The list of Super NES enhancement chips demonstrates the overall design plan for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System, whereby the console's hardware designers had made it easy to interface special coprocessor chips to the console. This standardized selection of chips was available to increase system performance and features for each game cartridge. As increasingly superior chips became available throughout the SNES's retail market years, this strategy originally provided a cheaper and more versatile way of maintaining the system's market lifespan when compared to Nintendo's option of having included a much more expensive CPU or a more obsolete stock chipset.
The Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES), also known as the Super NES or Super Nintendo, is a 16-bit home video game console developed by Nintendo that was released in 1990 in Japan and South Korea, 1991 in North America, 1992 in Europe and Australasia (Oceania), and 1993 in South America. In Japan, the system is called the Super Famicom (SFC). In South Korea, it is known as the Super Comboy and was distributed by Hyundai Electronics. The system was released in Brazil on August 30, 1993, by Playtronic. Although each version is essentially the same, several forms of regional lockout prevent the different versions from being compatible with one another.
A coprocessor is a computer processor used to supplement the functions of the primary processor. Operations performed by the coprocessor may be floating point arithmetic, graphics, signal processing, string processing, cryptography or I/O interfacing with peripheral devices. By offloading processor-intensive tasks from the main processor, coprocessors can accelerate system performance. Coprocessors allow a line of computers to be customized, so that customers who do not need the extra performance do not need to pay for it.
As a result, various enhancement chips were integrated into the cartridges of select game titles. The presence of an enhancement chip is most often indicated by 16 additional pins on either side of the original pins, 8 to each side.
The Super FX chip is a 16-bit supplemental RISC CPU developed by Argonaut Games that was included in certain game cartridges to perform functions that the main CPU can not feasibly do.It is typically programmed to act as a graphics accelerator chip that draws polygons to a frame buffer in the RAM sitting adjacent to it.
Argonaut Games was a British video game developer, founded in 1982 and liquidated in late 2004, with the company ceasing to exist in early 2007. It was most notable for the development of the Super NES video game Star Fox and its supporting Super FX hardware.
In addition to rendering polygons, the chip can assist the SNES with advanced 2D effects. Super Mario World 2: Yoshi's Island uses the Super FX 2 for sprite scaling, rotation, and stretching; screen warping; and rendering huge boss characters that take up much of the screen.
This chip went through at least four revisions, first starting out as a surface mounted chip labeled "MARIO CHIP 1" (Mathematical, Argonaut, Rotation & I/O) in the earliest Star Fox cartridges, commonly called the Super FX. The following year, some boards were providing an epoxy version of it, and later a first revision came out under the label "GSU-1". Both versions are clocked with a 21 MHz signal, but an internal clock speed divider halves it to 10.5 MHz on the MARIO CHIP 1. The GSU-1 however runs at the full 21 MHz. Both the MARIO CHIP 1 and the GSU-1 can support a maximum ROM size of 8 Mbits. Later on, the design was revised to become the GSU-2, which is still 16-bit, but unlike the earlier Super FX chips, this version can support a ROM size greater than 8 MBit. The final known revision is the GSU-2-SP1. All versions of the Super FX chip are functionally compatible in terms of their instruction set. The differences arise in how they are packaged, their pinout, their maximum supported ROM size, and their internal clock speed.
Surface-mount technology (SMT) is a method for producing electronic circuits in which the components are mounted or placed directly onto the surface of printed circuit boards (PCBs). An electronic device so made is called a surface-mount device (SMD). In industry, it has largely replaced the through-hole technology construction method of fitting components with wire leads into holes in the circuit board. Both technologies can be used on the same board, with the through-hole technology used for components not suitable for surface mounting such as large transformers and heat-sinked power semiconductors.
The Cx4 chip is a math coprocessor that was used by Capcom and produced by Hitachi (now Renesas) to perform general trigonometric calculations for wireframe effects, sprite positioning and rotation. It is known for its role in mapping and transforming wireframes in Capcom's second and third Mega Man X series games.It is based on the Hitachi HG51B169 DSP.
Capcom Co., Ltd. is a Japanese video game developer and publisher known for creating numerous multi-million selling game franchises, including Street Fighter, Mega Man, Resident Evil, Devil May Cry, Monster Hunter and Ace Attorney as well as games based on Disney animated properties. Established in 1979, it has become an international enterprise with subsidiaries in North America, Europe, and Japan.
Hitachi, Ltd. is a Japanese multinational conglomerate company headquartered in Chiyoda, Tokyo, Japan. It is the parent company of the Hitachi Group and forms part of the DKB Group of companies. Hitachi is a highly diversified company that operates eleven business segments: Information & Telecommunication Systems, Social Infrastructure, High Functional Materials & Components, Financial Services, Power Systems, Electronic Systems & Equipment, Automotive Systems, Railway & Urban Systems, Digital Media & Consumer Products, Construction Machinery and Other Components & Systems.
Trigonometry is a branch of mathematics that studies relationships between side lengths and angles of triangles. The field emerged in the Hellenistic world during the 3rd century BC from applications of geometry to astronomical studies. In particular, 3rd-century astronomers first noted that the ratio of the lengths of two sides of a right-angled triangle depends only on one acute angle of the triangle. These dependencies are now called trigonometric functions.
A Cx4 self-test screen can be accessed by holding the 'B' button on the second controller upon system start-up in both Mega Man X2 and Mega Man X3 .In both the PlayStation 2 and Nintendo GameCube versions of Mega Man X Collection , this self-test screen is still accessible in Mega Man X2 (although differently accessed due to the remapped controller configuration), but not in Mega Man X3, because Mega Man X Collection features the 32-bit CD version of the game and not the SNES version.
This series of fixed-point digital signal processor chips allowed for fast vector-based calculations, bitmap conversions, both 2D and 3D coordinate transformations, and other functions.Four revisions of the chip exist, each physically identical but with different microcode. The DSP-1 version, including the later 1A die shrink and 1B bug fix revisions, was most often used; the DSP-2, DSP-3, and DSP-4 were used in only one title each. All of them are based on the NEC µPD77C25 CPU.
The DSP-1 is the most varied and widely used of the SNES DSPs, appearing in over 15 separate titles. It is used as a math coprocessor in games such as Super Mario Kart and Pilotwings that require more advanced Mode 7 scaling and rotation. It also provides fast support for the floating point and trigonometric calculations needed by 3D math algorithms. The later DSP-1A and DSP-1B serve the same purpose as the DSP-1. The DSP-1A is a die shrink of the DSP-1, and the DSP-1B also corrects several bugs.The DSP-1B introduced a bug in the Pilotwings demo due to the game code not being updated to reflect the timing differences of the chip revisions.
The DSP-2 can only be found in the SNES port of Dungeon Master . Its primary purpose is to convert Atari ST bitmap image data into the SNES bitplane format. It also provides dynamic scaling capability and transparency effects.
DSP-3 is an assistant chip, used in only one game for the Japanese Super Famicom, a turn-based strategy game titled SD Gundam GX. The chip assists with tasks like calculating the next AI move, Shannon-Fano bitstream decompression, and bitplane conversion of graphics.
DSP-4 is used in only one game cartridge, Top Gear 3000 . It primarily assists with drawing the race track, especially during the times that the track branches into multiple paths.
The hardware inside the Super Game Boy peripheral include a Sharp LR35902core identical to the CPU in the handheld Game Boy . Because the Super NES is not powerful enough for software emulation of the Game Boy, the hardware for the entire handheld is inside of the cartridge.
This chip was made by MegaChips exclusively for Nintendo Power cartridges for the Super Famicom. The cartridges are equipped with flash ROMs instead of mask ROMs, and were designed to hold games downloaded for a fee from specialized kiosks in Japan. The chip manages communication with the kiosks to download ROM images, and provides an initial menu to select which of the downloaded games would be played. Some titles were produced both in cartridge and download form, while others were download only. The service was closed on February 8, 2007.
OBC-1 is a sprite manipulation chip used exclusively in the Super Scope game Metal Combat: Falcon's Revenge , the sequel to Battle Clash .
The Rockwell RC96V24DP is a low power, V.22 bis 2400 bps data/fax modem data pump in a single VLSI package, used in the XBAND cartridge .
The S-DD1 chip is an ASIC decompressor made by Nintendo for use in some Super Nintendo Entertainment System Game Paks.Designed to handle data compressed by ABS Lossless Entropy Algorithm, a form of arithmetic coding developed by Ricoh, its use is necessary in games where massive amounts of sprite data are compressed with a total design limit of 32-megabits. This data is decompressed dynamically by the S-DD1 and given directly to the picture processing unit.
The S-DD1 mediates between the Super NES's Ricoh 5A22 CPU and the game's ROM via two buses. However, the controlling 5A22 processor may still request normal, uncompressed data from the game's ROM even if the S-DD1 is already busy with a decompression operation. This form of parallelism allows sprite data to be decompressed while other types of data are quickly passed to the main CPU.
Star Ocean and Street Fighter Alpha 2 are the only games that use this chip. Emulation of the S-DD1 initially proved to be difficult, requiring "graphics packs" to be provided for the affected titles, until the compression algorithm was identified.
S-RTC is a real-time clock chip used in one game, Daikaijuu Monogatari II .
The Super Accelerator 1 (SA1) chip is used in 34 SNES games, including the popular Super Mario RPG: Legend of the Seven Stars .
Similar to the 5A22 CPU in the SNES console, the SA1 contains a processor core based on the 65C816 with several programmable timers.The SA1 does not function as a slave CPU for the 5A22; both can interrupt each other independently.
The SA1 also features a range of enhancements over the standard 65C816:
Brazilian ROM hacker Vitor Vilela has created a ROM patch for Gradius 3 that shifts some work from the Super Famicom/Super Nintendo CPU onto the SA-1 co-processor. This has resulted in a version of the game without the infamous slowdown, even in the notorious bubble level (Stage 2).
A data decompression chip designed by Epson, used in three games by Hudson. Tengai Makyou Zero also contains a real-time clock chip accessed via the SPC7110.
The ST series of chips are used by SETA Corporation to enhance AI functionality.
Used for general functions and handling the AI of opponent cars in F1 ROC II: Race of Champions . Contains a NEC µPD96050 CPU.
ST011 is used for AI functionality in the shogi board game Hayazashi Nidan Morita Shogi . It also uses a NEC µPD96050.
ST018 is used for AI functionality in Hayazashi Nidan Morita Shogi 2 . It is a 21.47 MHz, 32-bit ARMv3 processor.
| Mega Man X2 NA EU|
|CX4||1994||Capcom||Capcom (NA) (JP) (EU)|
| Mega Man X3 NA EU|
|CX4||1995||Capcom, Minakuchi Engineering||Capcom (NA) (JP)|
|Soukou Kihei Votoms: The Battling Road||DSP-1||1993||Genki||Takara (JP)|
|Bike Daisuki! Hashiriya Kon - Rider's Spirits||DSP-1||1994||Genki||NCS (JP)|
|Final Stretch||DSP-1||1993||Genki||LOZC (JP)|
| Lock On NA EU|
Super Air DiverJP
|DSP-1||1993||Copya System||Vic Tokai (US) SunSoft (EU)|
|Michael Andretti's Indy Car Challenge||DSP-1/1A||1994||Genki||Bullet Proof Software (NA) (JP)|
|Pilotwings||DSP-1/1B||1991||Nintendo EAD||Nintendo (NA) (JP) (EU)|
|Shutokō Battle '94: Keichii Tsuchiya Drift King||DSP-1B||1994||Genki||Bullet-Proof Software (JP)|
|Shutokō Battle 2: Drift King Keichii Tsuchiya & Masaaki Bandoh||DSP-1B||1995||Genki||Bullet-Proof Software (JP)|
|Suzuka 8 Hours||DSP-1||1993||Arc System Works||Namco (NA) (JP)|
|Super Air Diver 2||DSP-1||1995||Copya System||Asmik (JP)|
| Super Bases Loaded 2 NA|
Super 3D BaseballJP
|DSP-1||1993||TOSE||Jaleco (NA) (JP) (KR)|
|Super F1 Circus Gaiden||DSP-1||1995||Nichibutsu (JP)|
|Battle Racers||DSP-1||1995||Banpresto||Banpresto (JP)|
|Super Mario Kart||DSP-1/1B||1992||Nintendo EAD||Nintendo (NA) (JP) (EU)|
|Ace o Nerae! 3D Tennis||DSP-1A||1993||Telenet Japan||Telenet Japan (JP)|
|Ballz 3D||DSP-1B||1994||PF Magic||Accolade (NA)|
|Dungeon Master||DSP-2||1992||FTL Games||JVC Victor (NA) (JP) (EU)|
|SD Gundam GX||DSP-3||1994||BEC||Bandai (JP)|
| Top Gear 3000 NA EU|
The Planet's Champ TG 3000 JP
|DSP-4||1995||Gremlin Interactive||Kemco (NA) (JP) (EU)|
|Metal Combat: Falcon's Revenge||OBC-1||1993||Intelligent Systems||Nintendo (NA) (EU)|
|Asahi Shinbun Rensai: Katou Ichi-Ni-San Shougi: Shingiryuu||SA1||1995||Varie||Varie (JP)|
|Daisenryaku Expert WWII: War in Europe||SA1||1996||SystemSoft Alpha||ASCII Corporation (JP)|
|Derby Jockey 2||SA1||1995||Graphic Research||Asmik (JP)|
|Dragon Ball Z: Hyper Dimension||SA1||1996||TOSE||Bandai (JP) (EU)|
|Habu Meijin no Omoshiro Shōgi||SA1||1995||Access||Tomy (JP)|
|Hayashi Kaihou Kudan no Igo Oodou||SA1||1996||Ask Kodansha (JP)|
|Itoi Shigesato no Bass Tsuri No. 1||SA1||1997||Dice, HAL Laboratory||Nintendo (JP)|
|J.League '96 Dream Stadium||SA1||1996||Hudson Soft (JP)|
|Jikkyou Oshaberi Parodius||SA1||1995||Konami||Konami (JP)|
|Jumpin' Derby||SA1||1996||KID||Naxat Soft (JP)|
|Kakinoki Shogi||SA1||1995||Sakata SAS||ASCII Corporation (JP)|
| Kirby Super Star NA JP|
Kirby's Fun Pak EU
|SA1||1996||HAL Laboratory||Nintendo (NA) (JP) (EU)|
|Kirby's Dream Land 3||SA1||1997||HAL Laboratory||Nintendo (NA) (JP)|
|Marvelous: Mouhitotsu no Takarajima||SA1||1996||Nintendo R&D2||Nintendo (JP)|
|Masters New: Haruka Naru Augusta 3||SA1||1995||T&E Soft||T&E Soft (JP)|
|Mini 4WD Shining Scorpion Let's & Go!!||SA1||1996||KID||ASCII Corporation (JP)|
|Pebble Beach no Hotou: New Tournament Edition||SA1||1996||T&E Soft||T&E Soft (JP)|
|Pachi-Slot Monogatari - PAL Kougyou Special||SA1||1995||Nihon Soft System (JP)|
|PGA European Tour||SA1||1996||Halestorm||THQ / Black Pearl Software (NA) (EU)|
|PGA Tour 96||SA1||1995||Black Pearl Software||Electronic Arts (NA) (EU)|
|Power Rangers Zeo: Battle Racers||SA1||1996||Natsume||Bandai (NA) (EU)|
|Pro Kishi Jinsei Simulation: Shōgi no Hanamichi||SA1||1996||Access||Atlus (JP)|
|Saikousoku Shikou Shougi Mahjong||SA1||1995||Varie||Varie (JP)|
|SD F-1 Grand Prix||SA1||1995||Video System||Video System (JP)|
|SD Gundam G NEXT||SA1||1995||Japan Art Media||Bandai (JP)|
|Shin Shogi Club||SA1||1995||Hect (JP)|
|Shogi Saikyou||SA1||1995||Magical Company (JP)|
|Shogi Saikyou 2||SA1||1996||Magical Company (JP)|
|Super Bomberman Panic Bomber World||SA1||1995||Hudson Soft||Hudson Soft (JP)|
|Super Mario RPG: Legend of the Seven Stars||SA1||1996||Square||Nintendo (NA) (JP)|
|Super Robot Taisen Gaiden: Masō Kishin - The Lord Of Elemental||SA1||1996||Winkysoft||Banpresto (JP)|
|Super Shougi 3: Kitaihei||SA1||1995||I'Max (JP)|
|Taikyoku Igo: Idaten||SA1||1995||Bullet Proof Software||Bullet Proof Software (JP)|
|Takemiya Masaki Kudan no Igo Taishou||SA1||1995||KSS (JP)|
|Star Ocean||S-DD1||1996||tri-Ace||Enix (JP)|
| Street Fighter Alpha 2 NA EU|
Street Fighter Zero 2JP
|S-DD1||1996||Capcom||Capcom (NA) (JP) (EU)|
|Daikaijuu Monogatari II||S-RTC||1996||AIM, Birthday||Hudson Soft (JP)|
|Far East of Eden Zero (Tengai Makyou Zero)||SPC7110||1995||Red Company||Hudson Soft (JP)|
|Momotaro Dentetsu Happy||SPC7110||1996||Make Software||Hudson Soft (JP)|
|Super Power League 4||SPC7110||1996||Now Production||Hudson Soft (JP)|
| F1 ROC II: Race of Champions NA|
Exhaust Heat IIJP
|ST010||1993||SETA Corporation||SETA Corporation (NA) (JP)|
|Hayazashi Nidan Morita Shogi||ST011||1993||Random House||SETA Corporation (JP)|
|Hayazashi Nidan Morita Shogi 2||ST018||1995||Random House||SETA Corporation (JP)|
| Star Fox NA JP|
|Super FX GSU-1||1993||Nintendo EAD, Argonaut||Nintendo (NA) (JP) (EU)|
| Stunt Race FX NA EU|
|Super FX GSU-1||1994||Nintendo EAD, Argonaut||Nintendo (NA) (JP) (EU)|
|Vortex||Super FX GSU-1||1994||Argonaut Games||Electro Brain (NA), Pack-In-Video (JP)|
|Dirt Racer||Super FX GSU-1||1994||MotiveTime||Elite Systems (EU)|
|Dirt Trax FX||Super FX GSU-1||1995||Sculptured Software||Acclaim Entertainment (NA)|
| Super Mario World 2: Yoshi's Island NA EU|
Super Mario: Yossy Island JP
|Super FX GSU-2||1995||Nintendo EAD||Nintendo (NA) (JP) (EU)|
|Doom||Super FX GSU-2||1995||Sculptured Software||Williams (NA), Imagineer (JP), Ocean (EU)|
| Winter Gold EU|
FX SkiingNA (cancelled)
|Super FX GSU-2||1997||Funcom||Nintendo (EU)|
This list in ODS
|Star Fox 2||Super FX GSU-2||-||Nintendo EAD, Argonaut Games||Nintendo|
|FX Fighter||Super FX GSU-2||-||Argonaut Games||GTE Entertainment (NA) (EU)|
|Comanche||Super FX GSU-2||-||Nova Logic||Nova Logic (NA)|
|Powerslide||Super FX GSU-1||-||Elite Systems||Elite Systems (EU)|
The Nintendo 64 (N64 for short, model number: NUS), stylized as NINTENDO64, is a home video game console developed and marketed by Nintendo. Named for its 64-bit central processing unit, it was released in June 1996 in Japan, September 1996 in North America and Brazil, March 1997 in Europe and Australia, and September 1997 in France. It was the last major home console to use the cartridge as its primary storage format until the Nintendo Switch in 2017. The Nintendo 64 was discontinued in mid-2002 following the launch of its successor, the GameCube, in 2001.
The Neo Geo, stylised as NEO・GEO, also written as NEOGEO, is a cartridge-based arcade system board and fourth-generation home video game console released on April 26, 1990, by Japanese game company SNK Corporation. It was the first system in SNK's Neo Geo family. The Neo Geo was marketed as 24-bit; its CPU is technically a 16/32-bit 68000-based system with an 8/16-bit Z80 coprocessor, while its GPU chipset has a 24-bit graphics data bus.
Pilotwings is a video game developed and published by Nintendo for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System. The game was originally released in Japan in December 1990, shortly after the launch of the Super Famicom in the country. It was also released as a launch title for the SNES in August 1991 in North America, with a European release following in 1992.
The Super FX is a coprocessor on the Graphics Support Unit (GSU) added to select Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES) video game cartridges, primarily to provide advanced 2D and 3D techniques. The Super FX chip was designed by Argonaut Games, who also co-developed the 3D space rail shooter video game Star Fox with Nintendo to demonstrate the additional polygon rendering capabilities that the chip had introduced to the SNES.
Mode 7 is a graphics mode on the Super NES video game console that allows a background layer to be rotated and scaled on a scanline-by-scanline basis to create many different effects. The most famous of these effects is the application of a perspective effect on a background layer by scaling and rotating the background layer in this manner. This transforms the background layer into a two-dimensional horizontal texture-mapped plane that trades height for depth. Thus, an impression of three-dimensional graphics is achieved.
The Tristar 64 is an unlicensed add-on for the Nintendo 64 (N64) video game console. Produced in Hong Kong by Future Laboratory, the Tristar 64 features two additional cartridge ports which are designed to accept cartridges created for the Nintendo Entertainment System and Super Nintendo Entertainment System. The device then emulates the NES or SNES hardware, and allows the cartridge to be run. The device also features built-in cheat cartridge functionality through a program called the X-Terminator, as well as the Memory Editor, which allows SRAM and EEPROM saved game data to be archived and edited.
The Super NES Emulator SE was a Nintendo-sponsored game development system for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System. It was designed by Intelligent Systems, and sold only to licensed Nintendo development houses.
A ROM cartridge, usually referred to simply as a cartridge or cart, is a removable memory card containing ROM designed to be connected to a consumer electronics device such as a home computer, video game console or, to a lesser extent, electronic musical instruments. ROM cartridges can be used to load software such as video games or other application programs.
A game backup device, formerly usually called a copier and more recently a flash cartridge, is a device for backing up ROM information from a video game cartridge to a computer file called a ROM image and playing them back on the real hardware. Recently flash cartridges, especially on the Game Boy Advance and Nintendo DS platforms, only support the latter function; they cannot be used for backing up ROM data. Game backup devices also make it possible to develop homebrew software on video game systems. Game backup devices differ from modchips in that modchips are used in conjunction with systems that use generally available media such as CDs and DVDs, whereas game backup devices are used with systems that use cartridges.
The Retro Duo is a video-game clone console developed by Retro-Bit and distributed by Innex, Inc. It plays game cartridges for the Nintendo Entertainment System and Super Nintendo Entertainment System. It plays American, European, and Japanese games and has the highest compatibility of any other clone system. S-video is compatible when playing SNES games. The console is not licensed by Nintendo and is not fully compatible with every game released for the two game systems; however, the majority of games function properly. While it has only been released in Canada and the United States, it can still be used in Europe and Japan with a power plug adapter. The console is compatible with official and third party SNES controllers.
Nintendo Campus Challenge was a video game competition sponsored by Nintendo and held at nearly 60 college campuses and other events throughout the United States, including a Canadian Tour. There were two Campus Challenge events, one in 1991 and another in 1992.
Bike Daisuki! Hashiriya Kon - Rider's Spirits is a 1994 video game for the Super Famicom. It is a racing game that allows players to race on motorcycles.
The Super NES CD-ROM System, also known as the Super Famicom CD-ROM Adapter, is an unreleased video game peripheral for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES). The add-on built upon the functionality of the cartridge-based SNES by adding support for a CD-ROM-based format known as Super Disc.
This article describes the processor, memory, and other components of the 1996 Nintendo 64 home video game console.
The Super Nintendo Entertainment System Game Pak is the system's default ROM cartridge medium. It is called Game Pak in most Western regions, and Cassette in Japan and parts of Latin America. While the Super NES can address 128 Megabits, only 117.75 Megabits are actually available for cartridge use. A fairly normal mapping can easily address up to 95 Megabit of ROM data with 8 Megabits of battery-backed RAM. However, most available memory access controllers only support mappings of up to 32 Megabits. The largest games released contain 48 Megabits of ROM data, while the smallest games contain 2 Megabits.
The Super Famicom Box is a video game system created by Nintendo that incorporated a "pay to play" mechanism in a manner similar to arcade machines. It was sold only in Japan in the early 1990s and was only available for installation in hotel rooms. The device consists of Super Famicom console hardware enclosed in a box along with a coin acceptor for time-limited playing of video games. The device includes original Super Famicom controllers.