Enix

Last updated
Enix Corporation
Native name
株式会社エニックス
Romanized name
Kabushiki gaisha Enikkusu
Formerly
Eidansha Boshu Service Center
Kabushiki gaisha
Industry
Fate Merged with Square
Successor Square Enix
FoundedSeptember 22, 1975;43 years ago (1975-09-22) [1]
Headquarters Shibuya, Tokyo, Japan [1]
Key people
Products List of Enix games
List of Enix home computer games
¥7,459 million (March 2002) [2]
¥ 4,276 million (March 2002) [2]
Number of employees
134 (March 2002) [1]
Subsidiaries See subsidiaries
Website www.enix.co.jp

Enix Corporation(株式会社エニックス,Kabushiki-gaisha Enikkusu) was a Japanese video game publisher that produced video games, anime and manga. Enix is known for publishing the Dragon Quest series of role-playing video games.

Japan Constitutional monarchy in East Asia

Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south.

A video game publisher is a company that publishes video games that have been developed either internally by the publisher or externally by a video game developer. As with book publishers or publishers of DVD movies, video game publishers are responsible for their product's manufacturing and marketing, including market research and all aspects of advertising.

Anime Japanese animation

Anime is hand-drawn and computer animation originating from or associated with Japan.

Contents

The company was founded by Yasuhiro Fukushima on September 22, 1975, as Eidansha Boshu Service Center(株式会社営団社募集サービスセンター,Kabushiki Gaisha Eidansha Boshū Sābisu Sentā) . [3] The name "Enix" is a play on the words "phoenix", a mythical bird that is reborn from its own ashes, and "ENIAC", the world's first digital computer. [4]

Phoenix (mythology) Long-lived bird that is cyclically regenerated or reborn in Greek mythology

In Greek mythology, a phoenix is a long-lived bird that cyclically regenerates or is otherwise born again.

ENIAC electronic general-purpose computer

ENIAC was the first electronic general-purpose computer. It was Turing-complete, digital and able to solve "a large class of numerical problems" through reprogramming.

The company merged with its competitor Square in 2003 to form Square Enix. [5] [6]

Square Co., Ltd. was a Japanese video game company founded in September 1986 by Masafumi Miyamoto. It merged with Enix in 2003 to form Square Enix. The company also used SquareSoft as a brand name to refer to their games, and the term is occasionally used to refer to the company itself. In addition, "Square Soft, Inc" was the name of the company's American arm before the merger, after which it was renamed to "Square Enix, Inc".

2003 has seen many sequels and prequels in video games and several new titles such as Beyond Good & Evil, Call of Duty, Mario & Luigi Superstar Saga, PlanetSide, Star Wars: Knights of the Old Republic, and True Crime: Streets of LA.

Square Enix Japanese video game developer, publisher, and distribution company

Square Enix Holdings Co., Ltd. is a Japanese video game developer, publisher, and distribution company known for its Final Fantasy, Dragon Quest, and Kingdom Hearts role-playing video game franchises, among numerous others. Several of them have sold over 10 million copies worldwide, with the Final Fantasy franchise alone selling over 115 million. The Square Enix headquarters are in the Shinjuku Eastside Square Building in Shinjuku, Tokyo. The company employs over 4300 employees worldwide.

History

Enix was founded on September 22, 1975 as Eidansha Boshu Service Center by Japanese architect-turned-entrepreneur Yasuhiro Fukushima. [3] [7] The company initially published tabloids that advertised real estate. [8]

Architect person trained to plan and design buildings, and oversee their construction

An architect is a person who plans, designs and reviews the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with the design of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the buildings that have human occupancy or use as their principal purpose. Etymologically, architect derives from the Latin architectus, which derives from the Greek, i.e., chief builder.

Tabloid (newspaper format) type of newspaper format

A tabloid is a newspaper with a compact page size smaller than broadsheet. There is no standard size for this newspaper format.

Real estate is "property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resources such as crops, minerals or water; immovable property of this nature; an interest vested in this (also) an item of real property, buildings or housing in general. Also: the business of real estate; the profession of buying, selling, or renting land, buildings, or housing." It is a legal term used in jurisdictions whose legal system is derived from English common law, such as India, England, Wales, Northern Ireland, United States, Canada, Pakistan, Australia, and New Zealand.

In February 1980, Eidansha Boshu Service created a wholly owned subsidiary for the purpose of specializing in real estate trading and brokerage. [9] This new subsidiary took the name Eidansha Systems in August 1981. [9] The following year, in August 1982, Eidansha Systems was renamed Enix Corporation. [9] [3]

After a failed attempt of Eidansha Boshu Service to go nationwide in 1982, its newly established Enix subsidiary began a foray into the gaming market by holding a personal computer game programming contest. [10] One of the winners was Love Match Tennis, created by Yuji Horii. It would go to become one of the company's first PC releases. [11] Another winner was the puzzle game Door Door by Koichi Nakamura, which would become one of the company's better known home computer titles. The game was subsequently ported to the Nintendo Family Computer, but never saw any form of release outside Japan. Nakamura would stay on board as one Enix's key programmers. [10]

Personal computer Computer intended for use by an individual person

A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use. Personal computers are intended to be operated directly by an end user, rather than by a computer expert or technician. Unlike large costly minicomputer and mainframes, time-sharing by many people at the same time is not used with personal computers.

Yuji Horii Japanese video game designer

Yuji Horii is a Japanese video game designer and scenario writer best known as the creator of the Dragon Quest series of role-playing games, supervising and writing the scenario for Chrono Trigger, as well as the first visual novel adventure game Portopia Serial Murder Case.

<i>Door Door</i> 1983 video game

Door Door is a puzzle-platform video game designed by Koichi Nakamura and published by Enix. As Enix's debut title, Door Door first released in February 1983 for the NEC PC-8801 and was subsequently converted for other Japanese computers. The game's success prompted a Famicom port and an expanded edition in 1985 as well as a mobile phone release in 2004. In 2006, editors of the popular Japanese gaming magazine Famitsu placed the game among classics such as Super Mario Bros. and Donkey Kong in its listing of the best Famicom games. Despite its popularity, Door Door has never been released outside Japan.

Over the next few years, Enix published several video games for various Japanese home computer systems. Rather than developing games within its own company, Enix would continue to outsource the production of its games to other developers through the use of royalties. [10] Enix is perhaps most famous for publishing the Dragon Quest series of console games (released as Dragon Warrior in North America until 2005) developed by Chunsoft. Key members of the developer's staff consisted of director Koichi Nakamura, writer Yuuji Horii, artist Akira Toriyama, and composer Koichi Sugiyama, among others. The first game in the Famicom-based RPG series was released in 1986, and would eventually sell 1.5 million copies in Japan, establishing Dragon Quest as the company's most profitable franchise. [11] [12]

In April 1989, the original Enix Corporation along with two sister companies (Konika Enix and Enix Products) were unified and merged into their parent Eidansha Boshu Service who then renamed itself Enix Corporation. [9] [3]

In 1991, Enix registered its stock with the Japan Securities Dealers Association, later known as JASDAQ. [3] Enix soon began publishing manga from its shonen magazine Monthly Shōnen Gangan . The company established ties with more video game developers and would go on to publish several games for fourth, fifth, and sixth generation game consoles. Despite the announcement that Enix's long-time competitor Square Co., Ltd. would develop exclusively for Sony PlayStation, Enix announced in January 1997 that it would release games for both Nintendo and Sony consoles. [13] This caused a significant rise in stock for both Enix and Sony. [14] By November 1999, Enix was listed in the Tokyo Stock Exchange's 1st section, indicating it as a "large company." [3] [15]

Merger with Square

In June 2001, Enix expressed interest in partnering with both Square and Namco in online ventures to deal with mounting development costs. [16] That same month, Enix invested in the company Game Arts, acquiring ¥99.2 million worth of stock shares in order to publish the latter's Grandia series. [17] Despite Enix's marketing of Dragon Quest VII in 1999, the game was delayed numerous times and not released until 2000. As a result, the game didn't (as had been expected) contribute to the fiscal year 1999, cutting the company's previous profit-to-sales ratio in half and causing its stock value to drop by 40% in early 2000. [10] [18] Enix was further hurt by a delay of Dragon Quest Monsters 2 in Japan in 2001, dropping its first-half 2001 fiscal year profit by 89.71%. [19]

Enix's competitor Square also suffered financially in 2001, mainly from the box office failure of its feature film Final Fantasy: The Spirits Within . This made Enix hesitant to join with the company. [20] However, it was announced on November 26, 2002 that the two companies would merge the following year in order to mutually decrease development costs and to compete with foreign developers. [21] The merge was delayed until April 1, 2003, when the new merged entity Square Enix came into being, with Enix as the surviving company. [5] [6] In October 1, 2008, Square Enix (the former Enix Corporation) renamed itself Square Enix Holdings and became a pure holding company. On that same date, a new video game company called Square Enix was created as a subsidiary of Square Enix Holdings. [22] [23] [24]

Subsidiaries

Asia

Digital Entertainment Academy Co., Ltd. was established as a partially owned subsidiary in 1991. [3] Originally called Toshima Ku Hokkaido University, the school was founded to teach game development. As of April 2008, it is funded by 20 gaming corporations, including Square Enix. [25]

Square Enix Webstar Network Technology (Beijing) Co., Ltd. was a company formed between Enix and Mauritius Webstar Inc. in 2001 to develop online and mobile phone games in China and, later, other parts of Asia. One of the products includes the MMORPG Cross Gate . The subsidiary was carried over after the merger between Square and Enix, but was dissolved in 2005 after the establishment of Square Enix China. [26]

North America

Enix America Corporation was the corporation's first American localization subsidiary based in Redmond, Washington. [27] It was organized after the release of Dragon Warrior by Nintendo of America in 1989. The subsidiary came into existence in 1990, but closed in November 1995 when the parent company decided to no longer release products in North America [28] due to poor sales. [29] One of the games they published, King Arthur & the Knights of Justice , was Enix's first and only North America exclusive game. [30]

Enix America, Inc., Enix's last American localization subsidiary, was organized in 1999 after the release of Dragon Warrior Monsters through a joint venture with Eidos. [31] Paul Handelman, who was part of Enix America Corporation's staff, returned to lead Enix America, Inc. as President. The corporation was in existence until 2003, ceasing to exist after the merger with Square Co., Ltd. [32] It was based in Seattle, Washington. [33]

Products

Video games

From 1983 to 1993, Enix published games for Japanese home computers including the NEC PC-8801, MSX, Sharp X68000, and FM-7. Beginning on the Famicom, Enix published the very successful Dragon Quest series, which, after the formation of Square Enix, had already sold over 35 million copies worldwide. [34] Although the first few titles were developed by Chunsoft, other companies would also develop main installments, spin-offs, and remakes for the series including Heartbeat, ArtePiazza, TOSE, and Level-5. The Dragon Quest franchise would carry over as one of Square Enix's most important assets. Other notable franchises published by Enix include the acclaimed Star Ocean and Valkyrie Profile series by tri-Ace, both of which would also continue with Square Enix. The company Quintet developed several role-playing games for Enix such as ActRaiser , Robotrek , Soul Blazer , Illusion of Gaia , and Terranigma for the Super NES.

Manga and toys

Enix began publishing manga in 1991 in its own Gangan Comics publications, which originally consisted of Monthly Shōnen Gangan, Monthly Gangan Wing, and Monthly GFantasy.

Other products

In November 2000, Enix set up a subsidiary titled BMF in Kawasaki, Kanagawa Prefecture to handle a fingerprint identification systems operation. Enix took a 68% stake in 200 million yen capitalization. The subsidiary was expected to post a pretax profit of 12 million yen on sales of 135 million yen in the first five months of operation. [35] In September 2002, Enix entered a joint venture with Waseda University to distribute broadband sports content. The subsidiary, Sports BB, was owned 80% by Enix and 20% by the college. [36]

Related Research Articles

Taito Japanese company

Taito Corporation is a Japanese video game developer and publisher of arcade hardware and mobile phones, and an operator of video arcades. It is also a former publisher of home video games. Taito is wholly owned by Square Enix Holdings. Despite being a subsidiary to Square Enix Holdings, the parent company has kept the branding of Taito distinct from Square Enix.

<i>Final Fantasy III</i> video game

Final Fantasy III is a role-playing video game developed and published by Square in 1990 for the Family Computer as the third installment in the Final Fantasy series and the last main series game for the console. It is the first numbered Final Fantasy game to feature the job-change system. The story revolves around four orphaned youths drawn to a crystal of light. The crystal grants them some of its power, and instructs them to go forth and restore balance to the world. Not knowing what to make of the crystal's pronouncements, but nonetheless recognizing the importance of its words, the four inform their adoptive families of their mission and set out to explore and bring back balance to the world.

Dragon Quest, published as Dragon Warrior in North America until 2005, is a series of Japanese role-playing video games created by Yuji Horii and his studio Armor Project. The games are published by Square Enix, with localized versions of later installments for the Nintendo DS and 3DS being published by Nintendo outside of Japan. With its first title published in 1986, there are eleven main-series titles, along with numerous spin-off games. In addition, there have been numerous mangas, animes and novels published under the franchise, with nearly every game in the main series having a related adaptation.

<i>Final Fantasy Crystal Chronicles</i> 2003 video game

Final Fantasy Crystal Chronicles is an action role-playing game developed by The Game Designers Studio and published for the GameCube by Nintendo in 2003 in Japan; and 2004 in North America, Europe and Australia. A remastered version for Nintendo Switch and PlayStation 4 will be released in 2019. A spin-off of the Final Fantasy series, Crystal Chronicles was the first title released for a Nintendo console since Final Fantasy VI in 1994.

<i>Slime</i> (series) Dragon Quest spinoff series

The Slime series is a spinoff series of games from Dragon Quest featuring its Slime character. Three games have been released, the second of which, Dragon Quest Heroes: Rocket Slime, has been released in North America.

Dragon Quest Monsters is a spin-off series of the Dragon Quest games. Published by Square Enix, it sets the player in a medieval/fantasy world filled with magic, monsters and knights. Unlike the original Dragon Quest games, the player's character does not do any of the fighting in battles; instead the player has to rely on capturing, breeding and raising monsters to do the fighting for them. The concept originated from Dragon Quest V (1992). The character and monster designs are by Dragon Ball creator, Akira Toriyama. The series spans several handheld gaming systems, and each game has received positive reviews from critics. Upon the series' debut in the US, it was quickly labeled as a "Pokémon clone" by critics.

<i>Dragon Quest VII</i> role-playing video game

Dragon Quest VII: Fragments of the Forgotten Past is a Japanese role-playing video game developed by Heartbeat and ArtePiazza, and published by Enix for the PlayStation in 2000. It was released in North America in 2001 under the title Dragon Warrior VII. The game received a remake on the Nintendo 3DS on February 7, 2013 in Japan, which was released in North America and Europe for the Nintendo 3DS under the title Dragon Quest VII: Fragments of the Forgotten Past in 2016. A version of the game for Android and iOS was also released in Japan on September 17, 2015.

<i>Dragon Quest II</i> role-playing video game

Dragon Quest II: Luminaries of the Legendary Line, titled Dragon Warrior II when initially localized to North America, is a role-playing video game (RPG) developed by Chunsoft and published by Enix in 1987 for the Family Computer as a part of the Dragon Quest series. Enix's U.S. subsidiary published the American version, Dragon Warrior II, for the Nintendo Entertainment System in 1990. Dragon Quest II is set one hundred years after the events of the first game.

<i>Dragon Quest IV</i> role-playing video game

Dragon Quest IV: Chapters of the Chosen, titled Dragon Warrior IV when initially localized to North America, is a role-playing video game and the fourth installment of the Dragon Quest video game series developed by Chunsoft and published by Enix. It was originally released for the Famicom on 11 February 1990 in Japan. A North American NES version followed in October 1992, and would be the last Dragon Quest game localized and published by Enix's Enix America Corporation subsidiary prior to its closure in November 1995, as well as the last Dragon Quest game to be localized into English prior to the localization of Dragon Warrior Monsters in December 1999. The game was remade by Heartbeat for the PlayStation, which eventually was available as an Ultimate Hits title. This was followed with a second remake developed by ArtePiazza for the Nintendo DS, released in Japan on 22 November 2007. This remake was released in Australia on 11 September 2008, in Europe on 12 September 2008 and in North America on September 16, 2008. A version based on the Nintendo DS remake for Android and iOS was released in 2014.

<i>Dragon Quest</i> (video game) role-playing video game

Dragon Quest, titled Dragon Warrior when initially localized to North America, is the first role-playing video game (RPG) in the Dragon Quest media franchise. It was developed by Chunsoft for the Family Computer and published by Enix in Japan in 1986 as Dragon Quest and by Nintendo in 1989 in North America for the Nintendo Entertainment System. Dragon Quest has been ported and remade for several video game platforms, including the MSX, PC-9801, Super Famicom, Game Boy Color, Nintendo 3DS, PlayStation 4 and mobile phones. In play, players control a hero character who is charged with saving the Kingdom of Alefgard and rescuing its princess from the evil Dragonlord. Dragon Warrior's story became the second part in a trilogy. Several more anime and manga series, which revolved around this overarching plot were created.

<i>Dragon Quest III</i> role-playing video game

Dragon Quest III: The Seeds of Salvation, titled Dragon Warrior III when initially localized to North America, is a role-playing video game developed by Chunsoft and published by Enix. It is the third installment in the Dragon Quest series and was first released for the Family Computer (Famicom) in Japan and later for the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) in North America. The game saw an enhanced remake for the Super Famicom in 1996 and the Game Boy Color in 2001, and a port to mobile phones and the Wii in 2009 and 2011. A version of the game for Android and iOS was released in Japan on September 25, 2014, and worldwide as Dragon Quest III: The Seeds of Salvation on December 4, 2014. It was the first time the game was given an official English subtitle.

1-Up Studio Inc., formerly Brownie Brown Inc., is a Japanese Nintendo-funded and owned video game developer founded on June 30, 2000 in Tokyo, Japan. On February 1, 2013, the company announced that due to their recent co-development efforts with Nintendo, that they were undergoing a change in internal structure, which included changing the name of their company to 1-Up Studio.

Genius Sonority is a Japanese video game development studio, whose staff consists of programmers who have previously worked on the Dragon Quest and Pokémon series of video games.

The Chrono series is a video game franchise developed and published by Square, and is currently owned by Square Enix. The series began in 1995 with the time travel role-playing video game Chrono Trigger, which spawned two continuations, Radical Dreamers: Nusumenai Hōseki, and Chrono Cross. A promotional anime called Dimensional Adventure Numa Monjar and two ports of Chrono Trigger were also produced. As of March 31, 2003, Chrono Trigger was Square Enix's 12th best-selling game, with 2.65 million units shipped. Chrono Cross was the 24th, with 1.5 million units. By March 2012, the two games sold over 5.4 million units combined. The games in the series have been called some of the greatest of all time, with most of the praise going towards Chrono Trigger. The series' original soundtracks, composed by Yasunori Mitsuda, have also been praised, with multiple soundtracks being released for them.

The Japanese video game developer and publisher Square Enix has been translating its games for North America since the late 1980s, and the PAL region and Asia since the late 1990s. It has not always released all of its games in all major regions, and continues to selectively release games even today depending on multiple factors such as the viability of platforms or the condition of the game itself. The process of localization has changed during that time from having a one-person team with a short time and tight memory capacities to having a team of translators preparing simultaneous launches in multiple languages.

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