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The Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting (ISDB; Japanese: 統合デジタル放送サービス, Tōgō dejitaru hōsō sābisu) is a Japanese standard for digital television (DTV) and digital radio used by the country's radio and television networks. ISDB replaced NTSC-J analog television system and the previously used MUSE Hi-vision analogue HDTV system in Japan, and will be replacing NTSC, PAL-M and PAL-N in South America and the Philippines. Digital Terrestrial Television Broadcasting (DTTB) services using ISDB-T started in Japan in December 2003 and in Brazil in December 2007 as a trial. Since then, many countries have adopted ISDB over other digital broadcasting standards.

Japanese is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language. It is a member of the Japonic language family, and its relation to other languages, such as Korean, is debated. Japanese has been grouped with language families such as Ainu, Austroasiatic, and the now-discredited Altaic, but none of these proposals has gained widespread acceptance.

Digital television (DTV) is the transmission of television signals, including the sound channel, using digital encoding, in contrast to the earlier television technology, analog television, in which the video and audio are carried by analog signals. It is an innovative advance that represents the first significant evolution in television technology since color television in the 1950s. Digital TV transmits in a new image format called HDTV, with greater resolution than analog TV, in a wide screen aspect ratio similar to recent movies in contrast to the narrower screen of analog TV. It makes more economical use of scarce radio spectrum space; it can transmit multiple channels, up to 7, in the same bandwidth occupied by a single channel of analog television, and provides many new features that analog television cannot. A transition from analog to digital broadcasting began around 2006 in some countries, and many industrial countries have now completed the changeover, while other countries are in various stages of adaptation. Different digital television broadcasting standards have been adopted in different parts of the world; below are the more widely used standards:

Digital radio is the use of digital technology to transmit or receive across the radio spectrum. Digital transmission by radio waves includes digital broadcasting, and especially digital audio radio services.


Countries and territories using ISDB-T


Philippines Republic in Southeast Asia

The Philippines, officially the Republic of the Philippines, is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. Situated in the western Pacific Ocean, it consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. The capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. Bounded by the South China Sea on the west, the Philippine Sea on the east and the Celebes Sea on the southwest, the Philippines shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Vietnam to the west, Palau to the east, and Malaysia and Indonesia to the south.

Maldives South Asian country in the Indian Ocean

The Maldives, officially the Republic of Maldives, is a country in South Asia, located in the Arabian Sea of the Indian Ocean. It lies southwest of Sri Lanka and India, about 1,000 kilometres (620 mi) from the Asian continent. The chain of 26 atolls stretches from Ihavandhippolhu Atoll in the north to Addu Atoll in the south. Comprising a territory spanning roughly 298 square kilometres (115 sq mi), the Maldives is one of the world's most geographically dispersed sovereign states as well as the smallest Asian country by land area and population, with around 427,756 inhabitants. Malé is the capital and the most populated city, traditionally called the "King's Island" for its central location.

Sri Lanka Island country in South Asia

Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea. The island is geographically separated from the Indian subcontinent by the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait. The legislative capital, Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte, is a suburb of the commercial capital and largest city, Colombo.


Brazil Federal republic in South America

Brazil, officially the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, and its most populated city is São Paulo. The federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, and the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas; it is also one of the most multicultural and ethnically diverse nations, due to over a century of mass immigration from around the world.

Argentina federal republic in South America

Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic, is a country located mostly in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is also bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast, Uruguay and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Drake Passage to the south. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2 (1,073,500 sq mi), Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the fourth largest in the Americas, and the largest Spanish-speaking nation. The sovereign state is subdivided into twenty-three provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires, which is the federal capital of the nation as decided by Congress. The provinces and the capital have their own constitutions, but exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.

Uruguay republic in South America

Uruguay, officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay, is a country in the southeastern region of South America. It borders Argentina to its west and Brazil to its north and east, with the Río de la Plata to the south and the Atlantic Ocean to the southeast. Uruguay is home to an estimated 3.44 million people, of whom 1.8 million live in the metropolitan area of its capital and largest city, Montevideo. With an area of approximately 176,000 square kilometres (68,000 sq mi), Uruguay is geographically the second-smallest nation in South America, after Suriname.


Botswana republic in southern Africa

Botswana, officially the Republic of Botswana, is a landlocked country in Southern Africa. Formerly the British protectorate of Bechuanaland, Botswana adopted its new name after becoming independent within the Commonwealth on 30 September 1966. Since then, it has maintained a tradition of stable representative republic, with a consistent record of uninterrupted democratic elections and the best perceived corruption ranking in Africa since at least 1998. It is currently Africa's oldest continuous democracy.


DTT broadcasting systems. Countries using ISDB are shown in green. Digital broadcast standards.svg
DTT broadcasting systems. Countries using ISDB are shown in green.

ISDB is maintained by the Japanese organization ARIB. The standards can be obtained for free at the Japanese organization DiBEG website and at ARIB.

DiBEG was founded in September 1997 to promote ISDB-T International, the Digital Broadcasting System, in the world.

The core standards of ISDB are ISDB-S (satellite television), ISDB-T (terrestrial), ISDB-C (cable) and 2.6 GHz band mobile broadcasting which are all based on MPEG-2 or MPEG-4 standard for multiplexing with transport stream structure and video and audio coding (MPEG-2 or H.264), and are capable of high definition television (HDTV) and standard definition television. ISDB-T and ISDB-Tsb are for mobile reception in TV bands. 1seg is the name of an ISDB-T service for reception on cell phones, laptop computers and vehicles.

MPEG-2 standard for the generic coding of moving pictures

MPEG-2 is a standard for "the generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information". It describes a combination of lossy video compression and lossy audio data compression methods, which permit storage and transmission of movies using currently available storage media and transmission bandwidth. While MPEG-2 is not as efficient as newer standards such as H.264/AVC and H.265/HEVC, backwards compatibility with existing hardware and software means it is still widely used, for example in over-the-air digital television broadcasting and in the DVD-Video standard.

MPEG-4 is a method of defining compression of audio and visual (AV) digital data. It was introduced in late 1998 and designated a standard for a group of audio and video coding formats and related technology agreed upon by the ISO/IEC Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) under the formal standard ISO/IEC 14496 – Coding of audio-visual objects. Uses of MPEG-4 include compression of AV data for web and CD distribution, voice and broadcast television applications.

High-definition television (HDTV) is a television system providing an image resolution that is of substantially higher resolution than that of standard-definition television. This can be either analog or digital. HDTV is the current standard video format used in most broadcasts: terrestrial broadcast television, cable television, satellite television, Blu-rays, and streaming video.

The concept was named for its similarity to ISDN, because both allow multiple channels of data to be transmitted together (a process called multiplexing). This is also much like another digital radio system, Eureka 147, which calls each group of stations on a transmitter an ensemble; this is very much like the multi-channel digital TV standard DVB-T. ISDB-T operates on unused TV channels, an approach taken by other countries for TV but never before for radio.


The various flavors of ISDB differ mainly in the modulations used, due to the requirements of different frequency bands. The 12 GHz band ISDB-S uses PSK modulation, 2.6 GHz band digital sound broadcasting uses CDM, and ISDB-T (in VHF and/or UHF band) uses COFDM with PSK/QAM.


Besides audio and video transmission, ISDB also defines data connections (Data broadcasting) with the internet as a return channel over several media (10Base-T/100Base-T, Telephone line modem, Mobile phone, Wireless LAN (IEEE 802.11) etc.) and with different protocols. This is used, for example, for interactive interfaces like data broadcasting (ARIB STD-B24) and electronic program guides (EPG).

Interfaces and Encryption

The ISDB specification describes a lot of (network) interfaces, but most importantly the Common Interface for Conditional Access System (CAS). While ISDB has examples of implementing various kinds of CASes, in Japan CAS called "B-CAS" is used. (ARIB STD-B25) defines the Common Scrambling Algorithm (CSA) system called MULTI2 required for (de-)scrambling television.

The ISDB CAS system in Japan is operated by a company named B-CAS; the CAS card is called B-CAS card. The Japanese ISDB signal is always encrypted by the B-CAS system even if it is a free television program. That is why it is commonly called "Pay per view system without charge".[ citation needed ] An interface for mobile reception is under consideration.[ citation needed ]

ISDB supports RMP (Rights management and protection). Since all digital television (DTV) systems carry digital data content, a DVD or high-definition (HD) recorder could easily copy content losslessly. Hollywood requested copy protection; this was the main reason for RMP being mandated. The content has three modes: “copy once”, “copy free” and “copy never”. In “copy once” mode, a program can be stored on a hard disk recorder, but cannot be further copied; only moved to another copy-protected media—and this move operation will mark the content “copy one generation”, which is mandated to permanently prevent further copying. “Copy never” programming may only be timeshifted and cannot be permanently stored. In 2006 [17] , the Japanese government is evaluating using the Digital Transmission Content Protection (DTCP) "Encryption plus Non-Assertion" mechanism, to allow making multiple copies of digital content between compliant devices. [17]


There are two types of ISDB receiver: Television and set-top box. The aspect ratio of an ISDB-receiving television set is 16:9; televisions fulfilling these specs are called Hi-Vision TV. There are four TV types: Cathode ray tube (CRT), plasma display panel (PDP), organic light-emitting diode (OLED) and liquid crystal display (LCD), with LCD being the most popular Hi-Vision TV on the Japanese market nowadays.

The LCD share as measured by JEITA in November 2004 was about 60%. While PDP sets occupy the high end market with units that are over 50 inches (1270 mm), PDP and CRT set shares are about 20% each. CRT sets are considered low end for Hi-Vision. An STB is sometimes referred to as a digital tuner.[ citation needed ]

Typical middle to high-end ISDB receivers marketed in Japan have several interfaces:

Copy-protection technology

All TV broadcasters in Japan is encrypted with Copy-Once, which allows users to record to a digital medium (D-VHS, DVD, HDD, etc.) but does not allow dubbing to another digital medium. On the other hand, the "Copy-Once" technology does not prohibit all types of dubbing. It is possible to dub to an analog medium (such as standard VHS) and if recorded to an HDD, it will allow users to "Move" the contents to a D-VHS, but not copy. In contrast, 1seg digital broadcasts which are for low-bandwidth mobile reception and occupy 1/13th of a digital channel, are transmitted "in the clear" and do not carry copy protection information.

Many users are also very worried about the recent news of severe protection in the future. There are modes in ISDB that do not allow the output of signal from an Analog connector (D-connector, Component, Composite, S-Video, etc.). There are already plans to not allow analog output for "Copyright Protection" reasons. (Same as Blu-ray and HD DVD) This will make all currently sold STB Tuners, and the majority of LCD/Plasma TVs without HDMI inputs unusable. Plus all analog VHS, D-VHS that can only record via analog input, and all DVD players will also become unusable. These more limiting copy protection technologies will all start after analog broadcasting ends (when there won't be any choice for viewers). Currently, no financial assistance schemes have been announced, and viewers without proper devices will be forced to buy a new compatible TV or set top box in order to view ISDB broadcasts. Though not clear, it is said that there are also plans to protect all programs with "Copy-Never".

The copy protection on ISDB broadcasts can be circumvented with the proper hardware and software. [18]

Brazilian standard ISDB-Tb does not implement this copy protection mechanism. For other countries, there are some examples of implementing CAS system (such as verimatrix) by the operators' choice.

B-CAS card

The B-CAS card is required to decode all broadcasts in Japan. These cards are included with every digital TV or tuner at no charge. To use this card, the end user must agree to the statement written on the registration card. Despite the fact that the card must be inserted to watch TV, if the end user refuses to accept the terms/conditions contained within the statement, the user cannot watch digital broadcasts. Essentially, users are "forced" to agree with the statement. Though registration is not required, it is recommended to fully enjoy interactive programs. Unregistered B-CAS card displays a watermark in a corner of the screen, suggesting the user to register. However, many viewers worry about the leaking of personal information, and the power/rights the TV stations have to access personal information for almost every citizen in Japan. In case of loss or destruction, new B-CAS card of the same number can be issued for a fee of 2,000 yen. [19]


Typical Japanese broadcast service consists as follows:

  1. One HDTV or up to three SDTV services within one channel.
  2. Provides data broadcasting.
  3. Interactive services such as games or shopping, via telephone line or broadband internet.
  4. Equipped with an electronic program guide.
  5. Ability to send firmware patches for the TV/tuner over the air.

There are examples providing more than 10 SDTV services with H.264 coding in some countries.



Japan started digital broadcasting using the DVB-S standard by PerfecTV in October/1996, and DirecTV in December/1997, with communication satellites. Still, DVB-S did not satisfy the requirements of Japanese broadcasters, such as NHK, key commercial broadcasting stations like Nippon Television, TBS, Fuji Television, TV Asahi, TV Tokyo, and WOWOW (Movie-only Pay-TV broadcasting). Consequently, ARIB developed the ISDB-S standards. The requirements were HDTV capability, interactive services, network access and effective frequency utilization, and other technical requirements. The DVB-S standard allows the transmission of a bit stream of roughly 34 Mbit/s with a satellite transponder, which means the transponder can send one HDTV channel. Unfortunately, the NHK broadcasting satellite had only four vacant transponders, which led ARIB and NHK to develop ISDB-S: The new standard could transmit at 51 Mbit/s with a single transponder, which means that ISDB-S is 1.5 times more efficient than DVB-S and that one transponder can transmit two HDTV channels, along with other independent audio and data. Digital satellite broadcasting (BS digital) was started by NHK and followed commercial broadcasting stations on 1 December 2000. Today, SKY PerfecTV!, successor of Skyport TV, and Sky D, CS burn, Platone, EP, DirecTV, J Sky B, and PerfecTV!, adopted the ISDB-S system for use on the 110 degree (east longitude) wide-band communication satellite.

Technical specification

This table shows the summary of ISDB-S (satellite digital broadcasting).

Transmission channel codingModulationTC8PSK, QPSK, BPSK (Hierarchical transmission)
Error correction codingInner codingTrellis [TC8PSK] and Convolution
Outer coding RS (204,188)
TMCCConvolution coding+RS
Time domain multiplexing TMCC
Conditional AccessMulti-2
Data broadcastingARIB STD-B24 (BML, ECMA script)
Service informationARIB STD-B10
Multiplexing MPEG-2 Systems
Audio codingMPEG-2 Audio (AAC)
Video codingMPEG-2 Video


Frequency and channel specification of Japanese Satellites using ISDB-S

MethodBS digital broadcastingWide band CS digital broadcasting
Frequency band11.7 to 12.2 GHz12.2 to 12.75 GHz
Transmission bit rate51 Mbit/s (TC8PSK)40 Mbit/s (QPSK)
Transmission band width34.5 MHz*34.5 MHz
*Compatible with 27 MHz band satellite transponder for analog FM broadcasting.



HDTV was invented at NHK Science & Technology Research Laboratories (Japan Broadcasting Corporation's Science & Technical Research Laboratories). The research for HDTV started as early as the 1960s, though a standard was proposed to the ITU-R (CCIR) only in 1973. [20]

By the 1980s, a high definition television camera, cathode-ray tube, video tape recorder and editing equipment, among others, had been developed. In 1982 NHK developed MUSE (Multiple sub-nyquist sampling Encoding), the first HDTV video compression and transmission system. MUSE used digital video compression, but for transmission frequency modulation was used after a digital-to-analog converter converted the digital signal.

In 1987, NHK demonstrated MUSE in Washington D.C. and NAB. The demonstration made a great impression in the U.S. As a result, the U.S. developed its own ATSC terrestrial DTV system. Europe also developed their own DTV system called DVB. Japan began R&D of a completely digital system in the 1980s that led to ISDB. Japan began terrestrial digital broadcasting, using ISDB-T standard by NHK and commercial broadcasting stations, on 1 December 2003.


Treeview of ISDB-T, channels, Segments and arranging multiple program broadcasting. ISDB-T CH Seg Prog allocation.svg
Treeview of ISDB-T, channels, Segments and arranging multiple program broadcasting.

ISDB-T is characterized by the following features:


ISDB-T was adopted for commercial transmissions in Japan in December 2003. It currently comprises a market of about 100 million television sets. ISDB-T had 10 million subscribers by the end of April 2005. Along with the wide use of ISDB-T, the price of receivers is getting low. The price of ISDB-T STB in the lower end of the market is ¥19800 as of 19 April 2006. [21] By November 2007 only a few older, low-end STB models could be found in the Japanese market (average price U$180), showing a tendency towards replacement by mid to high-end equipment like PVRs and TV sets with inbuilt tuners. In November 2009, a retail chain AEON introduced STB in 40 USD, [22] followed by variety of low-cost tuners. The Dibeg web page confirms this tendency by showing low significance of the digital tuner STB market in Japan. [23]

Brazil, which currently uses an analogue TV system (PAL-M) that slightly differs from any other countries, has chosen ISDB-T as a base for its DTV format, calling it ISDB-Tb or internally SBTVD (Sistema Brasileiro de Televisão Digital-Terrestre). The Japanese DiBEG group incorporated the advancements made by Brazil -MPEG4 video codec instead of ISDB-T's MPEG2 and a powerful interaction middleware called Ginga- and has renamed the standard to "ISDB-T International". [24] Other than Argentina, Brazil, Peru, Chile and Ecuador [25] which have already selected ISDB-Tb, there are other South American countries, mainly from Mercosur, such as Venezuela, [26] that are considering ISDB-Tb, which could provide economies of scale and common market benefits from the regional South American manufacturing instead of importing ready-made STBs as is the case with the other standards. Also, it has been confirmed with extensive tests realized by Brazilian Association of Radio and Television Broadcasters (ABERT), Brazilian Television Engineering Society (SET) and Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie the insufficient quality for indoor reception presented by ATSC and, between DVB-T and ISDB-T, the latter presented superior performance in indoor reception and flexibility to access digital services and TV programs through non-mobile, mobile or portable receivers with impressive quality. [27]

The ABERT–SET group in Brazil did system comparison tests of DTV under the supervision of the CPqD foundation. The comparison tests were done under the direction of a work group of SET and ABERT. The ABERT/SET group selected ISDB-T as the best choice in digital broadcasting modulation systems among ATSC, DVB-T and ISDB-T.[ citation needed ] Another study found that ISDB-T and DVB-T performed similarly, and that both were outperformed by DVB-T2. [28]

ISDB-T was singled out as the most flexible of all for meeting the needs of mobility and portability. It is most efficient for mobile and portable reception. On June 29, 2006, Brazil announced ISDB-T-based SBTVD as the chosen standard for digital TV transmissions, to be fully implemented by 2016. By November 2007 (one month prior DTTV launch), a few suppliers started to announce zapper STBs of the new Nippon-Brazilian SBTVD-T standard, at that time without interactivity.

The implementation rollout in Brazil is proceeding successfully although some voice like Philips' say [29] that its implementation could be faster. It terms of broadcasting, the implementation plan seems to be on target. In only eight months since the start, the digital signal is present in four state capitals and by the end of 2008 another three capitals will receive the signal.

Adoption by country

This lists the countries who adopted the ISDB-T standard, chronologically arranged.

  • On April 23, 2009, Peru announced its decision to adopt ISDB-T as the digital terrestrial television standard. This decision was taken on the basis of the recommendations by the Multi-sectional Commission to assess the most appropriate standard for the country.
  • On August 28, 2009, Argentina officially adopted the ISDB-T system [30] calling it internally SATVD-T (Sistema Argentino de Televisión Digital - Terrestre). [31]
  • On September 14, 2009, Chile announced it was adopting the ISDB-T standard because it adapts better to the geographical makeup of the country, while allowing signal reception in cell phones, high-definition content delivery and a wider variety of channels. [25]
  • On October 6, 2009, Venezuela officially adopted the ISDB-T standard. [32] [33]
  • On March 26, 2010, Ecuador announced its decision to adopt ISDB-T standard. This decision was taken on the basis of the recommendations by the Superintendent of Telecommunications. [34]
  • On April 29, 2010, Costa Rica officially announced the adoption of ISDB-Tb standard based upon a commission in charge of analyzing which protocol to accept. [35]
  • On June 1, 2010, Paraguay officially adopted ISDB-T International, via a presidential decree #4483. [36]
  • On June 11, 2010, the National Telecommunications Commission of the Philippines officially adopted the ISDB-T standard. [37]
  • On July 6, 2010, Bolivia announced its decision to adopt ISDB-T standard as well.
  • On December 27, 2010, the Uruguayan Government adopts ISDB-T standard., [38] voiding a previous 2007 decree which adopted the European DVB system.
  • On November 15, 2011, the Maldivian Government adopts ISDB-T standard. [4] As the first country in the region that use European channel table and 1 channel bandwidth is 8 MHz.
  • On February 26, 2013, the Botswana government adopts ISDB-T standard. As the one of the first country within the SADC region and even the first country within the continent of Africa as a whole.
  • On May 20, 2014, Government of Sri Lanka officially announced its decision to adopt ISDB-T standard, [39] and on September 7, 2014 Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe signed an agreement with Sri Lankan President Mahinda Rajapakse for constructing infrastructure such as ISDB-T networks with a view to smooth conversion to ISDB-T, and cooperating in the field of content and developing human resources.

Technical specification

Segment structure

ARIB has developed a segment structure called BST-OFDM (see figure). ISDB-T divides the frequency band of one channel into thirteen segments. The broadcaster can select which combination of segments to use; this choice of segment structure allows for service flexibility. For example, ISDB-T can transmit both LDTV and HDTV using one TV channel or change to 3 SDTV, a switch that can be performed at any time. ISDB-T can also change the modulation scheme at the same time.

s11s 9s 7s 5s 3s 1s 0s 2s 4s 6s 8s10s12

The above figure shows the spectrum of 13 segments structure of ISDB-T.
(s0 is generally used for 1seg, s1-s12 are used for one HDTV or three SDTVs)

Summary of ISDB-T

channel coding
(Hierarchical transmission)
Error correction codingData:
Inner coding: Convolutional 7/8,5/6,3/4,2/3,1/2
Outer coding: Reed-Solomon(204,188)
Shortened code (184,102)
of Difference Cyclic Code (273,191)
Guard interval1/32,1/16,1/8,1/4
InterleavingTime, Frequency, bit, byte
Frequency domain multiplexingBST-OFDM
(Segmented structure OFDM)
Conditional AccessMulti-2
Data broadcastingARIB STD-B24 (BML, ECMA script)
Service informationARIB STD-B10
MultiplexingMPEG-2 Systems
Audio codingMPEG-2 Audio (AAC)
Video codingMPEG-2 VideoMPEG-4 AVC /H.264*
  • H.264 Baseline profile is used in one segment (1seg) broadcasting for portables and Mobile phone.
  • H.264 High-profile is used in ISDB-Tb to high definition broadcasts.


Specification of Japanese terrestrial digital broadcasting using ISDB-T.

MethodTerrestrial digital broadcasting
Frequency bandVHF/UHF, super high band
Transmission bit rate23 Mbit/s(64QAM)
Transmission band width5.6 MHz*

2.6 GHz Mobile satellite digital audio/video broadcasting

MobaHo! is the name of the services that uses the Mobile satellite digital audio broadcasting specifications. MobaHo! started its service on 20 October 2004. Ended on 31 March 2009


ISDB-Tsb is the terrestrial digital sound broadcasting specification. The technical specification is the same as ISDB-T. ISDB-Tsb supports the coded transmission of OFDM siginals.


ISDB-C is cable digital broadcasting specification. The technical specification J.83/C is developed by JCTEA. ISDB-C is identical to DVB-C but has a different channel bandwidth of 6MHz (instead of 8MHz) and roll-off factor. [40]


ISDB-Tmm (Terrestrial mobile multi-media) utilised suitable number of segments by station with video coding MPEG-4 AVC/H.264. With multiple channels, ISDB-Tmm served dedicated channels such as sport, movie, music channels and others with CD quality sound, allowing for better broadcast quality as compared to 1seg. This service used the VHF band, 207.5–222 MHz which began to be utilised after Japan's switchover to digital television in July 2011.

Japan's Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications licensed to mmbi, Inc. or Multimedia Broadcasting, Inc( マルチメディア放送 ,Maruchi Medhia Hōsō) for ISDB-Tmm method on September 9, 2010. [41] [42] [43] The MediaFLO method offered with KDDI was not licensed. [44]

The ISDB-Tmm broadcasting service by mmbi, Inc. is named モバキャス (pronounced mobakyasu), literally short form of mobile casting on July 14, 2011, and had been branded as NOTTV since October 4, 2011. The Minister of Internal Affairs and Communications approved the start of operations of NOTTV on October 13, 2011. [45] Planning the service with monthly subscription fee of 420 yen for south Kanto Plain, Aichi, Osaka, Kyoto and some other prefectures from April 1, 2012. The deployment plan was to cover approximately 73% of households by the end of 2012, approximately 91% by the end of 2014, and 125 stations or repeaters to be installed in 2016 to cover cities nationwide. [46] [47] Android smartphones and tablets with ISDB-Tmm receiving capability were also sold mainly by NTT DoCoMo, although a separate tuner (TV BoX manufactured by Huawei; or StationTV manufactured by Pixela) could be purchased for iPhones and iPads as well as Android smartphones and tablets sold by au by KDDI and SoftBank Mobile to receive ISDB-Tmm broadcasts.

Due to the continued unprofitability of NOTTV, mmbi, Inc. shut down the service on June 30, 2016. [48]


ARIB and JCTEA developed the following standards. Some part of standards are located on the pages of ITU-R and ITU-T.

Satellite television
Satellite television
Terrestrial televisionSatellite SoundTerrestrial SoundCable television
Nickname-ISDB-SISDB-T2.6 GHz mobile broadcastingISDB-Tsb64QAM, Trans-modulation (ISDB-C)
-ITU-R BO.1408ITU-R BT.1306-1-ITU-R BS.1114ITU-T J.83 Annex C, J.183
Server type broadcasting-ARIB STD-B38-
Conditional access-ARIB STD-B25 (Multi-2)JCTEA STD-001
Service information-ARIB STD-B10JCTEA STD-003
Data broadcasting-ARIB STD-B24 (BML), ARIB STD-B23 (EE or MHP like)-
Video/Audio compression and multiplexingMPEG-2ARIB STD-B32 (MPEG)-
Technical report-ARIB TR-B13ARIB TR-B14---

Table of terrestrial HDTV transmission systems

Table 1: Main characteristics of three DTTB systems
Source coding
VideoMain profile syntax of ISO/IEC 13818-2 (MPEG-2 - video)
AudioATSC Standard A/52 (Dolby AC-3)ISO/IEC 13818-2 (MPEG-2 layer II audio) and Dolby AC-3ISO/IEC 13818-7 (MPEG-2 AAC audio)
Transmission system
Channel coding-
Outer codingR-S (207, 187, t = 10)R-S (204, 188, t = 8)
Outer interleaver52 R-S block interleaver12 R-S block interleaver
Inner codingRate 2/3 trellis codePunctured convolution code: Rate 1/2, 2/3,3/4, 5/6, 7/8 Constraint length = 7, Polynomials (octal) = 171, 133
Inner interleaver12 to 1 trellis code interleaverBit-wise interleaving and frequency interleavingBit-wise interleaving, frequency interleaving and selectable time interleaving
Data randomization16-bit PRBS
Modulation8-VSB and 16-VSBCOFDM
QPSK, 16QAM and 64QAM
Hierarchical modulation: multi-resolution constellation (16QAM and 64 QAM)
Guard interval: 1/32, 1/16, 1/8 & 1/4 of OFDM symbol
2 modes: 2k and 8k FFT
BST-COFDM with 13 frequency segments
Hierarchical modulation: choice of three different modulations on each segment
Guard interval: 1/32, 1/16, 1/8 & 1/4 of OFDM symbol
3 modes: 2k, 4k and 8k FFT

See also

General category

Transmission technology

Related Research Articles

Terrestrial television television content transmitted via signals in the air

Terrestrial television is a type of television broadcasting in which the television signal is transmitted by radio waves from the terrestrial (Earth-based) transmitter of a television station to a TV receiver having an antenna. The term terrestrial is more common in Europe and Latin America, while in the United States it is called broadcast or over-the-air television (OTA). The term "terrestrial" is used to distinguish this type from the newer technologies of satellite television, in which the television signal is transmitted to the receiver from an overhead satellite, and cable television, in which the signal is carried to the receiver through a cable.

DVB-T is an abbreviation for "Digital Video Broadcasting — Terrestrial"; it is the DVB European-based consortium standard for the broadcast transmission of digital terrestrial television that was first published in 1997 and first broadcast in the UK in 1998. This system transmits compressed digital audio, digital video and other data in an MPEG transport stream, using coded orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing modulation. It is also the format widely used worldwide for Electronic News Gathering for transmission of video and audio from a mobile newsgathering vehicle to a central receive point.

Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) standards are a set of standards for digital television transmission over terrestrial, cable, and satellite networks. It is largely a replacement for the analog NTSC standard, and like that standard, used mostly in the United States, Mexico and Canada. Other former users of NTSC, like Japan, have not used ATSC during their digital television transition because they adopted their own system called ISDB.

Digital terrestrial television is a technology for broadcast television in which land-based (terrestrial) television stations broadcast television content by radio waves to televisions in consumers' residences in a digital format. DTTV is a major technological advance over the previous analog television, and has largely replaced analog which had been in common use since the middle of the 20th century. Test broadcasts began in 1998 with the changeover to DTTV beginning in 2006 and is now complete in many countries. The advantages of digital terrestrial television are similar to those obtained by digitising platforms such as cable TV, satellite, and telecommunications: more efficient use of limited radio spectrum bandwidth, provision of more television channels than analog, better quality images, and potentially lower operating costs for broadcasters.


B-CAS is a vendor and operator of the ISDB CAS system in Japan, largely owned by the public broadcaster NHK with some other electronics companies and broadcasters airing in BSAT. Or, the reception method that this company offers.

1seg is a mobile terrestrial digital audio/video and data broadcasting service in Japan, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Uruguay, Peru and the Philippines. Service began experimentally during 2005 and commercially on April 1, 2006. It is designed as a component of ISDB-T, the terrestrial digital broadcast system used in those countries, as each channel is divided into 13 segments, with a further segment separating it from the next channel; an HDTV broadcast signal occupies 12 segments, leaving the remaining (13th) segment for mobile receivers, hence the name, "1seg" or "One Seg".

ISDB-T International, ISDB-Tb or SBTVD, short for Sistema Brasileiro de Televisão Digital, is a technical standard for digital television broadcast used in Brazil, Argentina, Peru, Botswana, Chile, Honduras, Venezuela, Ecuador, Costa Rica, Paraguay, Philippines, Bolivia, Nicaragua, El Salvador and Uruguay, based on the Japanese ISDB-T standard. ISDB-T International launched into commercial operation on December 2, 2007, in São Paulo, Brazil, as SBTVD.


MediaFLO was a technology developed by Qualcomm for transmitting audio, video and data to portable devices such as mobile phones and personal televisions, used for mobile television. In the United States, the service powered by this technology was branded as FLO TV.

Analog high-definition television was an analog video broadcast television system developed in the 1930s to replace early experimental systems with as few as 12-lines. On 2 November 1936 the BBC began transmitting the world's first public regular analog high-definition television service from the Victorian Alexandra Palace in north London. It therefore claims to be the birthplace of television broadcasting as we know it today. John Logie Baird, Philo T. Farnsworth, and Vladimir Zworykin had each developed competing TV systems, but resolution was not the issue that separated their substantially different technologies, it was patent interference lawsuits and deployment issues given the tumultuous financial climate of the late 1920s and 1930s.

DVB-T2 is an abbreviation for "Digital Video Broadcasting — Second Generation Terrestrial"; it is the extension of the television standard DVB-T, issued by the consortium DVB, devised for the broadcast transmission of digital terrestrial television. DVB has been standardized by ETSI.

China Mobile Multimedia Broadcasting (CMMB) is a mobile television and multimedia standard developed and specified in China by the State Administration of Radio, Film, and Television (SARFT). It is based on the Satellite and Terrestrial Interactive Multiservice Infrastructure (STiMi), developed by TiMiTech, a company formed by the Chinese Academy of Broadcasting Science. Announced in October 2006, it has been described as being similar to Europe's DVB-SH standard for digital video broadcast from both satellites and terrestrial repeaters to handheld devices.

In the Philippines, digital terrestrial television (DTT) services are in development by the major broadcasting companies of the Philippines.

Analog television in Uruguay had a history of more than 50 years since it began in 1956, with the first television channel, Channel 10. Since then Uruguay counts with three other channels, Channel 12 Teledoce, Channel 4 Monte Carlo TV and Television Nacional Uruguay

ABNT NBR 15601

ABNT NBR 15601 is the technical standard published by ABNT, the Brazilian Association of Technical Standards, that is responsible for addressing the aspects regarding transmission on the Brazilian Digital Terrestrial Television Standards, also known as SBTVD or ISDB-T version B.

ABS-CBN TV Plus set-top box

ABS-CBN TV Plus is an encrypted digital terrestrial television provider owned and operated by ABS-CBN Convergence, a subsidiary of ABS-CBN. The service distributes digital set-top boxes, as well as freemium and free-to-view digital TV channels, Broadcast Markup Language, Emergency Warning Broadcast system, and pay per view services to select areas in the Philippines. In order to avail the service, users must buy an ABS-CBN TVplus set-top box and activate it through ABS-CBNmobile SIM. As of February 2019, ABS-CBN TVplus has sold over 7 million units of its set-top boxes.

Truth Channel

Truth Channel, formerly known as Ang Dating Daan Television (ADDTV) is a Philippine religious television network.


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