Fourth generation of video game consoles

Last updated

Video-Game-Controller-Icon-IDV-green-history.svg
Part of a series on the
History of video games

In the history of computer and video games, the fourth generation (more commonly referred to as the 16-bit era) of game consoles began on October 30, 1987 with the Japanese release of NEC Home Electronics' PC Engine (known as the TurboGrafx-16 in North America). Although NEC released the first console of this era, sales were mostly dominated by the rivalry between Nintendo's and Sega's consoles in North America: the Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES; the Super Famicom in Japan) and the Sega Genesis (named the Mega Drive in other regions). Handheld systems released during this time include the Nintendo Game Boy, released in 1989, and the Sega Game Gear, first released in 1990.

TurboGrafx-16 video game console

The TurboGrafx-16, known in Japan and France as the PC Engine, is a cartridge based home video game console manufactured and marketed by NEC Home Electronics, and designed by Hudson Soft. It was released in Japan on October 30, 1987 and in the United States on August 29, 1989. It also had a limited release in the United Kingdom and Spain in 1990, known as simply TurboGrafx and based on the American model, while the Japanese model was imported and distributed in France in 1989. It was the first console released in the 16-bit era, although it used an 8-bit CPU. Originally intended to compete with the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES), it ended up competing with the Sega Genesis, and later on the Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES).

Nintendo Japanese video game company

Nintendo Co., Ltd. is a Japanese multinational consumer electronics and video game company headquartered in Kyoto. Nintendo is one of the world's largest video game companies by market capitalization, creating some of the best-known and top-selling video game franchises of all-time, such as Mario, The Legend of Zelda, and Pokémon.

Sega Japanese video game developer and publisher and subsidiary of Sega Sammy Holdings

Sega Games Co., Ltd. is a Japanese multinational video game developer and publisher headquartered in Tokyo. Its international branches, Sega of America and Sega Europe, are respectively headquartered in Irvine, California and London. Sega's arcade division, once part of Sega Corporation, has existed as Sega Interactive Co., Ltd. since 2015. Both companies are subsidiaries of Sega Holdings Co., Ltd., which is in turn a part of Sega Sammy Holdings.

Contents

Nintendo was able to capitalize on its success in the previous, third generation, and managed to win the largest worldwide market share in the fourth generation as well. Sega, however, was extremely successful in this generation and began a new franchise, Sonic the Hedgehog, to compete with Nintendo's Super Mario series of games. Several other companies released consoles in this generation, but none of them were widely successful. Nevertheless, there were other companies that started to take notice of the maturing video game industry and begin making plans to release consoles of their own in the future.

<i>Sonic the Hedgehog</i> Video game series

Sonic the Hedgehog is a media franchise owned by Sega, centering on a series of high-speed platform games. Sonic, the protagonist, is an anthropomorphic blue hedgehog with supersonic speed. Typically, Sonic must stop antagonist Doctor Eggman's plans for world domination, often helped by his friends, such as Tails, Amy, and Knuckles.

The video game industry is the economic sector involved in the development, marketing, and monetization of video games. It encompasses dozens of job disciplines and its component parts employ thousands of people worldwide.

The emergence of fifth generation video game consoles, circa 1994, did not significantly diminish the popularity of fourth generation consoles for a few years. In 1996, however, there was a major drop in sales of hardware from this generation and a dwindling number of software publishers supporting fourth generation systems, [1] which together led to a drop in software sales in subsequent years. Finally, this generation ended with the discontinuation of the Neo Geo in 2004.

Neo Geo (system) cartridge-based arcade system board and home video game console

The Neo Geo, stylised as NEO・GEO, also written as NEOGEO, is a cartridge-based arcade system board and fourth-generation home video game console released on April 26, 1990, by Japanese game company SNK Corporation. It was the first system in SNK's Neo Geo family. The Neo Geo was marketed as 24-bit; its CPU is technically a 16/32-bit 68000-based system with an 8/16-bit Z80 coprocessor, while its GPU chipset has a 24-bit graphics data bus.

Differences from third generation consoles

Some features that distinguish fourth generation consoles from third generation consoles include:

In computer architecture, 16-bit integers, memory addresses, or other data units are those that are 16 bits wide. Also, 16-bit CPU and ALU architectures are those that are based on registers, address buses, or data buses of that size. 16-bit microcomputers are computers in which 16-bit microprocessors were the norm.

Microprocessor Computer processor contained on an integrated-circuit chip

A microprocessor is a computer processor that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit on a single integrated circuit (IC), or at most a few integrated circuits. The microprocessor is a multipurpose, clock driven, register based, digital integrated circuit that accepts binary data as input, processes it according to instructions stored in its memory and provides results as output. Microprocessors contain both combinational logic and sequential digital logic. Microprocessors operate on numbers and symbols represented in the binary number system.

Game controller Device used with games or entertainment systems

A game controller, or simply controller, is an input device used with video games or entertainment systems to provide input to a video game, typically to control an object or character in the game. Before the seventh generation of video game consoles, plugging in a controller into one of a console's controller ports were the primary means of using a game controller, although since then they have been replaced by wireless controllers, which do not require controller ports on the console but are battery-powered. USB game controllers could also be connected to a computer with a USB port. Input devices that have been classified as game controllers include keyboards, mouses, gamepads, joysticks, etc. Special purpose devices, such as steering wheels for driving games and light guns for shooting games, are also game controllers.

Additionally, in specific cases, fourth generation hardware featured:

2.5D simulation of the appearance of being three-dimensional

The two-and-a-half-dimensional perspective is either 2D graphical projections and similar techniques used to cause images or scenes to simulate the appearance of being three-dimensional (3D) when in fact they are not, or gameplay in an otherwise three-dimensional video game that is restricted to a two-dimensional plane with a limited access to the third dimension. By contrast, games using 3D computer graphics without such restrictions are said to use true 3D.

3D computer graphics graphics that use a three-dimensional representation of geometric data

3D computer graphics or three-dimensional computer graphics, are graphics that use a three-dimensional representation of geometric data that is stored in the computer for the purposes of performing calculations and rendering 2D images. Such images may be stored for viewing later or displayed in real-time.

CD-ROM pre-pressed compact disc containing computer data

A CD-ROM is a pre-pressed optical compact disc that contains data. Computers can read—but not write to or erase—CD-ROMs, i.e. it is a type of read-only memory.

Home systems

TurboGrafx-16

TurboGrafx-16 TurboGrafx16-Console-Set.jpg
TurboGrafx-16

The PC Engine was the result of a collaboration between Hudson Soft and NEC and launched in Japan on October 30, 1987, under the name PC Engine. It launched in North America on August 29, 1989.

Initially, the PC Engine was quite successful in Japan, partly due to titles available on the then-new CD-ROM format. NEC released a CD add-on in 1990 and by 1992 had released a combination TurboGrafx and CD-ROM system known as the TurboDuo.

In the United States, NEC used Bonk, a head-banging caveman, as their mascot and featured him in most of the TurboGrafx advertising from 1990 to 1994. The platform was well received initially, especially in larger markets, but failed to make inroads into the smaller metropolitan areas where NEC did not have as many store representatives or as focused in-store promotion.

The TurboGrafx-16 failed to maintain its sales momentum or to make a strong impact in North America. [2] The TurboGrafx-16 and its CD combination system, the Turbo Duo, ceased manufacturing in North America by 1994, though a small amount of software continued to trickle out for the platform.

Mega Drive/Genesis

Second version of the Sega Genesis Sega-Genesis-Mk2-6button.jpg
Second version of the Sega Genesis

The Mega Drive was released in Japan on October 29, 1988. [3] The console was released in New York City and Los Angeles on August 14, 1989 under the name Sega Genesis, and in the rest of North America later that year. [4] It was launched in Europe and Australia on November 30, 1990 under its original name.

Sega built their marketing campaign around their new mascot Sonic the Hedgehog, [5] pushing the Genesis as the "cooler" alternative to Nintendo's console [6] and inventing the term "Blast Processing" to suggest that the Genesis was capable of handling games with faster motion than the SNES. [7] Their advertising was often directly adversarial, leading to commercials such as "Genesis does what Nintendon't" and the "'SEGA!' scream". [8]

When the arcade game Mortal Kombat was ported for home release on the Genesis and Super Nintendo Entertainment System, Nintendo decided to censor the game's gore, but Sega kept the content in the game, via a code entered at the start screen. Sega's version of Mortal Kombat received generally more favorable reviews in the gaming press and outsold the SNES version three to one. This also led to Congressional hearings to investigate the marketing of violent video games to children, and to the creation of the Interactive Digital Software Association and the Entertainment Software Rating Board. [9] Sega concluded that the superior sales of their version of Mortal Kombat were outweighed by the resulting loss in consumer trust, and cancelled the game's release in Spain to avoid further controversy. [10] With the new ESRB rating system in place, Nintendo reconsidered its position for the release of Mortal Kombat II , and this time became the preferred version among reviewers. [11] [12] The Toy Retail Sales Tracking Service reported that during the key shopping month of November 1994, 63% of all 16-bit video game consoles sold were Sega systems. [13]

The console was never popular in Japan (being regularly outsold by the PC Engine), but still managed to sell 40 million units worldwide. By late 1995, Sega was supporting five different consoles and two add-ons, and Sega Enterprises chose to discontinue the Mega Drive in Japan to concentrate on the new Sega Saturn. [14] While this made perfect sense for the Japanese market, it was disastrous in North America: the market for Genesis games was much larger than for the Saturn, but Sega was left without the inventory or software to meet demand. [15]

Super NES

The North American version of the Super NES (first model). SNES-Mod1-Console-Set.jpg
The North American version of the Super NES (first model).

Nintendo executives were initially reluctant to design a new system, but as the market transitioned to the newer hardware, Nintendo saw the erosion of the commanding market share it had built up with the Nintendo Entertainment System. [16] Nintendo's fourth-generation console, the Super Famicom, was released in Japan on November 21, 1990; Nintendo's initial shipment of 300,000 units sold out within hours. [17] The machine reached North America as the Super Nintendo Entertainment System on August 23, 1991, [cn 1] and Europe and Australia in April 1992.

Despite stiff competition from the Mega Drive/Genesis console, the Super NES eventually took the top selling position, selling 49.10 million units worldwide, [24] and would remain popular well into the fifth generation of consoles. [25] Nintendo's market position was defined by their machine's increased video and sound capabilities, [26] as well as exclusive first-party franchise titles such as F-Zero , Starfox , Donkey Kong Country , Super Mario Kart , Super Mario World , The Legend of Zelda: A Link to the Past and Super Metroid .

Compact Disc Interactive (CD-i)

Philips CD-i Philips-CDi-220-wController-FL.jpg
Philips CD-i

The CD-i format was announced in the late '80s, with the first machines compatible with the format being released in 1991. The Phillips CD-i's main selling point was that it was more than a game machine and could be used for multimedia needs. Due to an agreement between Nintendo in Philips about an abortive CD add-on for the SNES, Philips also had rights to use some of Nintendo franchises. The CD-i was a commercial failure and was discontinued in 1998, selling only 1 million units worldwide despite several partnerships and multiple versions of the device, some made by other manufacturers.

Neo Geo

Neo-Geo Neo-Geo-AES-FL.png
Neo-Geo

Released by SNK in 1990, the Neo Geo was a home console version of the major arcade platform. Compared to its console competition, the Neo Geo had much better graphics and sound, however the prohibitively expensive launch price of US$649.99 and games often retailing at over $250 made the console only accessible to a niche market. A less expensive version, retailing for $399.99, did not include a memory card, pack-in game or extra joystick.

Add-ons

Nintendo, NEC and Sega also competed with hardware peripherals for their consoles in this generation. NEC was the first with the release of the TurboGrafx CD system in 1990. Retailing for $499.99 at release, the CD add-on was not a popular purchase, but was largely responsible for the platform's success in Japan. [27] The Sega CD was released with an unusually high price tag ($300 at its release) and a limited library of games. A unique add-on for the Sega console was Sega Channel, a subscription-based service (a form of online gaming delivery) hosted by local television providers. It required hardware that plugged into a cable line and the Genesis.

Nintendo also made two attempts with the Satellaview and the Super Game Boy. The Satellaview was a satellite service released only in Japan and the Super Game Boy was an adapter for the SNES that allowed Game Boy games to be displayed on a TV in color. Nintendo, working along with Sony, also had plans to create a CD-ROM drive for the SNES (plans that resulted in a prototype version of the Sony PlayStation), but eventually decided not to go through with that project, opting to team up with Philips in the development of the add-on instead (contrary to popular belief, the CD-i was largely unrelated to the project).

European and Australian importing

green - NTSC
blue - PAL, or switching to PAL
orange - SECAM
olive - no information PAL-NTSC-SECAM.svg
green – NTSC
blue – PAL, or switching to PAL
orange – SECAM
olive – no information

The fourth generation was also the era when the act of buying imported US games became more established in Europe, and regular stores began to carry them. The PAL region has a refresh rate of 50 Hz (compared with 60 Hz for NTSC) and a vertical resolution of 625 interlaced lines (576 effective), compared with 525/480 for NTSC. This means that a game designed for the NTSC standard without any modification would run 17% slower and have black bars at the top and bottom when played on a PAL television.[ further explanation needed ] Developers often had a hard time converting games designed for the American and Japanese NTSC standard to the European and Australian PAL standard. Companies such as Konami, with large budgets and a healthy following in Europe and Australia, readily optimized several games (such as the International Superstar Soccer series) for this audience, while most smaller developers did not.

Also, few RPGs were released in Europe because the market for the genre was not as large as in Japan or North America, and the increasing amount of time and money required for translation as RPGs became more text-heavy, in addition to the usual need to convert the games to the PAL standard, often made localizing the games to Europe a high-cost venture with little potential payoff. [28] [29] As a result, RPG releases in Europe were largely limited to games which had previously been localized for North America, thus reducing the amount of translation required. [29]

Popular US games imported at this time included Final Fantasy IV (known in the USA as Final Fantasy II), Final Fantasy VI (known in the USA as Final Fantasy III), Secret of Mana , Street Fighter II , Chrono Trigger , and Super Mario RPG . Secret of Mana and Street Fighter II would eventually receive official release in Europe.

Comparison

Name TurboGrafx-16 Mega Drive/Genesis Super NES Neo Geo
Manufacturer NEC, Hudson Soft Sega Nintendo SNK
Console PC-Engine-Console-Set.png
TurboGrafx-16-Console.jpg
Sega-Mega-Drive-JP-Mk1-Console-Set.png
Sega-Genesis-Mk2-6button.jpg
Nintendo-Super-Famicom-Set-FL.png
SNES-Mod1-Console-Set.png
Neo-Geo-AES-Console-Set.png
Launch prices (USD)US$199.99 (equivalent to $404in 2018)US$189.99 (equivalent to $384in 2018)US$199.99 (equivalent to $368in 2018)US$649.99 (Gold version) (equivalent to $1,196in 2018)

US$399.99 (Silver version) (equivalent to $736in 2018)

Release date
  • JP: October 30, 1987
  • NA: August 29, 1989
  • EU: 1990
  • JP: October 29, 1988
  • NA: August 14, 1989
  • EU: November 30, 1990
  • JP: November 21, 1990
  • NA: August 23, 1991 [cn 1]
  • EU: April 11, 1992
  • JP: June 18, 1991
  • NA: June 18, 1991
  • EU: 1991
Media
  • Cartridge
  • Cartridge
  • Data card (Japan/Europe) [30]
Best-selling games Bonk's Adventure [31] Sonic the Hedgehog (15 million) [32] Super Mario World , 20 million (as of June 25, 2007) [33] Samurai Shodown (video game)
Backward compatibility N/A Master System (using Power Base Converter) Nintendo Entertainment System (unlicensed, using Super 8)

Game Boy (using Super Game Boy)

N/A
Accessories (retail)
CPU

Add-ons:

SA-1 enhancement chip:

  • Nintendo custom 65C816
    10.74 MHz (4.5 MIPS)
GPU
  • Hudson Soft HuC6260 Video Color Encoder (16-bit)
  • Hudson Soft HuC6270A Video Display Controller (16-bit)

SuperGrafx:

  • HuC6260
  • 2× HuC6270A
  • HuC6202 Video Priority Controller

Upgrades:

Enhancement chips:

  • SNK LSPC2-A2 (line sprite generator & VRAM interface) [46]
  • SNK PRO-B0 (palette arbiter) [47] [48]
Sound chip(s)

CD add-on:

Add-ons:

Sony APU (Audio Processing Unit)
  • S-SMP (8-bit Sony SPC700)
  • S-DSP (16-bit DSP)
Yamaha YM2610
RAM

Upgrades:

  • CD add-on: 64 KB main DRAM, 64 KB audio DRAM
  • Super System Card add-on: 64 KB DRAM, 192 KB SRAM
  • Super CD add-on: 256 KB SRAM, 64 KB DRAM, 2 KB Back-up SRAM
  • Arcade Duo Card add-on: 2048 KB FPM DRAM, 192 KB SRAM [50]
  • Arcade Pro Card add-on: 2240 KB+192 kB
  • SuperGrafx: 32 KB main, 128 KB video RAM
  • Duo: 256 KB SRAM, 64 KB Video RAM, 8 KB Work Ram

Upgrades:

  • SVP chip: 128 KB DRAM, 2 KB cache, 1 KB DSP RAM [53]
  • CD add-on: 512 KB main, 256 KB Video, 64 KB Audio, 16 KB cache, 8 KB Internal Back-up [54]
  • CD BackUp Ram Carts: 8 KB to 512 KB [34]
  • 32X add-on: 256 KB main RAM, 256 KB video RAM
  • 128 KB main DRAM
  • 64 KB video SRAM
  • 64 KB audio PSRAM

Enhancement chips:

  • SA-1: 2 KB RAM
  • Super FX: 32 to 128 KB SRAM [45]
  • Super FX 2: 64 to 128 KB SRAM [45]
  • 64 KB main SRAM
  • 74 KB video SRAM
  • 2 KB audio SRAM [46]
Video

Upgrades:

Upgrades:

  • Resolution: 256×224 to 256×239 (progressive), 512×448 to 512×478 (interlaced)
  • Sprites: 128 on screen, 32 per scanline, 8×8 to 64×64 sizes, 16 colors per sprite, sprite flipping [42]
  • Tilemaps: 2–4 parallax scrolling planes (lo-res), or 1–2 scrolling planes (hi-res), or 1 scaling/rotating plane (Mode 7) [42]
  • Colors on screen: 256 (1–3 lo-res planes), 128 (4 planes), 128 to 160 (hi-res) [42]
  • Color palette: 32,768 (15-bit high color)

Enhancement chips:

  • Super FX: 2,000 flat shading polygons/sec, 1,000 texture mapping polygons/sec [66]
  • Super FX 2: 4,000 flat shading polygons/sec, 2,000 texture mapping polygons/sec
  • Capcom Cx4: Sprite rotation/Calculations for wireframe effects
  • DSP-1: Advance Scaling and Rotation via Mode 7
  • DSP-2: Dynamic Scaling Capability and Transparency effects
  • DSP-3: Bitstream decompression, and bitplane conversion of graphics
  • DSP-4: Draw Distance
Audio

CD add-on:

Stereo audio with:

Upgrades:

  • SVP chip: 2 PWM channels [39]
  • CD add-on: 8 PCM channels (16-bit, 32 kHz), [40] 1 streaming CD-DA channel (16-bit, 44.1 kHz)
  • 32X add-on: 10-bit PWM, surround sound
Stereo audio with: Stereo audio with:
  • 4 FM synthesis channels/voices
  • 3 square wave channels/voices
  • 1 white noise generator
  • 6 ADPCM channels (12-bit) @ 18.5 kHz sampling rate [72]
  • 1 ADPCM channel (16-bit) @ 1.8 to 55.5 kHz sampling rate [72]

CD Supported consoles

Worldwide sales standings

ConsoleUnits sold
Super Nintendo Entertainment System 49.1 million [74]
Mega Drive/Genesis 35.25 million [cn 2]
TurboGrafx-16 10 million [80]
Philips CD-i 1 million [81]
Neo Geo AES 980,000 [82]

Handheld systems

The first handheld game console released in the fourth generation was the Game Boy, on April 21, 1989. It went on to dominate handheld sales by an extremely large margin, despite featuring a low-contrast, unlit monochrome screen while all three of its leading competitors had color. Three major franchises made their debut on the Game Boy: Tetris , the Game Boy's killer application; Pokémon; and Kirby. With some design (Game Boy Pocket, Game Boy Light) and hardware (Game Boy Color) changes, it continued in production in some form until 2008, enjoying a better than 18-year run.

The Atari Lynx included hardware-accelerated color graphics, a backlight, and the ability to link up to sixteen units together in an early example of network play when its competitors could only link 2 or 4 consoles (or none at all), [83] but its comparatively short battery life (approximately 4.5 hours on a set of alkaline cells, versus 35 hours for the Game Boy), high price, and weak games library made it one of the worst-selling handheld game systems of all time, with less than 500,000 units sold. [84] [85]

The third major handheld of the fourth generation was the Game Gear. It featured graphics capabilities roughly comparable to the Master System (better colours, but lower resolution), a ready made games library by using the "Master-Gear" adaptor to play cartridges from the older console, and the opportunity to be converted into a portable TV using a cheap tuner adaptor, but it also suffered some of the same shortcomings as the Lynx. While it sold more than twenty times as many units as the Lynx, its bulky design – slightly larger than even the original Game Boy; relatively poor battery life – only a little better than the Lynx; and later arrival in the marketplace – competing for sales amongst the remaining buyers who didn't already have a Game Boy – hampered its overall popularity despite being more closely competitive to the Nintendo in terms of price and breadth of software library. [86] Sega eventually retired the Game Gear in 1997, a year before Nintendo released the first examples of the Game Boy Color, to focus on the Nomad and non-portable console products.

Other handheld consoles released during the fourth generation included the TurboExpress, a handheld version of the TurboGrafx-16 released by NEC in 1990, and the Game Boy Pocket, an improved model of the Game Boy released about two years before the debut of the Game Boy Color. While the TurboExpress was another early pioneer of color handheld gaming technology and had the added benefit of using the same game cartridges or 'HuCards' as the TurboGrafx16, it had even worse battery life than the Lynx and Game Gear – about three hours on six contemporary AA batteries – selling only 1.5 million units. [85]

List of handheld consoles

Console Game Boy Atari Lynx Game Gear TurboExpress
Manufacturer Nintendo Atari Sega NEC
Image Game-Boy-FL.png Atari-Lynx-I-Handheld.png Sega-Game-Gear-WB.png NEC-TurboExpress-Upright-FL.png
Launch price¥12,500 [87]
US$89.95 (equivalent to $179.89 in 2019) [88]
US$189.99 (equivalent to $382.01 in 2019)¥14,500
US$149.99 (equivalent to $274.08 in 2019)
A$155 (equivalent to $249.00 in 2019)
US$299.99 (equivalent to $550.01 in 2019) [89]
Release date Flag of Japan.svg April 21, 1989
Flag of the United States.svg July 31, 1989
Flag of Europe.svg 1990
Flag of the United States.svg October 11, 1989
Flag of Europe.svg 1990
Flag of Japan.svg 1990
Flag of Japan.svg October 6, 1990
Flag of Europe.svg April 26, 1991
Flag of the United States.svg April 26, 1991
Flag of Australia (converted).svg 1992
Flag of Japan.svg December 1, 1990 [90]
Flag of the United States.svg 1991
Units sold 118.69 million, [91] including Game Boy Color units [92] 0.5 million [85] 11 million [85] 1.5 million [85]
MediaCartridgeCartridgeCartridgeDatacard
Best-selling games Tetris , 35 million (pack-in / separately). [93]

Pokémon Red, Blue, and Green, approximately 20.08 million combined (in Japan and the US) (details). [94] [95]

RoadBlasters Sonic the Hedgehog 2 Bonk's Adventure
Backward compatibility N/A (Original Cartridges compatible with later models)N/A Master System (using Cartridge Adapter) TurboGrafx-16 (HuCard only)
CPU Sharp LR35902
4.19 MHz
MOS 65SC02
4 MHz maximum, average 3.6 MHz
"Suzy", custom CMOS chip
16 MHz
Zilog Z80
3.5 MHz
HuC6280A (modified 65SC02)
1.79 or 7.16 MHz
Memory8 KiB internal S-RAM, up to 32 KiB
8 KiB internal video RAM
64 KiB DRAM8 KiB main RAM
16 KiB video RAM
8 KiB work RAM
64 KiB video RAM
Video2.6 inch
160x144
4 shades of olive green
3.5 inch
160x102
16 simultaneous colors per scanline; can be increased by changing palettes after each scanline
4096 color palette
3.2 inch
160x144
32 simultaneous colors
4096 color palette
2.6 inch
400x270
64 sprites, 16 per scanline
482 simultaneous colors (241 each for backgrounds and sprites)
512 color palette
AudioStereo audio (using headphones), with:
  • Two square wave voices
  • One programmable WS voice
  • One white noise generator
  • Optional sampling through the WS channel
Stereo audio with:
  • Four square wave voices
  • A built-in DAC for each channel
Stereo audio (using headphones), with:
  • Three square wave voices
  • One white noise generator
Stereo audio (using headphones), with:
  • Six programmable WS voices
  • White noise generation
  • Optional streaming of samples

Other

Software

Milestone titles

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 According to Stephen Kent's The Ultimate History of Video Games, the official launch date was September 9. [18] Newspaper and magazine articles from late 1991 report that the first shipments were in stores in some regions on August 23, [19] [20] while it arrived in other regions at a later date. [21] Many modern online sources (circa 2005 and later) report August 13. [22] [23]
  2. 30.75 million sold by Sega worldwide as of June 1996. [75] [76] 1.5 million projected by Majesco Entertainment of the Genesis 3 in 1998. [77] 3 million sold by Tectoy in Brazil as of 2012. [78] [79]

Related Research Articles

Handheld game console lightweight, portable electronic device used for gaming

A handheld game console, or simply handheld console, is a small, portable self-contained video game console with a built-in screen, game controls, and speakers. Handheld game consoles are smaller than home video game consoles and contain the console, screen, speakers, and controls in one unit, allowing people to carry them and play them at any time or place.

Super Nintendo Entertainment System home video game console developed by Nintendo

The Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES), also known as the Super NES or Super Nintendo, is a 16-bit home video game console developed by Nintendo that was released in 1990 in Japan and South Korea, 1991 in North America, 1992 in Europe and Australasia (Oceania), and 1993 in South America. In Japan, the system is called the Super Famicom (SFC). In South Korea, it is known as the Super Comboy and was distributed by Hyundai Electronics. The system was released in Brazil on August 30, 1993, by Playtronic. Although each version is essentially the same, several forms of regional lockout prevent the different versions from being compatible with one another.

Sega CD Add-on for the Sega Genesis video game console

The Sega CD, released as the Mega-CD in most regions outside North America and Brazil, is a CD-ROM accessory for the Sega Genesis video game console designed and produced by Sega as part of the fourth generation of video game consoles. It was released on December 12, 1991 in Japan, October 15, 1992 in North America, and April 2, 1993 in Europe. The Sega CD lets the user play CD-based games and adds hardware functionality such as a faster central processing unit and graphic enhancements. It can also play audio CDs and CD+G discs.

A video game console is a computer device that outputs a video signal or visual image to display a video game that one or more people can play.

Genesis Nomad handheld game console

The Genesis Nomad is a handheld game console manufactured by Sega and released in North America in October 1995. The Nomad is a portable variation of the Sega Genesis home video game console. Based on the Mega Jet, a portable version of the home console designed for use on airline flights in Japan, Nomad was the last handheld console released by Sega. In addition to functioning as a portable device, it was designed to be used with a television set via a video port. Released late in the Genesis era, the Nomad had a short lifespan.

The fifth-generation era refers to computer and video games, video game consoles, and handheld gaming consoles dating from approximately October 1993 to May 2002. For home consoles, the best-selling console was the PlayStation (PS), followed by the Nintendo 64 (N64), and then the Sega Saturn. The PlayStation also had a redesigned version, the PSOne, which was launched in July 2000.

Wisdom Tree video game developer

Wisdom Tree, Inc. is an American developer of Christian video games. Originally founded in 1988 as Color Dreams, one of the first companies to work around Nintendo's lockout chip technology for the Nintendo Entertainment System, the company changed its focus to Christian games in 1990, changing its name to Wisdom Tree the following year.

1994 has seen many sequels and prequels in video games and several new titles such as Super Metroid, Donkey Kong Country and Sonic & Knuckles.

1992 has seen many sequels and prequels in video games and several new titles such as Super Mario Land 2: 6 Golden Coins, Art of Fighting, Super Mario Kart, and Mortal Kombat.

1991 has seen many sequels and prequels in video games and several new titles such as Mega Man 4, The Legend of Zelda: A Link to the Past and Sonic the Hedgehog.

Virtual Console, also abbreviated as VC, is a line of downloadable video games for Nintendo's Wii and Wii U home video game consoles and the Nintendo 3DS handheld game console.

Sega Genesis Fourth-generation home video game console and fourth developed by Sega

The Sega Genesis, known as the Mega Drive in regions outside North America, is a 16-bit home video game console developed and sold by Sega. The Genesis is Sega's third console and the successor to the Master System. Sega released it as the Mega Drive in Japan in 1988, and later as the Genesis in North America in 1989. In 1990, it was distributed as the Mega Drive by Virgin Mastertronic in Europe, Ozisoft in Australasia, and Tec Toy in Brazil. In South Korea, it was distributed by Samsung as the Super Gam*Boy and later the Super Aladdin Boy.

Hayao Nakayama is a Japanese businessman and was the former President and CEO of Sega Enterprises, Ltd from 1983 to 1999.

A home video game console, or simply home console, is a video game device that is primarily used for home gamers, as opposed to in arcades or some other commercial establishment. Home consoles are one type of video game consoles, in contrast to the handheld game consoles which are smaller and portable, allowing people to carry them and play them at any time or place, along with microconsoles and dedicated consoles.

Super NES CD-ROM Unreleased video game media format and peripheral for the SNES

The Super NES CD-ROM System, also known as the Super Famicom CD-ROM Adapter, is an unreleased video game peripheral for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES). The add-on built upon the functionality of the cartridge-based SNES by adding support for a CD-ROM-based format known as Super Disk.

History of Sega The history of Sega, a Japanese video game company and subsidiary of [[Sega Sammy Holdings]]

The history of Sega, a Japanese multinational video game developer and publisher, has roots back to Standard Games in 1940 and Service Games of Japan in the 1950s. The formation of the company known today as Sega is traced back to the founding of Nihon Goraku Bussan, which became known as Sega Enterprises, Ltd. following acquisition of Rosen Enterprises in 1965. Originally an importer of coin-operated games to Japan and manufacturer of slot machines and jukeboxes, Sega began developing its own arcade games in 1966 with Periscope, which became a surprise success and led to more arcade machine development. In 1969 Gulf and Western Industries bought Sega, which continued its arcade game business through the 1970s.

References

  1. "16-Bit's Final Hurrah". Electronic Gaming Monthly . No. 88. Ziff Davis. November 1996. pp. 21–22.
  2. Sartori, Paul (April 2, 2013). "TurboGrafx-16: the console that time forgot (and why it's worth re-discovering)" via www.theguardian.com.
  3. Console Database Staff. "Sega Mega Drive/Genesis Console Information". Console Database. Console Database/Dale Hansen. Archived from the original on October 16, 2007. Retrieved October 18, 2007.
  4. Kent, Steven L. (2001). The Ultimate History of Video Games. Roseville, California: Prima Publishing. pp. 404–405. ISBN   0-7615-3643-4.
  5. Kent, Steven L. (2001). The Ultimate History of Video Games: The Story Behind the Craze that Touched our Lives and Changed the World. Roseville, California: Prima Publishing. pp. 424–431. ISBN   0-7615-3643-4.
  6. Kent, Steven L. (2001). The Ultimate History of Video Games: The Story Behind the Craze that Touched our Lives and Changed the World. Roseville, California: Prima Publishing. pp. 434, 448–449. ISBN   0-7615-3643-4.
  7. "The Essential 50 Part 28: Sonic the Hedgehog". www.1up.com. Archived from the original on July 14, 2016. Retrieved April 21, 2008.
  8. Kent, Steven L. (2001). The Ultimate History of Video Games: The Story Behind the Craze that Touched our Lives and Changed the World. Roseville, California: Prima Publishing. p. 405. ISBN   0-7615-3643-4.
  9. Kohler, Chris (July 29, 2009). "July 29, 1994: Videogame Makers Propose Ratings Board to Congress". Wired . Condé Nast Publications . Retrieved April 20, 2015.
  10. "International Outlook". Electronic Gaming Monthly . No. 53. Sendai Publishing. December 1993. p. 90.
  11. Kent, Steven L. (2001). The Ultimate History of Video Games: The Story Behind the Craze that Touched our Lives and Changed the World. Roseville, California: Prima Publishing. pp. 461–480. ISBN   0-7615-3643-4.
  12. Ray Barnholt (August 4, 2006). "Purple Reign: 15 Years of the Super NES". 1UP.com. p. 4. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved July 13, 2007.
  13. Semrad, Ed (March 1994). "Sega Sets the Pace for 1994!". Electronic Gaming Monthly . No. 56. Sendai Publishing. p. 6.
  14. "History of the Sega Mega Drive - Sega Retro". segaretro.org.
  15. Kent, Steven L. (2001). The Ultimate History of Video Games: The Story Behind the Craze that Touched our Lives and Changed the World. Roseville, California: Prima Publishing. pp. 508, 531. ISBN   0-7615-3643-4.
  16. Kent, Steven L. (2001). The Ultimate History of Video Games: The Story Behind the Craze that Touched our Lives and Changed the World. Roseville, California: Prima Publishing. pp. 413–414. ISBN   0-7615-3643-4.
  17. "Why Super Nintendo Is the Reason You're Still Playing Video Games". Rolling Stone. Retrieved June 26, 2017.
  18. Kent (2001), p. 434. Kent states September 1 was planned but later rescheduled to September 9.
  19. Campbell, Ron (August 27, 1991). "Super Nintendo sells quickly at OC outlets". The Orange County Register. Last weekend, months after video-game addicts started calling, Dave Adams finally was able to sell them what they craved: Super Nintendo. Adams, manager of Babbages in South Coast Plaza, got 32 of the $199.95 systems Friday. Based on the publication date, the "Friday" mentioned would be August 23, 1991.
  20. "Super Nintendo It's Here!!!". Electronic Gaming Monthly . Sendai Publishing Group (28): 162. November 1991. The Long awaited Super NES is finally available to the U.S. gaming public. The first few pieces of this unit hit the store shelves on August 23, 1991. Nintendo, however, released the first production run without any heavy fanfare or spectacular announcements.
  21. "New products put more zip into the video-game market". Chicago Sun-Times. August 27, 1991. Archived from the original (abstract) on November 3, 2012. Retrieved March 5, 2010. On Friday, area Toys R Us stores [...] were expecting Super NES, with a suggested retail price of $199.95, any day, said Brad Grafton, assistant inventory control manager for Toys R Us. Based on the publication date, the "Friday" mentioned would be August 23, 1991.
  22. Ray Barnholt (August 4, 2006). "Purple Reign: 15 Years of the Super NES". 1UP.com. p. 2. Archived from the original on July 17, 2012. Retrieved June 14, 2007.
  23. "Super Nintendo Entertainment System". N-Sider.com. Archived from the original on January 11, 2012. Retrieved June 14, 2007.
  24. "Consolidated Sales Transition by Region" (PDF). Nintendo. January 27, 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 24, 2011. Retrieved September 29, 2011.
  25. Allen, Danny (December 22, 2006). "A Brief History of Game Consoles, as Seen in Old TV Ads". PC World. Retrieved July 15, 2007.
  26. Jeremy Parish (September 6, 2005). "PS1 10th Anniversary retrospective". 1UP.com. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved May 27, 2007.
  27. Nutt, Christian. "Stalled engine: The TurboGrafx-16 turns 25". Gamasutra.
  28. "Nintendo Ultra 64: The Launch of the Decade?". Maximum: The Video Game Magazine. No. 2. Emap International Limited. November 1995. pp. 107–8.
  29. 1 2 "Preview: Shining the Holy Ark". Sega Saturn Magazine . No. 19. Emap International Limited. May 1997. p. 33.
  30. Santulli, Joe (2005). Digital Press Collectors Guide. USA: Digital Press. ISBN   978-0-9709807-0-0.
  31. "Bonk's Adventure Virtual Console Review - Wii Review at IGN". Wii.ign.com. Archived from the original on April 14, 2012. Retrieved August 15, 2012.
  32. Sonic the Hedgehog GameTap Retrospective Pt. 3/4. Event occurs at 1:21.
  33. Edge (June 25, 2007). "The Nintendo Years". The Nintendo Years. Next-Gen.biz. p. 2. Archived from the original on September 5, 2012. Retrieved November 26, 2007.
  34. 1 2 "CD BackUp RAM Cart" . Retrieved September 7, 2016.[ permanent dead link ]
  35. 1 2 3 4 Ludovic Drolez. "Lud's Open Source Corner" . Retrieved December 10, 2015.
  36. "Renesas Technology and Hitachi Announce Development of SH-2A 32-Bit RISC CPUCore for High-Performance Embedded Sysytems" (PDF). Retrieved July 23, 2019.
  37. 1 2 3 4 "Wayback Machine". March 18, 2014. Archived from the original on March 18, 2014.
  38. "SSP1601" (PDF). Retrieved July 23, 2019.
  39. 1 2 3 "Sega-16 – Sega's SVP Chip: The Road Not Taken?" . Retrieved December 10, 2015.
  40. 1 2 3 "Sega CD programming FAQ". December 6, 1998. Retrieved July 23, 2019.
  41. "Sega 32x Graphics" . Retrieved March 27, 2017.
  42. 1 2 3 4 "SNES Graphics Information" . Retrieved December 10, 2015.
  43. http://www.datasheets.pl/integrated_circuits/U/UPD/UPD77C25.pdf%5B%5D
  44. "Capcom Cx4 – Hitachi HG51B169 in SNES Development". Super Nintendo Development Wiki. Retrieved December 10, 2015.
  45. 1 2 3 "A Super FX FAQ" . Retrieved December 10, 2015.
  46. 1 2 3 4 5 MacDonald, Charles. "Neo*Geo MVS Hardware Notes" . Retrieved January 26, 2012.
  47. "GPU". Archived from the original on December 10, 2015. Retrieved December 10, 2015.
  48. "Category:Chips" . Retrieved December 10, 2015.
  49. https://github.com/mamedev/mame/blob/master/src/emu/sound/sn76496.c%5B%5D
  50. "Arcade Card Pro". PC-Engine dev. Retrieved December 10, 2015.
  51. "Mega Drive PCB revisions – Sega Retro" . Retrieved December 10, 2015.
  52. "Wayback Machine". March 18, 2014. Archived from the original on March 18, 2014.
  53. "notaz's SVP doc" . Retrieved July 23, 2019.
  54. "Sega CD - www.segaretro.org" . Retrieved May 30, 2017.
  55. 1 2 "Wayback Machine". March 18, 2014. Archived from the original on March 18, 2014.
  56. "Street Fighter II CE Comparison Backgrounds Main" . Retrieved December 10, 2015.
  57. "Video Games, Cheats, Guides, Codes, Reviews – GamesRadar" . Retrieved December 10, 2015.
  58. "TASVideos" . Retrieved December 10, 2015.
  59. "How to program the Sega Genesis/Mega Drive". Archived from the original on January 22, 2005. Retrieved December 10, 2015.
  60. Charles MacDonald. "Sega Master System VDP documentation". Archived from the original on March 18, 2014. Retrieved July 5, 2011.
  61. 1 2 "Sega Programming FAQ October 18, 1995, Sixth Edition – Final". Archived from the original on January 22, 2005. Retrieved December 10, 2015.
  62. 1 2 3 "Sega Genesis vs Super Nintendo - www.gamepilgrimage.com" . Retrieved December 10, 2015.
  63. 1 2 3 "Sega 32X Technical Specifications" . Retrieved March 27, 2017.
  64. "JAMMAPARTS.COM – Sega CD Detailed Technical Specifications" . Retrieved December 10, 2015.
  65. "Technical Specifications" . Retrieved March 27, 2017.[ permanent dead link ]
  66. "DMA". Segaretro+. March 13, 2017. Retrieved March 13, 2017.
  67. "Game Pilgrimage" . Retrieved December 10, 2015.
  68. https://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:KWSMhZdWDeYJ:archaicpixels.com/images/3/31/TurboGrafx-16-Service-Manual.pdf%5B%5D
  69. https://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:G7O62_Ggt1sJ:archaicpixels.com/images/f/f8/MSM5205.pdf%5B%5D
  70. "MSM5205" . Retrieved December 10, 2015.
  71. Aly James. "FM-Drive 2612 VST User Manual 1.2" (PDF). Retrieved July 23, 2019.
  72. 1 2 "YM2610" . Retrieved December 10, 2015.
  73. Blake Snow (July 30, 2007). "The 10 Worst-Selling Consoles of All Time". GamePro . p. 2. Archived from the original on May 8, 2007. Retrieved October 25, 2008.
  74. "Super NES". Classic Systems. Nintendo. Archived from the original on July 14, 2007. Retrieved December 4, 2007.
  75. "Yearly market report". Famitsu Weekly (in Japanese) (392): 8. June 21, 1996.
  76. Zackariasson, Peter; Wilson, Timothy L.; Ernkvist, Mirko (2012). "Console Hardware: The Development of Nintendo Wii". The Video Game Industry: Formation, Present State, and Future. Routledge. p. 158. ISBN   978-1-138-80383-1.
  77. "Majesco Sales – Overview". AllGame. Archived from the original on July 27, 2013. Retrieved October 5, 2013.
  78. Théo Azevedo (July 30, 2012). "Vinte anos depois, Master System e Mega Drive vendem 150 mil unidades por ano no Brasil" (in Portuguese). UOL . Retrieved October 18, 2012. Base instalada: 5 milhões de Master System; 3 milhões de Mega Drive
  79. Sponsel, Sebastian (November 16, 2015). "Interview: Stefano Arnhold (Tectoy)". Sega-16. Retrieved November 21, 2015.
  80. Blake Snow (July 30, 2007). "The 10 Worst-Selling Consoles of All Time". GamePro . p. 1. Archived from the original on May 8, 2007. Retrieved October 25, 2008.
  81. Consoles + ,
  82. Consoles + , issue 73
  83. "The Atari Lynx". ataritimes.com. 2006. Archived from the original on August 10, 2006. Retrieved August 20, 2006.
  84. Beuscher, Dave. "allgame ( Atari Lynx > Overview )". Allgame . Retrieved September 21, 2008. One drawback to the Lynx system is its power consumption. It requires 6 AA batteries, which allow four to five hours of game play. The Nintendo Game Boy provides close to 35 hours use before new batteries are necessary.
  85. 1 2 3 4 5 Blake Snow (July 30, 2007). "The 10 Worst-Selling Handhelds of All Time". GamePro.com. Archived from the original on July 30, 2008. Retrieved January 2, 2010.
  86. Bauscher, Dave. "allgame ( Sega Game Gear > Overview )". Allgame . Retrieved September 21, 2008. While this feature is not included on the Game Boy it does provide a disadvantage – the Game Gear requires 6 AA batteries that only last up to six hours. The Nintendo Game Boy only requires 4 AA batteries and is capable of providing up to 35 hours of play.
  87. "Game Boy History". Nintendo. Retrieved March 27, 2009.
  88. Douglas C. McGill (June 5, 1989). "Now, Video Game Players Can Take Show on the Road". The New York Times.
  89. Melanson, Donald (March 3, 2006). "A Brief History of Handheld Video Games". Engadget. Retrieved January 27, 2009.
  90. "PC-Engine". pc-engine.
  91. "Consolidated Sales Transition by Region" (PDF). Nintendo. April 26, 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 27, 2016. Retrieved October 23, 2016.
  92. "Game Boy". A Brief History of Game Console Warfare. BusinessWeek. Archived from the original on May 9, 2007. Retrieved July 30, 2008.
  93. "Did you know?". Nintendo. Retrieved November 26, 2007.[ dead link ]
  94. "Japan Platinum Game Chart". The Magic Box. Archived from the original on December 13, 2007. Retrieved November 26, 2007.
  95. "US Platinum Videogame Chart". The Magic Box. Archived from the original on April 21, 2007. Retrieved November 26, 2007.
  96. Gamate Archive Archived May 11, 2011, at the Wayback Machine , Video Game Gazette. Retrieved June 14, 2010.
  97. IGN staff (2006). "The Top 100 Games Ever". IGN. Archived from the original on April 25, 2015. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
  98. IGN staff (2007). "The Top 100 Games Ever". IGN. Archived from the original on December 3, 2007. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
  99. IGN staff (2008). "IGN Top 100 Games 2008 – 2 Chrono Trigger". IGN. Archived from the original on February 17, 2009. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
  100. Cork, Jeff (November 16, 2009). "Game Informer's Top 100 Games of All Time (Circa Issue 100)". Game Informer . Retrieved January 18, 2014.
  101. GameSpot editorial team, ed. (April 17, 2006). "The Greatest Games of All Time". GameSpot . Archived from the original on April 23, 2006. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
  102. Campbell, Colin (March 3, 2006). "Japan Votes on All Time Top 100". Edge online. Archived from the original on July 30, 2009. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
  103. Ashcraft, Brian (March 6, 2008). "Dengeki Readers Say Fav 2007 Game, Fav of All Time". Kotaku. Archived from the original on August 7, 2009. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
  104. "The 100 best games of all time". GamesRadar. April 20, 2012. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
  105. Kent, Steven L. (2001). The Ultimate History of Video Games: The Story Behind the Craze that Touched our Lives and Changed the World. Roseville, California: Prima Publishing. p. 497. ISBN   0-7615-3643-4.
  106. Kent, Steven L. (October 9, 2006). "SOMETIMES THE BEST". Sad Sam's Place. Retrieved February 2, 2014.
  107. Thomas, Lucas (December 11, 2006). "Gunstar Heroes Virtual Console Review". IGN. Retrieved January 19, 2014.
  108. Kent, Steven L. (2001). The Ultimate History of Video Games: The Story Behind the Craze that Touched our Lives and Changed the World. Roseville, California: Prima Publishing. pp. 407–410. ISBN   0-7615-3643-4.
  109. "100 Games Of All Time". gamers.com. Archived from the original on June 11, 2003. Retrieved September 3, 2006.
  110. Kent, Steven L. (2001). The Ultimate History of Video Games: The Story Behind the Craze that Touched our Lives and Changed the World. Roseville, California: Prima Publishing. pp. 466–80. ISBN   0-7615-3643-4.
  111. Cork, Jeff (November 16, 2009). "Game Informer's Top 100 Games of All Time (Circa Issue 100)". Game Informer . Retrieved December 10, 2013.
  112. Semrad, Steve (February 2, 2006). "The Greatest 200 Videogames of Their Time". 1UP.com . Archived from the original on October 20, 2012. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
  113. Kaiser, Rowan (July 22, 2011). "RPG Pillars: Phantasy Star II". GamePro . Archived from the original on July 25, 2011. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
  114. Kasavin, Greg. "The Greatest Games of All Time: Phantasy Star II – Features at GameSpot". GameSpot . Archived from the original on July 18, 2005. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
  115. "Time Machine: Phantasy Star". ComputerAndVideoGames.com. January 2, 2011. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
  116. Kent, Steven L. (2001). The Ultimate History of Video Games: The Story Behind the Craze that Touched our Lives and Changed the World. Roseville, California: Prima Publishing. pp. 428–431. ISBN   0-7615-3643-4.
  117. "Street Fighter II: The World Warrior (Game) – Giant Bomb". www.giantbomb.com. Retrieved November 20, 2017.
  118. "CAPCOM – Platinum Titles". Archived from the original on December 17, 2007.
  119. Thomas, Lucas M. (May 30, 2007). "Streets of Rage 2 Review: The definitive console brawler". IGN . Retrieved January 18, 2014.
  120. "Super Monaco GP – Sega Megadrive – Mean Machines review". Meanmachinesmag.co.uk. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
  121. Harris, Craig (September 24, 2002). "Yoshi's Island: Super Mario Advance 3". IGN.com. Archived from the original on March 21, 2012. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
  122. "Legend of Zelda—A link to the Past". Ludogo. Archived from the original on April 5, 2008. Retrieved March 29, 2008.
  123. Gouskos, Carrie (March 14, 2006). "The Greatest Games of All-Time: The Legend of Zelda: A Link to the Past". GameSpot . Retrieved March 7, 2007.
  124. Nintendo (December 2, 2002). The Legend of Zelda: A Link to the Past & Four Swords . Game Boy Advance. Nintendo.
  125. Arakawa, M. (1992). The Legend of Zelda: A Link to the Past Nintendo Player's Strategy Guide. Nintendo. ASIN   B000AMPXNM.
  126. Stratton, Bryan (December 10, 2002). The Legend of Zelda — A Link to the Past. Prima Games. ISBN   0-7615-4118-7.