Menacer

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Menacer
Sega Menacer cropped.jpg
DeveloperMac Senour
Manufacturer Sega
Type Light gun
Release date1992 (1992)
Introductory priceUS$59.99(equivalent to $107 in 2018) [1] [2]
PowerSix AAA batteries [3]
Platform Sega Genesis

The Menacer is a light gun peripheral released by Sega in 1992 for its Sega Genesis and Sega CD video game consoles. It was created in response to Nintendo's Super Scope and as Sega's successor to the Master System Light Phaser. The gun is built from three detachable parts (pistol, shoulder stock, sights), and communicates with the television via an infrared sensor. The Menacer was announced at the May 1992 Consumer Electronics Show in Chicago and was released later that year. The gun was bundled with a pack-in six-game cartridge of mostly shooting gallery games. Sega also released a Menacer bundle with Terminator 2: The Arcade Game .

Light gun pointing device

A light gun is a pointing device for computers and a control device for arcade and video games, typically shaped to resemble a pistol. In aviation and shipping, it can also be a directional signal lamp.

Sega Japanese video game developer and publisher and subsidiary of Sega Sammy Holdings

Sega Games Co., Ltd. is a Japanese multinational video game developer and publisher headquartered in Tokyo. Its international branches, Sega of America and Sega Europe, are respectively headquartered in Irvine, California and London. Sega's arcade division, once part of Sega Corporation, has existed as Sega Interactive Co., Ltd., also a Sega Holdings subsidiary, since 2015.

Sega Genesis Fourth-generation home video game console and fourth developed by Sega

The Sega Genesis, known as the Mega Drive in regions outside of North America, is a 16-bit home video game console developed and sold by Sega. The Genesis is Sega's third console and the successor to the Master System. Sega released it as the Mega Drive in Japan in 1988, followed by North America as the Genesis in 1989. In 1990, it was distributed as the Mega Drive by Virgin Mastertronic in Europe, Ozisoft in Australasia, and Tec Toy in Brazil. In South Korea, it was distributed by Samsung as the Super Gam*Boy and later the Super Aladdin Boy.

Contents

Sega producer Mac Senour was responsible for the Menacer project and designed the six-game pack. He originally proposed non-shooting minigames based on existing Sega licenses like Joe Montana, David Robinson, and ToeJam & Earl , but most of the prototypes were abandoned due to high cost in favor of more shooting-type games. Sega did not plan another first-party release for the Menacer apart from the included multicart. Compatible games were published through 1995.

Joe Montana American football quarterback

Joseph Clifford Montana Jr., nicknamed Joe Cool and The Comeback Kid, is a former American football quarterback who played in the National Football League (NFL) for 16 seasons with the San Francisco 49ers and Kansas City Chiefs. After winning a national championship at Notre Dame, Montana started his NFL career in 1979 with San Francisco, where he played for the next 14 seasons. While a member of the 49ers, Montana started and won four Super Bowls and was the first player ever to have been named Super Bowl Most Valuable Player three times. He also holds Super Bowl career records for most passes without an interception and the all-time highest passer rating of 127.8. In 1993, Montana was traded to the Kansas City Chiefs where he played his final two seasons, and led the franchise to its first AFC Championship Game in January 1994. Montana was elected to the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 2000, his first year of eligibility.

<i>ToeJam & Earl</i> 1991 video game

ToeJam & Earl is an action game developed by Johnson Voorsanger Productions and published by Sega for the Sega Genesis console. Released in 1991, it centers on ToeJam and Earl—alien rappers who have crash-landed on Earth. As they attempt to escape the planet, players assume the role of either character and collect pieces of their wrecked spacecraft. ToeJam & Earl's design was heavily influenced by the role-playing video game Rogue, and took from it such features as the random generation of levels and items. It references and parodies 1980s and early 90s urban culture and is set to a funk soundtrack.

In video game parlance, a multicart is a cartridge that contains more than one game. Typically, the separate games are available individually for purchase or were previously available individually. For this reason, collections, anthologies, and compilations are considered multicarts. The desirability of the multicart to consumers is that it provides better value, greater convenience, and more portability than the separate games would provide. The advantage to developers is that it allows two or more smaller games to be sold together for the price of one larger game, and provides an opportunity to repackage and sell older games one more time, often with little or no changes.

The Menacer is remembered as a critical and commercial flop. Critics found the six-game pack subpar and repetitive, and criticized the peripheral's lack of games. The ToeJam & Earl spinoff game was held in the highest regard, and reviewers recommended the Menacer-compatible Terminator 2 game. A direct-to-TV light gun that includes the six-game Menacer pack was released in 2005.

A dedicated console is a video game console that is limited to one or more built-in video game or games, and is not equipped for additional games that are distributed via ROM cartridges, discs, downloads or other digital media. Dedicated consoles were very popular in the first generation of video game consoles until they were gradually replaced by second-generation video game consoles that used ROM cartridges.

Description

Sega Genesis Sega-Genesis-Mod1-Set.png
Sega Genesis

The gray, white, and red [4] Menacer is a light gun peripheral for the Sega Genesis. [5] The Menacer is built of three separable parts: a pistol, twin sights, and shoulder stock. [5] (In the peripheral's branding, these parts were called the Master Module, Binocular Module, and Stabilizer Module, respectively. [3] ) The pistol has a double grip [6] and fires the infrared beam [5] with a trigger on the back grip. [7] There are three buttons on the pistol's front grip: one pauses the game and the other two provide game-specific functions. [7] Unlike the Super Scope, the Menacer has two infrared transmitters. [8] The optional skeletal shoulder stock and binocular [6] twin sights were designed to improve the aim. Digital Spy reported that the twin sights never worked as intended, [5] and Sega Force wrote that the gun must be recalibrated when adding or removing the sights. [3] Calibration is performed by aiming at a bullseye target to adjust the gun's sensitivity. [7] The gun was designed to be reassembled to suit the player. [9]

Pistol type of handgun

A pistol is a type of handgun. The pistol originates in the 16th century, when early handguns were produced in Europe. The English word was introduced in ca. 1570 from the Middle French pistolet. The most common types of pistol today are the single shot and semi-automatic.

Sight (device) device for alignment and aiming of a weapon

A sight is an aiming device used to assist in visually aligning ranged weapons, surveying instruments or optical illumination equipments with the intended target. Sights can be a simple set or system of markers that have to be aligned together with the target, or optical devices that allow the user to see a sometimes optically enhanced image of the target aligned in the same focus with an aiming point. There are also sights that project an aiming point onto the target itself, such as laser sights and infrared illuminators on some night vision devices.

Bullseye (target) center of a target

The bullseye, or bull's-eye, is the centre of a shooting target, and by extension the name given to any shot that hits the bullseye. By extension, the word bullseye can refer to any design or pattern featuring prominent concentric circles, visually suggesting an archery target, and "hitting the bullseye" is a term for an unexpectedly good success.

The light gun's shots are controlled by its aim towards the television. [7] It operates on batteries and works in conjunction with a sensor plugged into the second controller port and placed atop the television display. [3] The sensor counts CRT television scan lines to detect the player's shots. [5] Sega Force noticed that the controller acts erratically when used under fluorescent lighting. [3] Sega recommended eight feet (2.4 m) of distance from the receiver, [6] though the peripheral works between four and twelve feet (1–4 m) from the television. [4] Sega Force reported that the controller lasts about 18 hours on new batteries, [3] though Will Smith of The Hawk Eye estimated fewer ("a matter of hours"). [10] The Toronto Star wrote that the Menacer lasts 20 hours as opposed to the Super Scope's 50 to 140 hours. The Menacer has no power switch: it automatically activates when aimed at the television [8] and turns off after 30 seconds without input. [3] The Super Scope fully drains its batteries when left on. [8] Menacer's Accu-Sight option puts crosshairs on the screen to eliminate the need to aim manually through the sights. [9] The gun does not have a "turbo" mode for continuous fire, unlike the Super Scope. [8]

The Hawk Eye is a general-circulation newspaper based in Burlington, Iowa, United States, and boasts itself as "Iowa's Oldest Newspaper."

<i>Toronto Star</i> Newspaper in Toronto, Ontario, Canada

The Toronto Star is a Canadian broadsheet daily newspaper. Based on 2015 statistics, it is Canada's highest-circulation newspaper on overall weekly circulation; although it is a close second to The Globe and Mail in daily circulation on weekdays, it overtakes the Globe in weekly circulation because the Globe does not publish a Sunday edition. The Toronto Star is owned by Toronto Star Newspapers Limited, a subsidiary of Torstar Corporation and part of Torstar's Daily News Brands division.

History

Nintendo Super Scope, the peripheral that prompted the Menacer Nintendo-SNES-Super-Scope-L.jpg
Nintendo Super Scope, the peripheral that prompted the Menacer

The Menacer was produced in response to the Nintendo Super Scope [5] released several months earlier, [7] though Sega intended to support the peripheral as more than a clone. [11] These two peripherals brought arcade light gun game ports to home consoles. [5] The Menacer is the successor to the Master System's Light Phaser. [7]

Super Scope light gun

The Super Scope, sold as the Nintendo Scope in Europe and Australia, is a first party light gun peripheral for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System. The successor to the NES Zapper, the Super Scope was released in North America and the PAL region in 1992, followed by a limited release in Japan in 1993 due to a lack of consumer demand. The peripheral consists of two devices: the wireless light gun itself, called the Transmitter, and a Receiver that connects to the second controller port of the Super NES console. The Transmitter has two action buttons, a pause button, a power switch and is powered by six AA batteries.

Mac Senour, a producer at Sega, [12] was responsible for the peripheral and its six-game cartridge as the company's "hardware boy". [11] He designed the six minigames based on Sega's previous intellectual property and licenses—such as ToeJam & Earl [lower-alpha 1] —under the instruction to avoid shooting games. His prototypes included games based on Joe Montana (Joe Montana Wide Receiver Training Camp) and David Robinson, but when presented, the company asked for more shooting games and scrapped all license-based games (besides ToeJam & Earl, whose license was free) due to their added cost. His "reverse Blockout game" prototype was the only other title carried to the final cartridge. Senour recalled that upon his cubicle presentation to Sega Japan's president, the executive did not say anything besides "very good" before leaving. Sega did not plan any other first-party releases for the Menacer—Senour recollected that "they laughed when I proposed more." [11]

Sega announced the Menacer alongside the Sega CD at the May 1992 Consumer Electronics Show in Chicago [14] and the peripheral was released towards the end of that year. [4] [7] [15] [lower-alpha 2] By December 1992, the Menacer began shipping with Terminator 2: The Arcade Game as a bundle. [16] Goodby, Silverstein & Partners produced Menacer television advertisements directed by Danny Boyle. [17] Playthings reported that Chicago toy retailers promoted Sega electronics including the Menacer over Nintendo's during their 1992 Thanksgiving promotions. [18] Sega's sales exceeded Nintendo's during the 1992 Christmas season, and gained cultural cachet for the Menacer among other peripherals. [19] Electronic Gaming Monthly reported in March 1993 that the Menacer would not have a new game for six months. [20] Compatible games were published through 1995. [21]

Mac Senour left Sega in 1993 [22] for Atari, where he received an increase in pay and status. [11] He later worked at Konami and Electronic Arts. [12] In his first days at Atari, Senour was sent to Paris, where he remembered an excess of unsold Menacers in a Virgin Megastore display. His translators told the clerk that Senour was responsible for the Menacer, and when Senour offered to autograph their stock, the clerk replied in slow English that Senour could autograph the items he purchased. [11]

In 2005, Radica created a Menacer-based direct-to-TV dedicated console with the original six-game cartridge built into a light gun controller [23] as part of their Play TV Legends line of Sega Genesis dedicated consoles. [24] Retro Gamer wrote that Radica's gun is based on the Sega Saturn light gun's design and not the Menacer's. [25]

Games

Screenshots from the Menacer 6-game cartridge (clockwise from top left): Pest Control, Space Station Defender, Whack Ball, Rockman's Zone, Front Line, Ready, Aim, Tomatoes! Menacer six-game cartridge screenshots.jpg
Screenshots from the Menacer 6-game cartridge (clockwise from top left): Pest Control, Space Station Defender, Whack Ball, Rockman's Zone, Front Line, Ready, Aim, Tomatoes!

Games include the pack-in single-player [4] Menacer 6-game cartridge, [lower-alpha 3] which consists of mostly shooting gallery games: [5]

Digital Spy mentioned Body Count , Terminator 2: The Arcade Game, and Mad Dog McCree as Menacer's other notable games. [5] Terminator 2 was the first external game to work with the Menacer, [9] [27] the only one confirmed as of December 1992. [4] Terminator's programmers, Probe Software, later began work on another Menacer-compatible game. [9] Terminator 2 has a two-player mode that uses one Menacer light gun and one controller. [27] [28] Sega Force reported that Menacer gameplay registered faster than the Genesis controller. [27] Mad Dog McCree, a live action Wild West shoot 'em up for the Sega CD, used either a controller or a choice of several light guns: the Menacer, the Konami Justifier, or the game developer's own compatible light gun. [29] In the 1994 Body Count, the player defends Earth from an alien invasion. The Irish Times wrote that the game is "ideally suited for the ... Menacer" and is "to be avoided" otherwise. [30] The Menacer is also compatible with Corpse Killer and American Laser Games' other titles, such as Who Shot Johnny Rock? [31] The light gun does not work with Konami's Lethal Enforcers games or Snatcher , [31] which use the Konami Justifier. [32]

List of Menacer-compatible games by release date
TitleRelease date (console)
Menacer 6-game cartridge [5] June 1, 1992 [33] (Genesis)
Terminator 2: The Arcade Game [9] June 6, 1992 [34] (Genesis)
Mad Dog McCree [29] April 22, 1993 [35] (Sega CD)
Body Count [30] 1994 [34] (Mega Drive, Sega Channel [36] )
Who Shot Johnny Rock? [37] September 21, 1994 [35] (Sega CD)
Mad Dog II: The Lost Gold [38] September 27, 1994 [35] (Sega CD)
Corpse Killer [21] November 7, 1994 [39] (Sega CD, Sega 32X [21] )
Crime Patrol [40] December 16, 1994 [35] (Sega CD)

Reception

Matthew Reynolds of Digital Spy wrote that the Menacer was a poorly executed "flop" that is much less likely to be remembered than its Super Scope competitor, even though the latter did not fare much better. Reynolds added that the Menacer was hurt by the poor quality of the pack-in six-game cartridge and a lack of titles in support of the peripheral. [5] Will Smith of The Hawk Eye concurred, calling the peripheral "a commercial and critical flop". [10] The Menacer's original reviewers pinned the device's success on the strength of its developer support, [3] [7] [8] and multiple reviewers cited the Menacer's lack of good games as the cause for its decline. [5] [31] [41]

Writing for the Chicago Tribune on the 1992 Consumer Electronics Show, Dennis Lynch saw the Super Scope and Menacer as a continuation of a Nintendo–Sega arms race and wrote that the peripheral's "Uzi attachment" was "just what every kid needs". [42] The Atlanta Journal-Constitution 's Andy Pargh said the Menacer was "definitely a winner" in comparison to the Super Scope. [43] Toronto Star's William Burrill wrote that the "Great Zapper War" [44] would be decided by the strength of the light guns' supporting games. [8] [44] Multiple reviewers ultimately recommended that players wait for more games to be released before purchasing the Menacer. [3] [7] [8] [9] William Burrill of the Toronto Star said not to bother unless the player "absolutely love[s] target shooter games". [8] Mean Machines called the Menacer "an expensive novelty" until it had more games. [7] The Herald Sun wrote in August 1993 that the Menacer looked to be "an expensive, limited-use fad". [45]

GamePro considered the gun "well-designed" and "fairly good-looking", though they wrote that the gun's options buttons were inconvenient and that the Menacer's lengthy recalibrations before play sessions without Accu-Sight were tedious. [4] Mean Machines wrote that the gun's shades of gray clashed with the glossy black console. [7] Several reviewers called the binocular scope addition unhelpful. [5] [7] Paul Mellerick of Mega found the manual sights an eyestrain and the gun "deadly accurate" as long as players used the Accu-Sight mode. [9] Still, as of January 1993, Mega felt that the Menacer's future success was doubtless. [9] Jaz of Mean Machines had low expectations for the Menacer, which he compared to the shortcomings of previous light guns: high price, short-lived novelty, and dearth of games. Gus of Mean Machines wrote that "Sega hasn't learned the lessons" from the Super Scope's "fairly naff" release in the magazine's January 1993 Menacer review, calling the light gun a "samey-looking, samey-playing piece of hardware, with some redundant add-ons" with mediocre launch titles. He added that the Menacer was less tiring to use than the Super Scope, praised the Menacer's infrared, and criticized the gun's lack of available software. [7]

Multiple reviewers found the pack-in six-game cartridge games subpar [7] [9] [31] [46] and repetitive. [3] [7] [9] Mean Machines's Gus wrote that the games were all too simple and easy. [7] Of the pack, reviewers held Ready, Aim, Tomatoes! in the highest regard. [3] [4] [6] [9] [46] Ray Barnholt of 1UP.com wrote that the Menacer's games were "duller" than its competitor Super Scope's already dull games, but Tomatoes! gave Sega's cartridge "some pittance of value". [46] Mega rated the ToeJam & Earl spin-off at 62%, calling it "fun and strange" though "rather repetitive". [9] Sega Force thought the game's graphics were the pack's best, and its audio to be of high quality, though the magazine also considered the game repetitive. [3] GamePro thought the game's colors were oversaturated. [4]

As for the other six-pack titles, Mega called Rockman's Zone "not a very inspiring game" for its slow pacing and "bland" graphics. [9] Reviewers compared the game to Hogan's Alley [4] [7] [8] [47] and Empire City: 1931 . [7] Mega called Space Station Defender's concept "incredibly daft". [9] GamePro criticized Space Station Defender's "washed-out and ugly" graphics and "obnoxious" audio. The magazine thought poorly of most of the cartridge's audio. [4] Mega found Whack Ball easy and did not expect players to maintain interest in it for longer than an hour. [9] Sega Visions compared Whack Ball to Arkanoid . [6] Mega wrote that Front Line was programmed poorly with "the appearance of having never met up with a gamestester", calling it "truly awful". [9] Electronic Gaming Monthly [47] and GamePro compared the game to Operation Wolf . [15] Sega Force rated Front Line lowest within the six-pack, with a score of 22%. The magazine wrote that the bug game, Pest Control, would make players bored after ten minutes, [3] and Mega said the game was not worth loading even once, giving it their lowest rating of the bunch: 12%. [9] Sega Force wrote in February that the games were only fun for an hour and that the peripheral's success would depend on its future games, adding, "Without that [developer] support, it will die as surely as all other attempts at light guns have done." [3] The magazine ultimately recommended against purchase until more games were released. [3]

Sega Force's Paul Wooding considered Terminator 2 a "must" for Menacer owners, adding that it far surpassed the quality of the six-pack games. [27] The magazine added that the gun registered shots faster than the controller, was more accurate, and worked well from a distance. [27] Neil West of Mega wrote the Menacer works well with Terminator 2 in his review of the game. [48] The Hawk Eye's Will Smith wrote in 2010 that the six-game pack and Terminator 2 were the only Menacer games readily accessible. [10] Ken Horowitz of Sega-16 wrote that none of the Menacer-compatible titles were exceptional, though Terminator and Body Count were standouts. He added that the Menacer's small library made collecting easier. [31] Edward Fox of The Centre for Computing History has said that the museum's Menacer is his favorite piece in the collection when used with the Aura Interactor haptic suit. [49]

Notes and references

Notes
  1. The ToeJam & Earl minigame was designed by the series's creators, Greg Johnson and Mark Voorsanger. [13]
  2. GamePro reported its release to be in late October, [4] [15] but Mean Machines wrote that the Menacer was released in December. [7]
  3. The 6-game cartridge was developed by Western Technologies. [26]
References
  1. "OPEN-DOOR ELECTRONICS". Post-Tribune . June 4, 1992. Archived from the original on June 10, 2014. Retrieved January 10, 2014 via HighBeam.
  2. Snider, Mike (December 8, 1992). "Buying a video game system without getting zapped". USA Today : 4D. ISSN   0734-7456 via LexisNexis.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 "The Menacer". Sega Force (14): 18–21. February 1993. ISSN   0964-2552.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 "Genesis Pro Review: The Menacer". GamePro (41): 44–46. December 1992. ISSN   1042-8658.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Reynolds, Matthew (March 16, 2013). "Menacer retrospective: The Mega Drive's light-gun flop". Digital Spy . Archived from the original on January 9, 2014. Retrieved January 8, 2014.
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 "Heavy Equipment: The Sega Menacer". Sega Visions : 42–44. November – December 1992. OCLC   794192137.
  7. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 "Menacer". Mean Machines (4): 82–84. January 1993. ISSN   0960-4952.
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Burrill, William (March 20, 1993). "Weapons for the zap-happy". Toronto Star . p. J4. ISSN   0319-0781 via LexisNexis.
  9. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Mellerick, Paul (January 1993). "The Menacer Is Here". Mega (4): 18–19. ISSN   0966-6206.
  10. 1 2 3 Smith, Will (October 10, 2010). "The Hawk Eye, Burlington, Iowa, Will Smith column". McClatchy - Tribune Business News via LexisNexis.
  11. 1 2 3 4 5 Horowitz, Ken (October 23, 2013). "Interview: Mac Senour". Sega-16. Archived from the original on January 18, 2014. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
  12. 1 2 Campbell, Colin (October 25, 2013). "How Sega almost rejected Genesis classic Gunstar Heroes". Polygon . Archived from the original on January 18, 2014. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
  13. Fahs, Travis (January 15, 2009). "Funkotronics 101". IGN . p. 2. Archived from the original on March 30, 2014. Retrieved March 29, 2014.
  14. Van Buskirk, Ellen Beth (May 28, 1992). "Sega Announces New $99.99 (a) Packages for Genesis and Game Gear". Business Wire via ProQuest.
  15. 1 2 3 "Hardware Preview: The Menacer". GamePro (38): 58. September 1992. ISSN   1042-8658.
  16. "Video game accessories". Dealerscope Merchandising. 35 (1). January 1993. p. 111. ISSN   0888-4501 via ProQuest.
  17. Clark, Michael (December 9, 1994). "The San Francisco treat. (Goodby, Siverstein and Partners) (Special Report: Agency of the Year)". Shoot . 35 (49). p. 48. ISSN   1055-9825 via Factiva.
  18. Rakstis, Ted (January 1, 1993). "Chicago: holiday toyland trade takes off. (What's Selling)". Playthings . Archived from the original on June 10, 2014. Retrieved January 10, 2014 via HighBeam.
  19. Battelle, John (December 1993). "The Next Level: Sega's Plans for World Domination". Wired . Archived from the original on January 18, 2014. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
  20. "Insert Coin". Electronic Gaming Monthly (44): 4. March 1993. ISSN   1058-918X.
  21. 1 2 3 Baker, Christopher Michael. "Corpse Killer - Overview". AllGame . Archived from the original on January 19, 2014. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
  22. Sheffield, Brandon (August 18, 2011). "Getting into Sega QA in the Genesis era". Insert Credit. Archived from the original on January 24, 2013. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
  23. Harris, Craig (February 22, 2005). "Sega's Menacer Returns". IGN . Archived from the original on January 9, 2014. Retrieved January 8, 2014.
  24. "Radica Games Limited". Thomson Reuters Knowledge Direct. Thomson Financial. January 15, 2014 via LexisNexis.
  25. Carrol, Martyn, ed. (March 2005). "Radica gets menacing". Retro Gamer (14): 8. ISSN   1742-3155.
  26. "Menacer 6-Game Cartridge - Overview". AllGame . Archived from the original on March 30, 2014. Retrieved March 29, 2014.
  27. 1 2 3 4 5 "Terminator 2: The Arcade Game". Sega Force (14): 38–40. February 1993. ISSN   0964-2552.
  28. "T2: The Arcade Game". Sega Visions : 46. November – December 1992. OCLC   794192137.
  29. 1 2 Carter, Chip; Carter, Jonathan (February 21, 1994). "Mad Dog McCree: Old West Was Never This Much Fun". The Washington Post . p. E24. ISSN   0190-8286 via ProQuest.
  30. 1 2 Rowe, Garrett (August 27, 1994). "GAMEZONE: Pitching for a World Series" . The Irish Times . p. 11. Retrieved February 15, 2015 via LexisNexis.
  31. 1 2 3 4 5 Horowitz, Ken (October 23, 2013). "Sega Gear: Menacer Light Gun". Sega-16. Archived from the original on January 19, 2014. Retrieved January 19, 2014.
  32. Chen, David (December 14, 2005). "Retro/Active: Metal Gear". 1UP.com . Archived from the original on January 19, 2014. Retrieved January 19, 2014.
  33. "Sega Games". IGN . Archived from the original on January 19, 2014. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
  34. 1 2 "Probe Games". IGN . Archived from the original on January 19, 2014. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
  35. 1 2 3 4 "American Laser Games Games". IGN . Archived from the original on January 19, 2014. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
  36. "Good Game Stories - Retro Game Reveal and Goodbye". Good Game . September 13, 2011. Archived from the original on January 18, 2014. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
  37. Who Shot Johnny Rock? manual. American Laser Games . 1994. p. 7. The FRONT bottom button can be used to pause the game with the Menacer.
  38. Mad Dog II: The Lost Gold manual. American Laser Games . 1994. p. 8. The FRONT bottom button can be used to pause the game with the Menacer.
  39. "Digital Pictures Games". IGN . Archived from the original on January 19, 2014. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
  40. Crime Patrol manual. American Laser Games . 1994. p. 6. Reload by shooting off screen (the Menacer box that sits above your TV must detect that the menacer has fired, so point in its direction).
  41. McFerran, Damien (March 9, 2013). "Hardware Classics: Sega Mega Drive". Nintendo Life . Archived from the original on January 18, 2014. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
  42. Lynch, Dennis (June 26, 1992). "The Best and Worst of CES". Chicago Tribune . Archived from the original on January 10, 2014. Retrieved January 10, 2014.
  43. Pargh, Andy (December 11, 1992). "WHAT'S NEW Video games will be hot sellers again this year". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution . ISSN   1539-7459 via LexisNexis.
  44. 1 2 Burrill, William (March 27, 1993). "Evil robots are taking control in new Scope-compatible game". Toronto Star . p. J4. ISSN   0319-0781 via LexisNexis.
  45. Calegari, D. (August 25, 1993). "Menacing, but it just might become a fad". Herald Sun via LexisNexis.
  46. 1 2 3 Barnholt, Ray. "Neat Add-On, Bad First Game". 1UP.com . Archived from the original on January 9, 2014. Retrieved January 9, 2014.
  47. 1 2 "Sega Takes Aim at Nintendo!". Electronic Gaming Monthly (39): 56. October 1992. ISSN   1058-918X.
  48. West, Neill (January 1993). "Terminator 2: The Arcade Game". Mega (4): 55. ISSN   0966-6206.
  49. Calvert, Darren (September 7, 2013). "Interview: Exploring The Centre for Computing History - Cambridge". Nintendo Life . Archived from the original on January 18, 2014. Retrieved January 17, 2014.

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The NES Zapper, also known as The Gun or Beam Gun in Japan, is an electronic light gun accessory for the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) and the Japanese Famicom. It was released in Japan for the Famicom on February 18, 1984 and alongside the launch of the NES in North America in October 1985.

<i>Yoshis Safari</i> 1993 video game

Yoshi's Safari is a 1993 light gun shooter developed and published by Nintendo for its Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES). It is the only Mario franchise game to feature first-person shooter gameplay and requires the SNES's Super Scope light gun. As Mario and his pet dinosaur Yoshi, the player embarks on a quest to save the kingdom of Jewelry Land from Bowser and his Koopalings, who have kidnapped its rulers and stolen 12 gems. The game features 12 levels in which the player shoots enemies like Goombas and Koopas, and collects power-ups and coins. At the end of each level, the player engages in a boss fight with an enemy, a Koopaling, or Bowser. Nintendo commissioned its R&D1 department to develop Yoshi's Safari in response to the waning popularity of the Super Scope. Yoshi's Safari was the first Super Scope title to use the SNES's Mode 7 graphics mode, and the future of the peripheral depended on the game's performance.

Sega Meganet, also known as the Net Work System, was an online service for the Mega Drive in Japan and later Brazil. Utilizing dial-up Internet access, Meganet was Sega's first online multiplayer gaming service, and functioned on a pay to play basis. The system functioned through the use of a peripheral called the Mega Modem and offered several unique titles that could be downloaded, and a few could be played competitively with friends. In addition, it shared technology and equipment with more serious services such as the Mega Anser, used for banking purposes. Though the system was announced for North America under the rebranded name "Tele-Genesis", it was never released for that region. Ultimately, the Meganet service would be short-lived, lasting approximately a year before it was discontinued, but would serve as a precursor to the Sega Channel and XBAND services, as well as a predecessor to online gaming services for video game consoles. Retrospective feedback praises the attempt by Sega to introduce online gaming, but criticizes the service for its logistical issues and lack of titles.

<i>Streets of Rage</i> (video game) 1991 video game

Streets of Rage is a side-scrolling beat 'em up video game developed and published by Sega for the Mega Drive/Genesis in 1991. It is the first installment of the Streets of Rage series, followed by Streets of Rage 2 and Streets of Rage 3. The game was later converted to the Game Gear, Sega CD and Master System, and was also released for the Wii's Virtual Console and for the iOS via the App Store, as well as being made available as part of Sonic's Ultimate Genesis Collection in 2009 on both the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360 consoles.

<i>Gunstar Heroes</i> 1993 video game

Gunstar Heroes is a run and gun video game developed by Treasure and published by Sega. It was Treasure's debut game, originally released on the Sega Genesis in 1993. The game's premise is centered around a pair of characters, the Gunstars, in their efforts to stop an evil empire from recovering four powerful gems. The characters can fire guns and perform a series of acrobatic maneuvers to fight enemies across each stage. There are four weapons in the game which can be combined with one another to create different shot types.

<i>Lethal Enforcers</i> 1992 arcade game

Lethal Enforcers is a 1992 shooting game released for the arcades by Konami. The in-game graphics consist entirely of digitized photographs. This caused controversy as it allowed players to shoot photorealistic representations of enemies.

<i>Alisia Dragoon</i> 1992 video game

Alisia Dragoon is a 1992 platform game developed by Game Arts for the Sega Genesis. The player controls Alisia, a young woman who is on a quest to avenge her father and save the world. She can fire lightning from her hands and summon four faithful beasts to aid her.

<i>Terminator 2: Judgment Day</i> (arcade game) arcade game

Terminator 2: Judgment Day or T2 is a gun shooting video game based on the film of the same name, produced by Midway Manufacturing Company for the arcades in 1991. Home conversions were released by Acclaim Entertainment for various platforms under the title of T2: The Arcade Game in order to avoid confusion with the numerous tie-in games also based on the movie.

<i>Thunder Force IV</i> 1992 shoot em up game

Thunder Force IV, known in North America as Lightening Force: Quest for the Darkstar, is a shoot 'em up video game developed and published by Technosoft for the Mega Drive in 1992. It is the fourth installment in Technosoft's Thunder Force series, and the third and final one created for the Mega Drive. It was developed by the team at Technosoft that ported Devil's Crush to the Mega Drive rather than the team that developed the previous Thunder Force games. Like its predecessors, it is a horizontally scrolling shooter, but it also features extensive vertical scrolling with large playing fields.

Body Count is a 1994 rail shooter for the Sega Genesis. It is one of the few games that make use of the Menacer light gun and the Mega Mouse. In the U.S. the game was released on the Sega Channel.

The Master Gear, Master Gear Converter, or Master Gear Adaptor is a handheld game console peripheral invented by King-Ho So for Kalplus Limited with the purpose of allowing 50-pin Master System cartridges to fit into and function on a Game Gear.

<i>Ranger X</i> 1993 video game

Ranger X, released in Japan as Ex-Ranza (エクスランザー), is a side scrolling run and gun shoot 'em up video game for the Sega Mega Drive. Developed by GAU Entertainment and published by Sega, the game was released in 1993.