1992 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XVI Olympic Winter Games and commonly known as Albertville '92, were a winter multi-sport event held from 8 to 23 February 1992 in and around Albertville, France. Albertville won the bid to host the Winter Olympics in 1986, beating Sofia, Falun, Lillehammer, Cortina d'Ampezzo, Anchorage, and Berchtesgaden. The 1992 Games were the last year the Winter Olympics were held in the same year as the Summer Olympics. The Games were the fifth Olympic Games held in France and the country's third Winter Olympics, after the 1924 Winter Games in Chamonix and the 1968 Winter Games in Grenoble.
The 1984 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XIV Olympic Winter Games and commonly known as Sarajevo '84, was a winter multi-sport event held between 8 and 19 February 1984 in Sarajevo, SFR Yugoslavia, in what is now Bosnia and Herzegovina. It was the first Winter Olympic Games held in a socialist state and in a Slavic language-speaking country. It was the second consecutive Olympic Games to be held in a socialist state and in a Slavic language-speaking country, after the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow, Soviet Union. It was also the first Olympics to take place in the Balkans since the first Olympic Games in Athens.
A National Olympic Committee (NOC) is a national constituent of the worldwide Olympic movement. Subject to the controls of the International Olympic Committee, NOCs are responsible for organizing their people's participation in the Olympic Games. They may nominate cities within their respective areas as candidates for future Olympic Games. NOCs also promote the development of athletes and training of coaches and officials at a national level within their geographies.
The all-time medal table for all Olympic Games from 1896 to 2018, including Summer Olympic Games, Winter Olympic Games, and a combined total of both, is tabulated below. These Olympic medal counts do not include the 1906 Intercalated Games which are no longer recognized by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) as official Games. The IOC itself does not publish all-time tables, and publishes unofficial tables only per single Games. This table was thus compiled by adding up single entries from the IOC database.
Germany competed at the 1952 Winter Olympics in Oslo, Norway after not having been invited to the 1948 Winter Olympics because of their role in World War II, and because the NOC restored in 1947 as Deutscher Olympischer Ausschuß did not represent a recognized state yet. The Federal Republic of Germany was founded in 1949, the NOC for Germany was renamed and in 1951 recognized by the IOC while recognition of a separate NOC of the GDR was declined. East Germans were told to cooperate in a single team Germany, which they declined in 1952, but accepted for 1956 and later.
The Youth Olympic Games (YOG) is an international multi-sport event for athletes between 14-18 years old, organized by the International Olympic Committee. The games are held every four years in staggered summer and winter events consistent with the current Olympic Games format, though in reverse order with Winter Games held in leap years instead of Summer Games. The first summer version was held in Singapore from 14 to 26 August 2010 while the first winter version was held in Innsbruck, Austria from 13 to 22 January 2012. The idea of such an event was introduced by Johann Rosenzopf from Austria in 1998. On 6 July 2007, International Olympic Committee (IOC) members at the 119th IOC session in Guatemala City approved the creation of a youth version of the Olympic Games, with the intention of sharing the costs of hosting the event between the IOC and the host city, whereas the travelling costs of athletes and coaches were to be paid by the IOC. These Games will also feature cultural exchange programs and opportunities for participants to meet Olympic athletes.
Hong Kong first competed at the Olympic Games in 1952, then as a British colony. Hong Kong has participated at every Summer Olympic Games since then except for the boycotted 1980 Games, and has also participated in the Winter Olympic Games since 2002.
The former State Union of Serbia and Montenegro appeared at the Olympic Games on two occasions from 2004 until 2006, after which the union was dissolved and Montenegro and Serbia each declared full independence.
The Republic of China (ROC) participated in its first Summer Olympics in 1932 under the name of China. After the Chinese Civil War, the ROC retreated to the island of Taiwan, and only Taiwan-based athletes have competed on its behalf since then. The ROC protested the 1979 Nagoya Resolution by boycotting the 1976 Summer Olympics. That continued until the ROC competed under the deliberately-ambiguous name Chinese Taipei in the 1984 Winter Olympics. China also took part in the Opening Ceremony of the 1924 Summer Olympics, but its four athletes, all of whom were tennis players, withdrew from competition.
The People's Republic of China (PRC) sent a delegation to the Olympic Games for the first time at the 1952 Summer Olympics in Helsinki, Finland.
The 2020 Winter Youth Olympic Games, officially known as the III Winter Youth Olympic Games and commonly known as Lausanne 2020, was the third edition of the Winter Youth Olympics; a major international multi-sport event and cultural festival for teenagers was held in Lausanne, Switzerland, the home of the International Olympic Committee, between 9 and 22 January 2020.
Athletes have competed as Independent Olympians at the Olympic Games for various reasons, including political transition, international sanctions, suspensions of National Olympic Committees, and compassion. Independent athletes have come from the Republic of Macedonia, East Timor, South Sudan and Curaçao following geopolitical changes in the years before the Olympics, from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia as a result of international sanctions, from India and Kuwait due to the suspensions of their National Olympic Committees, and Russia for mass violations of anti-doping rules.