Crystal Dynamics is an American video game developer that was founded in 1992 by Judy Lang, Madaline Canepa and Dave Morris. Based in the San Francisco Bay Area, California, Crystal Dynamics was the first licensed developer for Panasonic's original 3DO console, a gaming hardware platform founded by Kleiner Perkins.Their first release, Crash N Burn , was a launch game for the system and was included as a pack-in game with the console. The 3DO's launch during the 1993 Christmas season was a commercial failure, severely damaging Crystal Dynamics' software strategy. In 1994, the company became a publisher for two new gaming platforms, the PlayStation and the Sega Saturn. The studio was acquired by Eidos Interactive, a British video game publisher, in 1998. After Square Enix acquired Eidos in 2009, Crystal Dynamics became a subsidiary of Square Enix.
Crystal Dynamics, Inc. is an American video game developer that was founded in 1992 by Judy Lang, Madeline Canepa and Dave Morse. Based in the San Francisco Bay Area, it was acquired by Eidos Interactive in 1998. After Square Enix's acquisition of Eidos in 2009, it became a subsidiary of Square Enix. Crystal Dynamics was the first licensed developer for 3DO. The company's mascot was the video game character Gex the Gecko until 2000.
A video game developer is a software developer that specializes in video game development – the process and related disciplines of creating video games. A game developer can range from one person who undertakes all tasks to a large business with employee responsibilities split between individual disciplines, such as programming, design, art, testing, etc. Most game development companies have video game publisher financial and usually marketing support. Self-funded developers are known as independent or indie developers and usually make indie games.
The San Francisco Bay Area is a populous region surrounding the San Francisco, San Pablo and Suisun Bay estuaries in the northern part of the U.S. state of California. Although the exact boundaries of the region vary depending on the source, the Bay Area is defined by the Association of Bay Area Governments to include the nine counties that border the aforementioned estuaries: Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Napa, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Solano, Sonoma, and San Francisco. Other sources may exclude parts of or even entire counties, or expand the definition to include neighboring counties that don't border the bay such as San Benito, San Joaquin, and Santa Cruz.
Crystal Dynamics is best known for developing the Legacy of Kain and Gex series.Although the first Legacy of Kain video game was developed by Silicon Knights, Crystal Dynamics gained the rights to the franchise in 1998 and developed four sequels between 1999 and 2003. In 2003, the studio took over the development of the best-selling Tomb Raider franchise after its original developer, Core Design, failed to gain critical or commercial success with their later games. Crystal Dynamics' first Tomb Raider game, Tomb Raider: Legend , became a commercial success with 4.5 million copies sold as of February 2009. Its sequel, Tomb Raider: Underworld , sold 2.6 million copies and became the first game the studio developed for the PlayStation 3. Since 2003, the studio has focused development on the Tomb Raider franchise with the help of other studios such as Buzz Monkey Software and Nixxes Software. Crystal Dynamics has developed five games in the series, encompassing two reboots of the franchise.
Legacy of Kain is a series of action-adventure video games primarily developed by Crystal Dynamics and published by Square Enix Europe. The first title, Blood Omen: Legacy of Kain, was created by Silicon Knights in association with Crystal Dynamics, but, after a legal battle, Crystal Dynamics retained the rights to the game's intellectual property, and continued its story with four sequels. To date, five games comprise the series, all initially developed for video game consoles and later ported to Microsoft Windows. Focusing on the eponymous character of Kain, a vampire antihero, each title features action, exploration and puzzle-solving, with some role-playing game elements.
Gex is a platform video game trilogy, developed by Crystal Dynamics, that details the adventures of an anthropomorphic gecko named Gex. Gex has a passion for television, which makes him a target for the cybernetic being Emperor Rez, who is determined to overthrow The Media Dimension, the "world" of television. He has also served as the mascot of Crystal Dynamics, appearing on their company logo for several years until 2000. In the North American version, Gex is voiced by comedian Dana Gould throughout the entire series; the United Kingdom version features Dana Gould, Leslie Phillips and Danny John-Jules as Gex's voice throughout the series.
Silicon Knights was a Canadian video game developer. Founded in 1992 by Denis Dyack, the company was headquartered in St. Catharines, Ontario. Their games included ones for computers in their early stages, and after 1996, they moved to console titles. Dyack left Silicon Knights to form a new game studio, Precursor Games, after the loss of a court case against Epic Games over the game engine Unreal Engine 3. Epic Games won the case and a counter-suit for $4.45 million on grounds of copyright infringement, misappropriation of trade secrets, and breach of contract. Following the case, Silicon Knights filed for bankruptcy on May 16, 2014.
As of December 2012 [update] , 36 video games have been developed by Crystal Dynamics. The following table showcases the corresponding title, release date, publisher and the platforms on which each game was released along with any other relevant information. A detailed overview of each game can be found in their corresponding articles.
|Blank cell indicates title was not released on any platform(s) by the specified manufacturers|
|Cell with games console(s) indicates title was released on platform(s) by the specified manufacturers|
|Crash N Burn||3DO|
|Slam 'N Jam||3DO|
|Slam 'N Jam '96 featuring Magic and Kareem||Saturn||PlayStation|
|Gex: Enter the Gecko||Windows||N64||PlayStation|
|Akuji the Heartless||PlayStation|
|Gex 3: Deep Cover Gecko||N64||PlayStation|
|Legacy of Kain: Soul Reaver||Windows||Dreamcast||PlayStation|
|Walt Disney World Quest: Magical Racing Tour||Windows||GBC||Dreamcast||PlayStation|
|102 Dalmatians: Puppies to the Rescue||Windows||GBC||Dreamcast||PlayStation|
|Soul Reaver 2||Windows||PlayStation 2|
|Mad Dash Racing||Xbox|
|Blood Omen 2||Windows|
|Legacy of Kain: Defiance||Windows|
|Tomb Raider: Legend||Windows|
| DS |
|Tomb Raider: Anniversary||Windows |
|Wii||PlayStation 2 |
| Mac OS |
|Tomb Raider: Underworld||Windows |
|PlayStation 2 |
|Lara Croft and the Guardian of Light||Windows |
|Tomb Raider||Windows |
|PlayStation 3 |
|Mac OS |
|Lara Croft and the Temple of Osiris||Windows |
|Lara Croft: Relic Run||Windows Phone||iOS, Android|
|Rise of the Tomb Raider||Windows |
|PlayStation 4||Mac OS |
|Marvel's Avengers||Windows |
|PlayStation 4||Google Stadia|
Tomb Raider, also known as Lara Croft: Tomb Raider between 2001 and 2007, is a media franchise that originated with an action-adventure video game series created by British gaming company Core Design. Formerly owned by Eidos Interactive, then by Square Enix after their acquisition of Eidos in 2009, the franchise focuses on a fictional British archaeologist Lara Croft, who travels around the world searching for lost artefacts and infiltrating dangerous tombs and ruins. The gameplay generally focuses around action-adventure exploration of environments, solving puzzles, navigating hostile environments filled with traps, and fighting numerous enemies. Additional media has grown up around the theme in the form of film adaptations, comics and novels.
Lara Croft is a fictional character and the main protagonist of the video game franchise Tomb Raider. She is presented as a highly intelligent, athletic, and attractive English archaeologist who ventures into ancient tombs and hazardous ruins around the world. Created by a team at British developer Core Design that included Toby Gard, the character first appeared in the video game Tomb Raider in 1996.
Kurt Harland is a singer, composer, and audio engineer. He is best known as the lead singer of Information Society and composer of the soundtracks for the Legacy of Kain video game series.
Toby Gard is an English computer game character designer and consultant, notably being part of the team that created fictional female British archaeologist Lara Croft. Lara Croft was awarded a Guinness World Record recognizing her as the "most successful human video game heroine."
Soul Reaver 2 is an action-adventure video game developed by Crystal Dynamics and published by Eidos Interactive. It is a sequel to Legacy of Kain: Soul Reaver and the third game in the Legacy of Kain series. Originally developed as a PlayStation and Dreamcast project, it was reworked into a PlayStation 2 and Microsoft Windows title in early production, and was released in 2001. Soul Reaver 2 was followed by two sequels, Blood Omen 2 and Legacy of Kain: Defiance, in 2002 and 2003.
Tomb Raider: Legend is an action-adventure video game developed by Crystal Dynamics and published by Eidos Interactive. It is the seventh entry in the Tomb Raider series and the first in a franchise reboot that reimagined the origins and character of series protagonist Lara Croft. The game released in 2006 for Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 2, Xbox, Xbox 360, PlayStation Portable, GameCube, Game Boy Advance, Nintendo DS, and mobile phones. A PlayStation 3 port was released in 2011.
Tomb Raider is an action-adventure video game developed by Core Design and published by Eidos Interactive. The first instalment in the Tomb Raider series, it was released in 1996 for Sega Saturn, PlayStation, and MS-DOS. Tomb Raider was released for N-Gage devices in 2003, and for the PlayStation Network in North America in August 2009, and in Europe in August 2010. Tomb Raider follows the exploits of Lara Croft, an English archaeologist in search of ancient treasures.
Tomb Raider: Anniversary is an action-adventure video game co-developed by Crystal Dynamics and Buzz Monkey Software. It was published by Eidos Interactive in 2007 for Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 2, Xbox 360, PlayStation Portable, Wii and mobile phones. It was later ported to OS X in 2008 and PlayStation 3 in 2011. The eighth entry in the Tomb Raider series, Anniversary is a remake of the first Tomb Raider game released in 1996.
Buzz Monkey Software is a United States video game developer based in Eugene, Oregon. Buzz Monkey was formed in late 2001 by four former Dynamix employees: senior producer Randy Thompson, senior engineers Jon Milnes and Steve Cordon, and lead artist Barry Drew.
Tomb Raider: Underworld is an action-adventure video game, the eighth instalment of the Tomb Raider series, following character Lara Croft. The story continues from the events in Tomb Raider: Legend as a direct sequel, but also addresses unexplained plot elements by association with Tomb Raider: Anniversary. Underworld was released by Eidos Interactive for the Xbox 360, PlayStation 3, Wii, Nintendo DS and Microsoft Windows, in North America on 18 November 2008, Europe on 21 November 2008 and Australia on 5 December 2008. A PlayStation 2 port was released in Europe on 23 January 2009, with a US release on 3 March of that year. On 14 June 2012, Underworld was released on the Mac OS X by Feral Interactive. It is the third game in the series to be developed by Crystal Dynamics and is also the first Tomb Raider game to be released on the PlayStation 3, and the last Tomb Raider game to be released on the PlayStation 2. It is also the final Tomb Raider game to be released by Eidos Interactive; the rest of the series would be published by Square Enix after it acquired Eidos in late 2009. Developers implemented new features into the gameplay, such as the dual-target feature and an upgraded inventory system, using an Active Sonar map and a multi-purpose grappling hook. The game also features a hint system and a new melee combat system where Lara has the ability to battle her opponents using kicks and grapple pulls. Downloadable content was also released for the Xbox 360, where the player takes control of Lara and her doppelgänger in two new chapters.
Lara Croft and the Guardian of Light is an action-adventure game developed by Crystal Dynamics and published by Square Enix for Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 3, Xbox 360, Android and, iOS through digital distribution. It is part of the Tomb Raider series, but unlike previous games, the game does not carry the Tomb Raider brand and has a heavy emphasis on cooperative gameplay. In multiplayer, players take the role as either Lara Croft or a 2,000-year-old Mayan warrior named Totec. They must work together in order to stop the evil spirit Xolotl and retrieve the Mirror of Smoke. A single-player campaign mode is available that does not include the non-playable character AI following or helping Lara.
Tomb Raider is an action-adventure video game developed by Crystal Dynamics and published by Square Enix. Tomb Raider is the tenth title in the Tomb Raider franchise, and operates as a reboot that reconstructs the origins of Lara Croft. Tomb Raider was released on 5 March 2013 for Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360, on 23 January 2014 for OS X, on 27 April 2016 for Linux, and on 7 March 2017 for Shield TV.
Rise of the Tomb Raider is an action-adventure video game developed by Crystal Dynamics. It is the sequel to the 2013 video game, Tomb Raider, and the eleventh entry in the Tomb Raider series. The game was released by Microsoft Studios for Xbox One and Xbox 360 in 2015. Square Enix released the game for Microsoft Windows and PlayStation 4 in 2016. In April 2018 Feral Interactive published the game for Linux and Mac, with a Google Stadia release set for November 2019.
Lara Croft and the Temple of Osiris is an action-adventure game developed by Crystal Dynamics and published by Square Enix for Windows, PlayStation 4 and Xbox One. It is the sequel to the 2010 video game Lara Croft and the Guardian of Light, and the second installment in Lara Croft spin-off series of the Tomb Raider franchise. The video game was announced at E3 2014 on 9 June. This game marks the last time English actress Keeley Hawes provides the voice for Lara Croft.
Legacy of Kain: Dead Sun was an action-adventure video game developed by Climax Studios for Square Enix Europe, with an accompanying multiplayer component developed separately by Psyonix. Conceived as the sixth entry in the Legacy of Kain series, Dead Sun entered production for Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 3, PlayStation 4, and Xbox 360. However, it was cancelled in 2012 following three years of work, and initially remained undisclosed to the public. Square Enix Europe and Psyonix salvaged the planned multiplayer mode, which they reconceptualized as Nosgoth, a standalone free-to-play title.
Shadow of the Tomb Raider is an action-adventure video game developed by Eidos Montréal and published by Square Enix. It continues the narrative from the 2015 game Rise of the Tomb Raider and is the twelfth mainline entry in the Tomb Raider series. The game was released worldwide on 14 September 2018 for Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 4 and Xbox One, with a further release on macOS and Linux set for 2019.