Summer Paralympic Games

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The Summer Paralympics also known as the Games of the Paralympiad, are an international multi-sport event where athletes with physical disabilities compete. This includes athletes with mobility disabilities, amputations, blindness, and cerebral palsy. The Paralympic Games are held every four years, organized by the International Paralympic Committee. Medals are awarded in each event, with gold medals for first place, silver for second and bronze for third, a tradition that the Olympic Games started in 1904.

Contents

The United States and the United Kingdom have each hosted two Summer Paralympic Games, more than any other nation. Other countries that have hosted the summer Paralympics are Australia, Canada, China, Greece, Israel, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, South Korea, Spain and West Germany. In the 2016 Summer Paralympics, Brazil hosted the first Summer Games in South America in Rio de Janeiro. Tokyo is the first city to host the Summer Paralympics more than once: 1964 and 2020.

Twelve countries — Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, France, Great Britain, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Netherlands, Switzerland, United States — have been represented at all Summer Paralympic Games. Seven of those countries have won at least one gold medal at every Summer Paralympic Games: Australia, Austria, France, Great Britain, Italy, the Netherlands, and the United States.

The United States has been the top-ranking (medals) nation for eight Paralympic Summer Games: 1964, 1968, 1976, 1980, 1984, 1988, 1992 and 1996. China have been the top-ranking nation for the fifth most recent Games, 2004, 2008, 2012, 2016 and 2020. Italy (1960), West Germany (1972) and Australia (2000) have been the top-ranking nation one time each.

Qualification

Qualification rules for each of the Paralympic sports are set by the International Federation (IF) that governs that sport's international competition.

History

The first official Paralympic Games was held in Rome, Italy, in 1960. [1] 400 athletes from 23 countries competed at the 1960 Games though only athletes in wheelchairs competed.

At the 1976 Summer Games athletes with different disabilities were included for the first time at a summer Paralympics. With the inclusion of more disability classifications, the 1976 Summer Games expanded to 1,600 athletes from 40 countries. [2]

The 1988 Summer Paralympics were the first to be hosted in the same venues (and thus use the same facilities) as the Olympics of that year. Since then, all Paralympic Games are now held in the same city that hosted the Olympics, with a two-week gap between each.

Rio de Janeiro held the 2016 Summer Paralympics, becoming the first Latin American and South American city to host either the Summer or Winter Games. Tokyo will host the 2020 Summer Paralympics becoming the first city to host the games twice.

Classification

A wheelchair basketball game at the 2008 Summer Paralympics Wheelchair basketball at the 2008 Summer Paralympics.jpg
A wheelchair basketball game at the 2008 Summer Paralympics

Every participant at the Paralympics has their disability grouped into one of ten disability categories; impaired muscle power, impaired passive range of movement, limb deficiency, leg length difference, short stature, hypertonia, ataxia, athetosis, vision impairment and intellectual impairment. [3] Each Paralympic sport then has its own classifications, dependent upon the specific physical demands of competition. Events are given a code, made of numbers and letters, describing the type of event and classification of the athletes competing. Some sports, such as athletics, divide athletes by both the category and severity of their disabilities, other sports, for example swimming, group competitors from different categories together, the only separation being based on the severity of the disability. [4] Within the ten disability categories the athletes still need to be divided according to their level of impairment. The classification systems differ from sport to sport, and is intended to even the playing field so as to allow as many athletes to participate as possible. Classifications vary in accordance with the different skills required to perform the sport.

Archery : Archery is open to athletes with a physical disability. Classifications are broken up into three divisions: W1, spinal cord injured and cerebral palsy athletes with impairment in all four limbs. W2, wheelchair users with full arm function. W3, standing amputee, Les Autres and cerebral palsy standing athletes. Some athletes in the standing group will sit on a high stool for support but will still have their feet touching the ground. [5]

Athletics : Athletics are open to all disability groups and uses a functional classification system. A brief classification guide is as follows: prefixing F for field athletes or T for track athletes. F or T 11–13 are visually impaired, F or T 20 are learning disabled, F or T 32–38 are cerebral palsy, F or T 40–46 amputee and Les Autres, T 51–54 wheelchair track athletes and F 51–58 wheelchair field athletes. [6]

Basketball : Basketball is open to wheelchair athletes. Wheelchair athletes are classified according to their physical ability and are given a points rating between 0.5 – 4.5. The individuals who rate at 0.5 are the most severely disabled and those at 4.5 are the least disabled. A team on the court comprises five players and may not exceed a total of 14 points at any given time. [7]

Boccia : Boccia is open to athletes with cerebral palsy or related neurological conditions who compete from a wheelchair. Classifications are split into four groups; BC1: Athletes are either throwers or foot players (with cerebral palsy). Athletes may compete with an assistant BC2: For throwing players (with cerebral palsy). Players may not have an assistant BC3: Athletes (with severe disability) who use an assistive device and may be assisted by a person, but this assistant must keep their back to the court. BC4: For throwing players. Players may not have an assistant (non-cerebral palsy). [8]

Cycling : Cycling is open to amputee, Les Autres, cerebral palsy and visually impaired athletes who compete in the individual road race and track events. Classifications are broken up into divisions 2, 3 and 4. Athletes in division two are the most severely disabled. While athletes in division four are considered to be higher functioning. Visually impaired athletes compete together with no separate classification system. They ride in tandem with a sighted guide. Amputee, spinal cord injury and Les Autres competitors compete within the classification groupings LC1 – for riders with upper limb disabilities, LC2 – for riders with disabilities in one leg but who are able to pedal normally, LC3 – essentially for riders with a handicap in one lower limb who will usually pedal with one leg only, and LC4 for riders with disabilities affecting both legs. [9]

Equestrian : Equestrian is open to all disability groups, with riders divided into four grades. Grade 1 incorporates severely disabled riders with cerebral palsy, Les Autres and spinal cord injury. Grade 2 incorporates cerebral palsy, Les Autres, spinal cord injury and amputee riders with reasonable balance and abdominal control. Grade 3 is for cerebral palsy, Les Autres, amputee, spinal cord injury and totally blind athletes with good balance, leg movement and coordination. Grade 4 incorporates athletes who have cerebral palsy, Les Autres, amputation(s), spinal cord injury and/or are visually impaired. This last group comprises ambulant athletes with either impaired vision or impaired arm/leg function. [10]

Fencing : Fencing is open to wheelchair athletes. There are only three classes; class A incorporates those athletes with good balance and recovery and full trunk movement; class B is for those with poor balance and recovery but full use of one or both upper limbs; class C is for athletes with severe physical impairment in all four limbs. [11]

Football : There are two forms of football played at the Paralympics. The first is 5-a-side football, which is open to visually impaired athletes. The second is 7-a-side football, which is open to athletes with cerebral palsy. 5-a-side football is open to all visually impaired athletes. Since there are different levels of visual impairment, all players except the goalie (who acts as a guide) are required to wear eye shades. The field dimensions are smaller than able-bodied football, there are only five players on the pitch and the ball makes a sound. Otherwise the rules are exactly the same as able-bodied football. [12] Athletes competing in 7-a-side football are broken down into classes 5, 6, 7 and 8. All classes comprise ambulant athletes; class 5 being the least physically able, progressing through to class 8 who are minimally affected. Teams must include at least one athlete from either class 5 or 6. Furthermore, no more than three players from class 8 are allowed to play at the same time. Other than the fact that the game is played with seven players the rest of the rules and dimensions of the playing field are the same as able-bodied football. [13]

The Swedish goalball team at the 2004 Summer Paralympics Goalball vid Paralympics i Aten.jpg
The Swedish goalball team at the 2004 Summer Paralympics

Goalball : Goalball is open to visually impaired athletes who must wear "black out" masks to ensure all participants can compete equally, thereby eliminating the need for classification. The ball has a bell in it to help the players react to the ball. Complete silence at the venue is required so that the athletes can orient themselves and to ensure fairness. [14]

Judo : Judo is open to visually impaired athletes. The rules are the same as able-bodied judo except that the players are allowed contact with their opponent prior to the start of the match. There are no classifications; participants are divided into weight categories in the same way as able-bodied judo athletes. [15]

Powerlifting : Powerlifting is open to athletes with cerebral palsy, spinal cord injuries, amputations (lower limb only), and Les Autres. Since the competition is a test of upper body strength the classifications are by weight category as in able-bodied powerlifting competition. [16]

Sailing : Sailing is open to amputee, cerebral palsy, visually impaired, spinal cord injured and Les Autres athletes. There are three events, one for single, double, and triple-crew boats. Classification for sailing in the three-person event is based on a functional points system with low points for severely disabled athletes rising by scale to high points for less disabled athletes. A classification committee evaluates each sailor and assign a point from one to seven based on their level of ability. Each crew of three is allowed a maximum of 14 points. The single-person event can be crewed regardless of points but the sailor must have at least a minimum level of disability which prevents them from competing on equal terms with able-bodied sailors. The two-person event is designed for more severely disabled athletes. [17]

Shooting : Shooting is open to athletes with a physical disability. There are only two classes of competition, wheelchair and standing. There are two types of events, pistol and rifle. The athletes are broken down into classes based on their upper body functionality, balance, muscle strength and limb mobility. The three classes are SH1-competitors do not require a shooting stand, SH2-competitors cannot support the weight of the gun and require a shooting stand, and SH3-Rifle competitors with a visual impairment. [18]

A Paralympian in the women's butterfly at the 2008 Summer Paralympics Swimming at the 2008 Summer Paralympics - women Butterfly stroke.jpg
A Paralympian in the women's butterfly at the 2008 Summer Paralympics

Swimming : The Paralympic swimming competition features all four of the strokes used in able-bodied swimming competitions. Classification is divided into three groups: S1 to S10 are those with physical impairment. S1 will have the most severe impairment and an S10 a lesser impairment. Athletes are judged on their muscle strength, joint range of motion, limb length and movement co-ordination. S11 to S13 are those with a visual impairment. S11 will have little or no vision, S12 can recognise the shape of a hand and have some ability to see, S13 greater vision than the other two classes but less than 20 degrees of vision. S14 is for athletes with a learning difficulty. [19]

Table Tennis : Table tennis is open to athletes with a physical disability. There are individual, doubles and team events. A match is 5 sets of 11 points each. The athletes are broken down into ten divisions based on their level of function. Classes 1 to 5 are for athletes competing from a wheelchair with class 1 being the most severely disabled and class 5 the least disabled. Classes 6 to 10 encompass ambulant athletes with class 6 the most severely disabled and class 10 the least. [20]

Tennis : Tennis at the Paralympics is played with all the same rules as able-bodied tennis with the exception that the ball is allowed to bounce twice, and the first bounce must be within the bounds of the court. It is open to athletes with a mobility related disability which means that they cannot compete on equal terms with able-bodied tennis players. The game is played from a wheelchair, with two classes, paraplegic (at least one leg must have a permanent and substantial loss of function) and quadriplegic (at least three limbs must have a permanent and substantial loss of function). [21]

Volleyball : Volleyball is open to athletes with a physical disability and is performed from a seated position. In sitting volleyball the court is smaller than the standard court and has a lower net. In the sitting games the only classification rule is that each team may have only one player who fits the minimum disability rule, which is that their disability prevents them from competing on equal terms with able-bodied athletes. The other players on the team must demonstrate a higher level of disability. [22]

Wheelchair rugby : Athletes are classified on a points system similar to wheelchair basketball, with the most severely disabled athlete being graded at 0.5 points rising to 3.5 points. Each team has four players and is allowed a maximum of eight points on the court at any one time. [23]

All-time medal table

With reference to the top twenty nations and according to official data of the International Paralympic Committee.

Summer Paralympic (1960–2020)

No.NationGamesGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1Flag of the United States.svg  United States  (USA)168087367392283
2Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain  (GBR)166676226241913
3Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China  (CHN)105354003021237
4Flag of Germany.svg  Germany  (GER) [24] 165215264991546
5Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada  (CAN)143983393461080
6Flag of Australia.svg  Australia  (AUS)163894223941205
7Flag of France.svg  France  (FRA)163223343361002
8Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands  (NED)16289250234773
9Flag of Poland.svg  Poland  (POL)13269265220754
10Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden  (SWE)16236232177645
11Flag of Spain.svg  Spain  (ESP)14221235241697
12Flag of Italy.svg  Italy  (ITA)16181224226665
13Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine  (UKR)7149162161472
14Flag of Israel.svg  Israel  (ISR)16129125130384
15Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea  (KOR)15128116121365
16Flag of Japan.svg  Japan  (JPN)15127139158424
17Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa  (RSA)121219588304
18Flag of Austria.svg  Austria  (AUT)17112128131371
19Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil  (BRA)13110135133378
20Flag of Norway.svg  Norway  (NOR)151089784289

List of Paralympic sports

A number of different sports have been part of the Paralympic program at one point or another.

  This color indicates a discontinued sport

SportYears
Archery all
Athletics all
Basketball ID 2000
Boccia since 1984
Cycling since 1988
Paracanoe since 2016
Dartchery 1960–1980
Equestrian since 1996
Football 5-a-side since 2004
Football 7-a-side 1984–2016
Goalball since 1976
Judo since 1988
Lawn bowls 1968–1988, 1996
Paratriathlon since 2016
SportYears
Powerlifting since 1984
Rowing since 2008
Sailing 1996, 2000–2016
Shooting since 1976
Snooker 1960–1976, 1984–1988
Swimming all
Table tennis all
Volleyball since 1976
Weightlifting 1964–1992
Wheelchair basketball all
Wheelchair fencing all
Wheelchair rugby 1996, since 2000
Wheelchair tennis 1988, 1992
Wrestling 1980–1984

List of Summer Paralympic Games

World location map (equirectangular 180).svg
Host cities of Summer Paralympic Games
Europe blank laea location map.svg
European host cities of Summer Paralympic Games
GamesYearHostOpened byDatesNationsCompetitorsSportsEventsTop Nation
TotalMenWomen
1 1960 Flag of Italy.svg Rome, Italy Camillo Giardina 18–25 September 196023400857Flag of Italy.svg  Italy  (ITA)
2 1964 Flag of Japan (1870-1999).svg Tokyo, Japan Crown Prince Akihito 3–12 November 196421375307689144Flag of the United States.svg  United States  (USA)
3 1968 Flag of Israel.svg Tel Aviv, Israel Yigal Allon 4–13 November 19682975010181Flag of the United States.svg  United States  (USA)
4 1972 Flag of Germany.svg Heidelberg, West Germany President Gustav Heinemann 2–11 August 197241100410187Flag of Germany.svg  West Germany  (FRG)
5 1976 Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Toronto, Canada Lieutenant Governor Pauline Mills McGibbon 3–11 August 1976321657140425313447Flag of the United States.svg  United States  (USA)
6 1980 Flag of the Netherlands.svg Arnhem, Netherlands Princess Margriet 21–30 June 198042197312489Flag of the United States.svg  United States  (USA)
7 1984 Flag of the United States.svg New York City, United States President Ronald Reagan 17–30 June 198445180015300Flag of the United States.svg  United States  (USA)
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Stoke Mandeville, United Kingdom Charles, Prince of Wales 22 July – 1 August 198441110010603Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain  (GBR)
8 1988 Flag of South Korea (1984-1997).svg Seoul, South Korea President Roh Tae-woo 15–24 October 199261305716732Flag of the United States.svg  United States  (USA)
9 1992 Flag of Spain.svg Barcelona, Spain Queen Sofía of Spain 3–14 September 199282302020555Flag of the United States.svg  United States  (USA)
Flag of Spain.svg Madrid, Spain 15–22 September 1992751600
10 1996 Flag of the United States.svg Atlanta, United States Vice President Al Gore 16–25 August 19961043259246979020508Flag of the United States.svg  United States  (USA)
11 2000 Flag of Australia (converted).svg Sydney, Australia Governor-General Sir William Deane 18–29 October 20001213881289199018551Flag of Australia.svg  Australia  (AUS)
12 2004 Flag of Greece.svg Athens, Greece President Konstantinos Stephanopoulos 17–28 September 200413638062646116019519Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China  (CHN)
13 2008 Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Beijing, China President Hu Jintao 6–17 September 2008146395120472Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China  (CHN)
14 2012 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg London, United Kingdom Queen Elizabeth II 29 August – 9 September 2012164430220503Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China  (CHN)
15 2016 Flag of Brazil.svg Rio de Janeiro, Brazil President Michel Temer 7–18 September 2016159434222528Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China  (CHN)
16 2020/1 Flag of Japan.svg Tokyo, Japan Emperor Naruhito 24 August – 5 September 2021 [a] 163452022539Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China  (CHN)
17 2024 Flag of France.svg Paris, France 27 August – 8 September 202422549Future event
18 2028 Flag of the United States.svg Los Angeles, United States 22 August – 3 September 2028Future event
19 2032 Flag of Australia (converted).svg Brisbane, Australia 24 August – 5 September 2032Future event
20 2036Flag placeholder.svgTo be announced on 2025 or 2029TBAFuture event

a Postponed to 2021, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, marking the first time that the Paralympic Games has been postponed. They are still called the 2020 Summer Paralympics, even with the change in scheduling to one year later. [25] The new dates were later confirmed as 24 August to 5 September 2021. [26]

See also

Notes

  1. "Paralympics traces roots to Second World War", CBC, September 3, 2008
  2. "History of the Paralympic Games". Government of Canada. Archived from the original on 2010-03-12. Retrieved 2010-04-07.
  3. http://www.paralympic.org/classification
  4. "A-Z of Paralympic classification". BBC Sport. 28 August 2008. Retrieved 25 December 2015.
  5. "Archery". Australian Paralympic Committee. Archived from the original on September 13, 2009. Retrieved 2010-04-07.
  6. "Athletics". Australian Paralympic Committee. Archived from the original on January 18, 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-07.
  7. "Basketball". International Paralympic Committee. Retrieved 2010-04-07.
  8. "Boccia rules of play" (PDF). Cerebral Palsy International Sports and Recreation Association. pp. 6–8. Retrieved 2010-04-07.
  9. "Cycling". Australian Paralympic Committee. Archived from the original on March 4, 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-07.
  10. "Equestrian". Australian Paralympic Committee. Archived from the original on March 4, 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-07.
  11. "Fencing Classification Rules" (PDF). International Wheelchair and Amputee Sports Federation. p. 10. Retrieved 2010-04-07.
  12. "Football 5-a-side". International Paralympic Committee. Retrieved 2010-04-08.
  13. "Football". Australian Paralympic Committee. Archived from the original on March 23, 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-08.
  14. "Goalball". International Paralympic Committee. Retrieved 2010-04-08.
  15. "Judo". International Paralympic Committee. Retrieved 2010-04-08.
  16. "Powerlifting". Australian Paralympic Committee. Archived from the original on September 12, 2009. Retrieved 2010-04-08.
  17. "Sailing". Australian Paralympic Committee. Archived from the original on March 23, 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-08.
  18. "Shooting". Australian Paralympic Committee. Archived from the original on March 23, 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-08.
  19. "Swimming". Australian Paralympic Committee. Archived from the original on March 23, 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-08.
  20. "Table Tennis". Australian Paralympic Committee. Archived from the original on March 23, 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-08.
  21. "Wheelchair Tennis". International Paralympic Committee. Retrieved 2010-04-08.
  22. "Volleyball". Australian Paralympic Committee. Archived from the original on March 23, 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-08.
  23. "Wheelchair Rugby". International Paralympic Committee. Retrieved 2010-04-08.
  24. Prior to 1990 also called West Germany (FRG). Does not include the totals from East Germany (GDR).
  25. "Joint Statement from the International Olympic Committee and the Tokyo 2020 Organising Committee - Olympic News". International Olympic Committee. 24 March 2020. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  26. "Tokyo Olympics and Paralympics: New dates confirmed for 2021". BBC Sport . 30 March 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020.

Related Research Articles

1984 Summer Paralympics

The 1984 International Games for the Disabled, canonically the 1984 Summer Paralympics were the seventh Paralympic Games to be held. There were two separate competitions: one in Stoke Mandeville, United Kingdom for wheelchair athletes with spinal cord injuries and the other at the Mitchel Athletic Complex and Hofstra University in Long Island, New York, United States of America for wheelchair and ambulatory athletes with cerebral palsy, amputees, and les autres [the others]. Stoke Mandeville had been the location of the Stoke Mandeville Games from 1948 onwards, seen as the precursors to the Paralympic Games, as the 9th International Stoke Mandeville Games in Rome in 1960 are now recognised as the first Summer Paralympics. As with the 1984 Summer Olympics, the Soviet Union and other communist countries except China, East Germany, Hungary, Poland and Yugoslavia boycotted the Paralympic Games. The Soviet Union did not participate in the Paralympics at the time, arguing that they have no disabled people in the country. The USSR made its Paralympic debut in 1988, during Perestroika.

Paralympic sports

The Paralympic sports comprise all the sports contested in the Summer and Winter Paralympic Games. As of 2020, the Summer Paralympics included 22 sports and 539 medal events, and the Winter Paralympics include 5 sports and disciplines and about 80 events. The number and kinds of events may change from one Paralympic Games to another.

Wheelchair racing

Wheelchair racing is the racing of wheelchairs in track and road races. Wheelchair racing is open to athletes with any qualifying type of disability, amputees, spinal cord injuries, cerebral palsy and partially sighted. Athletes are classified in accordance with the nature and severity of their disability or combinations of disabilities. Like running, it can take place on a track or as a road race. The main competitions take place at the Summer Paralympics which wheelchair racing and athletics has been a part of since 1960. Competitors compete in specialized wheelchairs which allow the athletes to reach speeds of 30 km/h (18.6 mph) or more. It is one of the most prominent forms of Paralympic athletics.

Winter Paralympic Games International multi-sport event for disabled athletes

The Winter Paralympic Games is an international multi-sport event where athletes with physical disabilities compete in snow and ice sports. This includes athletes with mobility disabilities, amputations, blindness, and cerebral palsy. The Winter Paralympic Games are held every four years directly following the Winter Olympic Games. The Winter Paralympics are also hosted by the city that hosted the Winter Olympics. The International Paralympic Committee (IPC) oversees the Winter Paralympics. Medals are awarded in each event: with gold medals for first place, silver for second and bronze for third, following the tradition that the Olympic Games started in 1904.

Athletics at the 2000 Summer Paralympics comprised a total of 234 events, 165 for men and 69 for women. Athletes were classified according to the extent and type of their disability.

Disability sports classification is a system that allows for fair competition between people with different types of disabilities.

Para-athletics classification is a system to determine which athletes with disabilities may compete against each other in para-athletics events. Classification is intended to group together athletes with similar levels of physical ability to allow fair competition. Classification was created and is managed by the International Paralympic Committee (IPC), which is regularly published via its IPC Athletics Classification Handbook. People with physical, vision and intellectual disabilities are eligible to compete in this sport at the Summer Paralympics. The classification for this sport was created during the 1940s and for much of its early history was a medical condition based classification system. The classification system has subsequently become a functional mobility based one, and is moving towards an evidence-based classification system.

Para-alpine skiing classification is the classification system for para-alpine skiing designed to ensure fair competition between alpine skiers with different types of disabilities. The classifications are grouped into three general disability types: standing, blind and sitting. Classification governance is handled by International Paralympic Committee Alpine Skiing. Prior to that, several sport governing bodies dealt with classification including the International Sports Organization for the Disabled (ISOD), International Stoke Mandeville Games Federation (ISMWSF), International Blind Sports Federation (IBSA) and Cerebral Palsy International Sports and Recreation Association (CP-ISRA). Some classification systems are governed by bodies other than International Paralympic Committee Alpine Skiing, such as the Special Olympics. The sport is open to all competitors with a visual or physical disability. It is not open to people with intellectual disabilities.

Para-archery classification

Para-archery classification is the classification system for para-archery used to create a level playing field for archers with a different range of disabilities. Governance in the sport is through the International Archery Federation. Early classification systems for the game to have and were created during the 1940s and based on medical classification. This has subsequently changed to a functional mobility classification with the exception of blind archery.

Para-equestrian classification is a system for para-equestrian sport is a graded system based on the degree of physical or visual disability and handled at the international level by the FEI. The sport has eligible classifications for people with physical and vision disabilities. Groups of eligible riders include The sport is open to competitors with impaired muscle power, athetosis, impaired passive range of movement, hypertonia, limb deficiency, ataxia, leg length difference, short stature, and vision impairment. They are grouped into five different classes to allow fair competition. These classes are Grade I, Grade II, Grade III, Grade IV, and Grade V(Grade Names Changed as of Jan 2017). The para-equestrian classification does not consider the gender of the rider, as equestrines compete in mixed gender competitions.

Les Autres sport classification is system used in disability sport for people with locomotor disabilities not included in other classification systems for people with physical disabilities. The purpose of this system is to facilitate fair competition between people with different types of disabilities, and to give credibility to disability sports. It was designed and managed by International Sports Organization for the Disabled (ISOD) until the 2005 merger with IWAS, when management switched to that organization. Classification is handled on the national level by relevant sport organizations.

LA1 is a Les Autres sport classification is an wheelchair sport classification for a sportsperson with a disability that impacts their locomotor function. People in this class have severe locomotor issues with all four limbs as a result of loss of muscle strength or spasticity. This also impacts their dominant throwing arm. They also have poor sitting balance.

LA2 is a Les Autres sport classification is an wheelchair sport classification for a sportsperson with a disability that impacts their locomotor function. People in this class have severe locomotor issues with all four limbs as a result of loss of muscle strength or spasticity to a lesser degree than LAF1 or have severe locomotor issues in three of their limbs. They have moderate sitting balance, but good sitting balance while throwing.

LA3 is a Les Autres sport classification is a wheelchair sport classification for a sportsperson with a disability that impacts their locomotor function. People in this class have normal trunk function, good sitting balance, and functional upper limbs. They have limited use of their lower limbs.

LA4 is a Les Autres sport classification is an ambulatory sport classification for a sportsperson with a disability that impacts their locomotor function. People in this class may or may not uses crutches and/or braces on a daily basis. They have some issues with balance and reduced function in their upper limbs.

LA5 is a Les Autres sport classification is an ambulatory sport classification for a sportsperson with a disability that impacts their locomotor function. People in this class have normal upper limb functionality, but have problems with balance or use of their lower limbs. Generally, limb problems are confined to one limb.

LA6 is a Les Autres sport classification is an ambulatory sport classification for a sportsperson with a disability that impacts their locomotor function. People in this class have a minimal locomotor disability that tends to impact one of their upper limbs or knees. The class includes people with arthritis and osteoporosis, or ankylosis of the knee.

Wheelchair sport classification is a system designed to allow fair competition between people of different disabilities, and minimize the impact of a person's specific disability on the outcome of a competition. Wheelchair sports is associated with spinal cord injuries, and includes a number of different types of disabilities including paraplegia, quadriplegia, muscular dystrophy, post-polio syndrome and spina bifida. The disability must meet minimal body function impairment requirements. Wheelchair sport and sport for people with spinal cord injuries is often based on the location of lesions on the spinal cord and their association with physical disability and functionality.

SS2 is a Les Autres sport classification ambulatory class for people with short stature. Eligible males have a standing height and arm length that added together are equal to or less than 200 centimetres (79 in). Eligible female have a standing height and arm length that added together are equal to or less than 190 centimetres (75 in). Internationally, governance for this sport is handled by IWAS, following the 2005 merger of ISMWSF and ISOD. Classification is handled nationally by relevant national organizations. People in this class can participate in a number of sports including athletics, swimming, and para-equestrian.

SS1 is a Les Autres sport classification is an ambulatory class for people with short stature. Eligible males have a standing height and arm length that added together are equal to or less than 180 centimetres (71 in). Eligible female have a standing height and arm length that added together are equal to or less than 173 centimetres (68 in).