Motomu Toriyama

Last updated

Motomu Toriyama
Motomu Toriyama - Game Developers Conference 2010.jpg
Motomu Toriyama at the 2010 Game Developers Conference
Occupation Director and scenario writer of video games at Square Enix.

Motomu Toriyama(鳥山 求,Toriyama Motomu) is a Japanese game director and scenario writer who has been working for Square Enix since 1994. He initially worked on cutscenes in Bahamut Lagoon and Final Fantasy VII . Toriyama started directing with Final Fantasy X-2 and has continued doing so with large-scale projects such as Final Fantasy XIII and its sequels Final Fantasy XIII-2 and Lightning Returns: Final Fantasy XIII . Since 2003, he has been directing his own team of scenario writers at the company. He is currently directing Mobius Final Fantasy and is a member of Square Enix's Business Division 1, [1] and part of the Final Fantasy Committee that is tasked with keeping the franchise's releases and content consistent. [2]

Square Enix Japanese video game company

Square Enix Holdings Co., Ltd. is a Japanese video game developer, publisher, and distribution company known for its Final Fantasy, Dragon Quest, and Kingdom Hearts role-playing video game franchises, among numerous others. Several of them have sold over 10 million copies worldwide, with the Final Fantasy franchise alone selling 144 million, the Dragon Quest franchise selling 78 million and the Kingdom Hearts franchise selling 30 million. The Square Enix headquarters are in the Shinjuku Eastside Square Building in Shinjuku, Tokyo. The company employs over 4300 employees worldwide.

<i>Bahamut Lagoon</i> 1996 video game

Bahamut Lagoon is a Japanese tactical role-playing game developed and published by Square for the Super Famicom and released on February 9, 1996.

<i>Final Fantasy VII</i> 1997 video game

Final Fantasy VII is a 1997 role-playing video game developed by Square for the PlayStation console. It is the seventh main installment in the Final Fantasy series. Published in Japan by Square, it was released in other regions by Sony Computer Entertainment and became the first in the main series to see a PAL release. The game's story follows Cloud Strife, a mercenary who joins an eco-terrorist organization to stop a world-controlling megacorporation from using the planet's life essence as an energy source. Events send Cloud and his allies in pursuit of Sephiroth, a superhuman intent on destroying their planet. During the journey, Cloud builds close friendships with his party members, including Aerith Gainsborough, who holds the secret to saving their world.



Motomu Toriyama joined Square around the time of the Final Fantasy VI launch in 1994. He later mentioned that he enjoyed how everyone on the development team had the opportunity to contribute their ideas without any solid job description. He was assigned to work on Bahamut Lagoon as his first project due to his lack of game development experience. [3] For Final Fantasy VII , Toriyama designed events such as the ones taking place at the Honey Bee Inn. As the designers were given much artistic freedom, he would often create cutscenes that were unlikely to be approved and thus were eventually changed or removed. [4] [5] Toriyama also wrote and directed many of the scenes revolving around the romance between Aerith Gainsborough and Cloud Strife. He tried to make Aerith an important character to the player in order to maximize the impact of her death later in the plot. [5]

Square Co., Ltd. was a Japanese video game company founded in September 1986 by Masafumi Miyamoto. It merged with Enix in 2003 to form Square Enix. The company also used SquareSoft as a brand name to refer to their games, and the term is occasionally used to refer to the company itself. In addition, "Square Soft, Inc" was the name of the company's American arm before the merger, after which it was renamed to "Square Enix, Inc".

Aerith Gainsborough Character in Final Fantasy

Aerith Gainsborough, transliterated as Aeris Gainsborough in the English releases of Final Fantasy VII and Final Fantasy Tactics—is a player character in Square's role-playing video game Final Fantasy VII. She was designed by Tetsuya Nomura with influence from Yoshinori Kitase, Hironobu Sakaguchi and Yoshitaka Amano.

Cloud Strife protagonist in Final Fantasy VII

Cloud Strife is a fictional character and the main protagonist of Square's 1997 role-playing video game Final Fantasy VII and several of its sequels and spin-offs. In Final Fantasy VII, Cloud is a mercenary claiming to be formerly of SOLDIER, a group of elite supersoldiers employed by the Shinra Electric Power Company, a megacorporation responsible for draining the life from the planet. Fighting against Shinra in the resistance group AVALANCHE, and driven by a feud with the primary antagonist, Sephiroth, Cloud learns to accept his troubled past and adapts to his role as a leader. Cloud reappears as the protagonist in the 2005 computer-animated sequel film, Final Fantasy VII: Advent Children, in which he fights a new threat to the world while dealing with a sickness that infected his body. He acts in a supporting role in other Compilation of Final Fantasy VII titles and is featured in several other games outside the Final Fantasy VII continuity. Additionally, he has been featured in Nintendo's Super Smash Bros. series, and the Kingdom Hearts series by Square Enix.

After the merger between Square and Enix in 2003, many rookie staff members had to be trained and there were more new platforms to develop for with the release of the Nintendo DS and PlayStation Portable. Toriyama decided to assemble and direct a team of scenario writers and joined various game projects. [3] He later collaborated with Final Fantasy X main programmer Koji Sugimoto and supervisor Yoshinori Kitase to create a Final Fantasy VII tech demo for the PlayStation 3. Development of this took around 6 weeks. [6] During the first year after the development start of Final Fantasy XIII in April 2004, Toriyama thought up a story premised on the Fabula Nova Crystallis mythology created by Kazushige Nojima. In March 2006, when the structural part of the narrative started to come together and lead scenario writer Daisuke Watanabe joined the team, Toriyama showed him a rough outline of what he had written and asked him to flesh out the story and to correct how everything would connect. [7]

Enix Japanese video game publisher

Enix Corporation was a Japanese video game publisher that produced video games, anime and manga. Enix is known for publishing the Dragon Quest series of role-playing video games.

Nintendo DS Nintendo handheld game console

The Nintendo DS, or simply DS, is a dual-screen handheld game console developed and released by Nintendo. The device released globally across 2004 and 2005. The DS, short for "Developers' System" or "Dual Screen", introduced distinctive new features to handheld gaming: two LCD screens working in tandem, a built-in microphone, and support for wireless connectivity. Both screens are encompassed within a clamshell design similar to the Game Boy Advance SP. The Nintendo DS also features the ability for multiple DS consoles to directly interact with each other over Wi-Fi within a short range without the need to connect to an existing wireless network. Alternatively, they could interact online using the now-defunct Nintendo Wi-Fi Connection service. Its main competitor was Sony's PlayStation Portable during the seventh generation of video game consoles.

PlayStation Portable handheld game console made by Sony

The PlayStation Portable (PSP) is a handheld game console that was developed by Sony Computer Entertainment as part of the seventh generation of video-game consoles. Development of the handheld console was announced during E3 2003 and it was unveiled on May 11, 2004, at a Sony press conference before the next E3. The system was released in Japan on December 12, 2004; in North America on March 24, 2005; and in the PAL region on September 1, 2005. It competed with the Nintendo DS.

Toriyama has been the scenario director and supervisor on games in the Final Fantasy Crystal Chronicles series as well as Dissidia: Final Fantasy and The 3rd Birthday , which entailed the creation of a story concept and the supervision of the character conception and scenario writing by his team of authors. [3] [8] [9] For Lightning Returns, he added an online communication system known as the "Outerworld Services". Among others, it enabled players to write posts on social networks that would then appear as a non-playable character's comment in another player's game. Toriyama's goal with this was to create an online community where the individual members would interact and enjoy the game's world together without being online at the same time, as a precursor to online features found in eight-generation video game consoles. [10] The main ideas for all the areas in Lightning Returns came from him as well. [11] Toriyama revealed at the end of 2014 that he was working on his next project. [12]

<i>The 3rd Birthday</i> Square Enix third-person shooter video game

The 3rd Birthday is a third-person role-playing shooter co-developed by Square Enix and HexaDrive, and published by Square Enix for the PlayStation Portable. It was released in Japan in 2010 and in North America and Europe in 2011. The game is both the third entry in the Parasite Eve video game series, based on the titular Japanese novel, and a spin-off, having only a loose connection to events from past games. The game features a third-person shooter-based combat system with role-playing mechanics. A key mechanic is the Overdive ability, which allows the player to possess pre-positioned human allies and inflict damage upon enemies.

In the history of video games, the eighth generation of consoles is the current generation. It includes those consoles released since 2012 by Nintendo, Microsoft, and Sony. For home video game consoles, the eighth generation began on November 18, 2012, with the release of the Wii U, and continued with the release of the PlayStation 4 on November 15, 2013, and the Xbox One on November 22, 2013. The Wii U was the first to be discontinued — on January 31, 2017 — to make way for Nintendo's second competitor, the Switch, released on March 3, 2017. These video game consoles follow their seventh generation predecessors from the same three companies: Nintendo's Wii, Sony's PlayStation 3, and Microsoft's Xbox 360.

Game design

Toriyama believes his strength is in directing games that are very story-driven. [13] He also thinks that it becomes very difficult to tell a compelling story when the player is given a huge amount of freedom to explore. [14] According to him, the most important aspect of a Final Fantasy game is the characters. [15] Toriyama explains that there are different approaches to creating a protagonist: with Yuna from Final Fantasy X, the general plot had already been set when the character was conceived; with Lightning from Final Fantasy XIII instead, the character's personality was decided upon before the backstory was written. He feels that a developer needs to "essentially fall in love at first sight with a character" to "keep [themselves] going". Toriyama considers the voice the "main image of the character" and thus "the most delicate part of making the character". [16]

Yuna is a fictional character from Square Enix's Final Fantasy series. She was first introduced as the female protagonist and one of the main playable characters of the 2001 role-playing video game Final Fantasy X, appearing as a summoner embarking on a journey to defeat the world-threatening monster Sin alongside her companions, including the male protagonist Tidus. Yuna reappears in Final Fantasy X-2, where she becomes the protagonist, searching for a way to find Tidus two years following his disappearance. Yuna has also been featured in other Square Enix games, notably Dissidia 012 Final Fantasy.

Lightning (<i>Final Fantasy</i>) fictional character of the Final Fantasy series

Claire Farron, better known by the codename Lightning, is a fictional character from Square Enix's Final Fantasy series. She first appeared as a playable character and protagonist in the role-playing video game Final Fantasy XIII, in which she features as a resident of the artificial world of Cocoon. After her sister Serah is declared an enemy of Cocoon, Lightning attempts to save her. She and others are then chosen by the fal'Cie, a divided race of demigods who rule the worlds of Gran Pulse and Cocoon, to destroy Cocoon. Lightning reappears as a supporting character in Final Fantasy XIII-2, acting as protector of the Goddess Etro. She is the sole playable character in Lightning Returns: Final Fantasy XIII, wherein she sets out to save her world, which is destined to end in thirteen days. Outside the XIII series, Lightning has been featured in multiple Final Fantasy games and had cameo appearances in other video games.

Toriyama has stated that the aim of the linear game design used in the first half of Final Fantasy XIII was to feel like watching a film. This was done to absorb the player into the story and to introduce them to the characters and their battle abilities without becoming distracted or lost. [17] Toriyama explained that the amount of memory and processing power needed to produce impressive graphics was the main reason not to have a seamless battle system for Final Fantasy XIII. He is interested in using first-person shooter games for inspiration rather than Western role-playing video games, as he believes they give a better sense of tension during battles. [18] Toriyama would later use games such as Red Dead Redemption and The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim as inspirations for Final Fantasy XIII-2 and Lightning Returns: Final Fantasy XIII, respectively. [19] [20] He feels that his role of director marked a shift from creating a game world based on his own vision to unifying a team's ideas into a cohesive whole. [21]

First-person shooter Action video game genre

First-person shooter (FPS) is a video game genre centered around gun and other weapon-based combat in a first-person perspective; that is, the player experiences the action through the eyes of the protagonist. The genre shares common traits with other shooter games, which in turn makes it fall under the heading action game. Since the genre's inception, advanced 3D and pseudo-3D graphics have challenged hardware development, and multiplayer gaming has been integral.

A role-playing video game is a video game genre where the player controls the actions of a character immersed in some well-defined world. Many role-playing video games have origins in tabletop role-playing games and use much of the same terminology, settings and game mechanics. Other major similarities with pen-and-paper games include developed story-telling and narrative elements, player character development, complexity, as well as replayability and immersion. The electronic medium removes the necessity for a gamemaster and increases combat resolution speed. RPGs have evolved from simple text-based console-window games into visually rich 3D experiences.

<i>Red Dead Redemption</i> 2010 video game

Red Dead Redemption is a Western action-adventure game developed by Rockstar San Diego and published by Rockstar Games. A spiritual successor to 2004's Red Dead Revolver, it is the second game in the Red Dead series, and was released for the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360 in May 2010. Red Dead Redemption is set during the decline of the American frontier in the year 1911 and follows John Marston, a former outlaw whose wife and son are taken hostage by the government in ransom for his services as a hired gun. Having no other choice, Marston sets out to bring three members of his former gang to justice.


Video games

1996 Bahamut Lagoon Super Nintendo Entertainment System Story event planner
1997 Final Fantasy VII PlayStation Event planner, submarine chase section planner
1999 Racing Lagoon PlayStationScenario writer, event and map planner
2001 Final Fantasy X PlayStation 2 Event director, scenario writer [22]
2003 Final Fantasy X-2 PlayStation 2Director
2007 Final Fantasy XII: Revenant Wings Nintendo DS Director, scenario writer, [23] [24] event direction
2007 The World Ends with You Nintendo DSSpecial thanks
2008 Final Fantasy Crystal Chronicles: My Life as a King Wii Scenario writer [25]
2008 Dissidia: Final Fantasy PlayStation Portable Scenario supervisor
2009 Kingdom Hearts 358/2 Days Nintendo DS Special thanks
2009 Final Fantasy Crystal Chronicles: My Life as a Darklord WiiScenario director
2009 Blood of Bahamut Nintendo DSDirector, scenario writer
2009Fullmetal Alchemist: Prince of the DawnWiiScenario director [26]
2009 Final Fantasy XIII PlayStation 3, Xbox 360 Director, scenario designer (story outline), [7] lyrics [27]
2010 Front Mission Evolved PlayStation 3, Xbox 360, Windows Senior scriptwriter
2010 The 3rd Birthday PlayStation PortableScenario director
2011 Dissidia 012: Final Fantasy PlayStation PortableSpecial thanks
2011Imaginary Range iOS, Android Supervisor
2011 Fortune Street WiiText writing
2011 Final Fantasy XIII-2 PlayStation 3, Xbox 360Director, lyrics [28]
2013 Final Fantasy XIV: A Realm Reborn (Lightning Strikes event)Windows, PlayStation 3, PlayStation 4 Scenario writer [29]
2013 Lightning Returns: Final Fantasy XIII PlayStation 3, Xbox 360Director, lyrics [30]
2013 Final Fantasy X/X-2 HD Remaster PlayStation 3, PlayStation Vita Supervisor
2014Spirit Yankee Soul (Racing Lagoon event)iOS, AndroidScenario director [31]
2015 Mobius Final Fantasy iOS, Android, WindowsDirector, [32] [33] [34] [35] [36] [37] lyrics [36]
2015 Dissidia Final Fantasy (2015 video game) Arcade Special thanks [38]
2017 Final Fantasy XIV: Heavensward (Patch 3.56)Windows, PlayStation 3, PlayStation 4, Mac OS X Special thanks
2017 Final Fantasy XIV: Stormblood Windows, PlayStation 4, Mac OS XSpecial thanks
2017 Itadaki Street: Dragon Quest and Final Fantasy 30th Anniversary PlayStation 4, PlayStation VitaScenario supervisor
2018 Dissidia Final Fantasy NT PlayStation 4Special thanks
2019 Final Fantasy Brave Exvius iOS, AndroidSpecial thanks

Other media

2009Final Fantasy XIII Episode Zero: PromiseOriginal concept [39] [40]
2010Final Fantasy XIII Episode Zero: Promise Fabula Nova Dramatica AlphaOriginal concept [41]
2010Final Fantasy XIII Side Story: A Dreaming Cocoon Falls into the DawnOriginal concept [42]
2010Final Fantasy XIII Episode Zero: Promise Fabula Nova Dramatica OmegaOriginal concept [43]
2010Final Fantasy XIII: Episode iOriginal concept [44]
2011Final Fantasy XIII-2 Fragments BeforeOriginal concept [45]
2012Final Fantasy XIII-2 Fragments AfterOriginal concept [46]
2013 [A] Lightning Returns: Final Fantasy XIII Chronicle of a Chaotic EraOriginal concept [47]
2014Final Fantasy XIII: Reminiscence -tracer of memories-Original concept [48]
2016 Kingsglaive: Final Fantasy XV Special thanks


Related Research Articles

<i>Compilation of Final Fantasy VII</i> media franchise

The Compilation of Final Fantasy VII is a metaseries produced by Square Enix. A subseries stemming from the main Final Fantasy series, it is a collection of video games, animated features and short stories based in the world and continuity of Final Fantasy VII. Officially announced in 2003 with the reveal of Final Fantasy VII: Advent Children, the series' core products are three video games and one movie release. Alongside these are tie-in products and spin-offs including books, mobile games and an original video animation. Advent Children and the mobile title Before Crisis: Final Fantasy VII are a sequel and prequel to VII, respectively focusing on Cloud Strife, the original game's main protagonist, and covert operatives known as the Turks. Crisis Core: Final Fantasy VII follows the story of Zack Fair, an important major character in VII, while Dirge of Cerberus: Final Fantasy VII, which acts as a sequel to Advent Children, follows Vincent Valentine, one of the original's optional characters.

<i>Final Fantasy XIII</i> 2010 role-playing video game

Final Fantasy XIII is a science fiction role-playing video game developed and published by Square Enix for the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360 consoles and later for the Microsoft Windows operating system. Released in Japan in December 2009 and worldwide in March 2010, it is the thirteenth title in the mainline Final Fantasy series. The game includes fast-paced combat, a new system for the series for determining which abilities are developed for the characters called "Crystarium", and a customizable "Paradigm" system to control which abilities are used by the characters. Final Fantasy XIII includes elements from the previous games in the series, such as summoned monsters, chocobos, and airships.

Yoshinori Kitase Japanese video game designer

Yoshinori Kitase is a Japanese game director and producer working for Square Enix. He is known as the director of Final Fantasy VI, Chrono Trigger, Final Fantasy VII, Final Fantasy VIII and Final Fantasy X, and the producer of the Final Fantasy X and Final Fantasy XIII series. Kitase is an Executive Officer at Square Enix, the Head of Square Enix's Business Division 1 and part of the Final Fantasy Committee that is tasked with keeping the franchise's releases and content consistent.

Kazushige Nojima is a Japanese video game writer and is the founder of Stellavista Ltd. He is best known for writing several installments of Square Enix's Final Fantasy video game series—namely Final Fantasy VII,Final Fantasy VIII,Final Fantasy X, Final Fantasy X-2, Final Fantasy VII: Advent Children, Crisis Core: Final Fantasy VII and the Kingdom Hearts series. Nojima also wrote the original lyrics of Liberi Fatali for Final Fantasy VIII and both Suteki da Ne and the Hymn of the Fayth for Final Fantasy X.

<i>Fabula Nova Crystallis Final Fantasy</i> video game series

Fabula Nova Crystallis Final Fantasy is a series of games within the Final Fantasy video game franchise. It was primarily developed by series creator and developer Square Enix, which also acted as publisher for all titles. While featuring various worlds and different characters, each Fabula Nova Crystallis game is ultimately based on and expands upon a common mythos focusing on important crystals tied to deities. The level of connection to the mythos varies between each title. The series title translates from Latin as 'The New Tale of the Crystal'. Each development team was given the freedom to adapt the mythos to fit the context of a game's story.

Crystal Tools is a game engine created and used internally by the Japanese company Square Enix. It combines standard libraries for elements such as graphics, sound and artificial intelligence while providing game developers with various authoring tools. The target systems of Crystal Tools are the PlayStation 3, the Xbox 360, Microsoft Windows and the Wii. This was decided with the intention of making cross-platform production more feasible. The idea for the engine sprang from Square Enix's desire to have a unified game development environment in order to effectively share the technology and know-how of the company's individual teams.

Shinji Hashimoto Japanese video game producer

Shinji Hashimoto is a Japanese game producer at Square Enix. He currently serves as the Final Fantasy series Brand Manager, as an Executive Officer at Square Enix and the Head of Square Enix's Business Division 3. He is also the co-creator of the Kingdom Hearts series. He served as corporate executive of the company's 1st Production Department during its entire existence.

Characters of the <i>Final Fantasy XIII</i> series Wikimedia list article

Final Fantasy XIII - a role-playing game released by Square Enix in 2009 - revolves around the struggles of a group of humans over a predestined fate. The game's two sequels, Final Fantasy XIII-2 and Lightning Returns: Final Fantasy XIII, build on the first game's story and mythos. In video game publications and among the staff at Square Enix, the three games have come to be referred to as the "Lightning Saga", and the core concepts they contain are drawn from the mythos of the Fabula Nova Crystallis subseries. The visuals of the original characters were designed by Tetsuya Nomura and Nao Ikeda, while many later characters were created by other designers, including Hideo Minaba, Yusuke Naora and Toshiyuki Itahana. Their original stories were created by Motomu Toriyama and written up by Daisuke Watanabe.

<i>Final Fantasy XIII-2</i> video game

Final Fantasy XIII-2 is a role-playing video game developed and published by Square Enix for the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360. Released in 2011 in Japan and 2012 in North America and PAL regions, it is a direct sequel to the 2009 role-playing game Final Fantasy XIII and is part of the Fabula Nova Crystallis subseries. A port to Microsoft Windows was released on Steam in December 2014 followed by iOS and Android in September 2015. XIII-2 includes modified features from the previous game, including fast-paced combat and a customizable "Paradigm" system to control which abilities are used by the characters, and adds a new system that allows monsters to be captured and used in battle. It features a heavy time travel element, allowing the player to jump between different times at the same location or different places at the same time. Lightning, the protagonist of the original game, has disappeared into an unknown world. Her younger sister Serah Farron, a returning character, and a young man named Noel Kreiss, journey through time in an attempt to find Lightning.

Isamu Kamikokuryo Japanese video game artist

Isamu Kamikokuryo is a Japanese video game artist who worked at Square Enix until his resignation on March 31, 2017. He is known for his work on the company's role-playing video game series Final Fantasy, for which he designed locations and characters. Among others, he was involved in the Ivalice Alliance and Fabula Nova Crystallis franchises. Kamikokuryo had initially planned to become an oil painter and illustrator but was inspired to join the video game industry by the release of Final Fantasy VII. His influences as an artist include realist painter Andrew Wyeth and photojournalist Steve McCurry. Kamikokuryo draws inspiration from his photography hobby and world travels.

Daisuke Watanabe is a Japanese video game writer employed by Square Enix. He is mostly known for his work on the role-playing video game series Final Fantasy and the action RPG series Kingdom Hearts.

<i>Lightning Returns: Final Fantasy XIII</i> 2013 video game

Lightning Returns: Final Fantasy XIII is an action role-playing video game developed and published by Square Enix for the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360. It was released in November 2013 for Japan and February 2014 for North America, Australia and Europe. A port to Microsoft Windows through Steam was released in December 2015 followed by iOS and Android in Japan during February 2016. The game is a direct sequel to Final Fantasy XIII-2, concludes the storyline of Final Fantasy XIII, and forms part of the Fabula Nova Crystallis subseries. Lightning Returns employs a highly revamped version of the gameplay system from the previous two games, with an action-oriented battle system, the ability to customize the player character's outfits, and a time limit the player must extend by completing story missions and side quests.

<i>Mobius Final Fantasy</i> 2015 video game

Mobius Final Fantasy is an episodic role-playing video game developed and published by Square Enix for iOS, Android, and Microsoft Windows. It was released in Japan in June 2015, and released internationally in August 2016. The player controls Warrior of Light (Wol), a man who wakes with amnesia in the world of Palamecia, and must help conquer the dark forces attacking its people. The game features gameplay elements from previous Final Fantasy titles, including leveling, exploration via standard navigation and fast-travel systems, and turn-based combat tied to a job system. Common themes were also drawn from the original Final Fantasy title, such as "warriors of light" and their fight against chaos and darkness.

<i>Final Fantasy VII Remake</i> upcoming video game

Final Fantasy VII Remake is an upcoming action role-playing game developed and published by Square Enix for the PlayStation 4. Split across multiple releases, the first part is scheduled for March 3, 2020. The game is a remake of the 1997 PlayStation game Final Fantasy VII, following mercenary Cloud Strife as he and eco-terrorist group AVALANCHE battle against the corrupt Shinra megacorporation and the rogue former Shinra soldier Sephiroth. Gameplay is planned to combine real-time action similar to Dissidia Final Fantasy with other strategic elements.

Tetsuya Nomura is a Japanese video game artist, designer and director working for Square Enix. He designed characters for the Final Fantasy series, debuting with Final Fantasy VI and continuing with various later installments. Additionally, Nomura has led the development of the Kingdom Hearts series since its debut in 2002 and was the director for the CGI film Final Fantasy VII: Advent Children.

Final Fantasy is a media franchise created by Hironobu Sakaguchi, and developed and owned by Square Enix. The franchise centers on a series of fantasy and science fantasy role-playing video games (RPGs). The eponymous first game in the series, published in 1987, was conceived by Sakaguchi as his last-ditch effort in the game industry; the title was a success and spawned sequels. While most entries in the series are separate from each other, they have recurring elements carrying over between entries: these include plot themes and motifs, gameplay mechanics such as the Active Time Battle (ATB) system, and signature character designs from the likes of Yoshitaka Amano and Tetsuya Nomura.


  1. "『ライトニング リターンズ ファイナルファンタジーXIII』開発者・宣伝担当インタビュー". Famitsu. December 28, 2013.
  2. "What Does Square Enix's Final Fantasy Committee Do?". Siliconera. March 25, 2014.
  3. 1 2 3 Tong, Sophia (12 March 2010). "FFXIII director intends to keep series story-driven". GameSpot . Retrieved 3 July 2012.
  4. Studio BentStuff. Final Fantasy VII Ultimania Omega (in Japanese). Square Enix. p. 569.
  5. 1 2 Cook, Dave (3 October 2012). "Final Fantasy anniversary interview: Toriyama speaks". videogaming247 Ltd. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
  6. "FFX producer developing PS3 Final Fantasy?". GameSpot. June 8, 2005. Archived from the original on 2011-08-15.
  7. 1 2 Final Fantasy XIII Scenario Ultimania (in Japanese). Tokyo: Studio Bentstuff. 2010-02-01. p. 388. ISBN   4-7575-2775-6.
  8. Toriyama, Motomu (2009-06-25). "From Creator". Square Enix . Retrieved 2013-06-01.
  9. Toriyama, Motomu (2010-11-22). "クリエイターズ メッセージ vol.3". Square Enix . Retrieved 2013-06-01.
  10. "[E3 2013]「LIGHTNING RETURNS: FINAL FANTASY XIII」は3部作の完結編であり,次世代への一歩でもある。北瀬佳範氏&鳥山 求氏インタビュー". June 13, 2013.
  12. "今年は147人のゲーム業界著名人が語る。2014年の注目タイトルと2015年へのメッセージ". December 27, 2014.
  13. Christian Nutt (March 10, 2010). "GDC: FF XIII Director - Production Drove Content Decisions, Elements Will Return". Gamasutra.
  14. Tim Ingham (February 16, 2010). "Final Fantasy XIII boss responds to review scores". Computer and Video Games.
  15. "FINAL FANTASY XIII Official Release Date Announcement Trailer". Square Enix Co., Ltd . Retrieved 18 April 2011. Motomu Toriyama: The most important element of FINAL FANTASY is the characters.
  16. Gifford, Kevin (30 March 2011). "Motomu Toriyama Talks About Making Heroines". Archived from the original on 18 March 2015. Retrieved 2 April 2011.
  17. "News - Director: Motomu Toriyama". FINAL FANTASY XIII Official site. Square Enix Co., Ltd . Retrieved 3 April 2011.
  18. Lynch, Gerald (19 February 2010). "Final Fantasy XIII 's Motomu Toriyama and Yoshinori Kitase - Interview". News. Tech Digest. Retrieved 31 March 2011.
  19. "FFXIII-2: Multiple endings confirmed, inspired by RDR, HD towns "too boring"". VG247. June 9, 2011.
  20. "Lightning Returns: Final Fantasy XIII Interview with Motomu Toriyama and Yoshinori Kitase". Nova Crystallis. March 21, 2013.
  21. "LIGHTNING RETURNS: FINAL FANTASY XIII - Inside the Square - Director's Cut - 27:45". Square Enix. February 4, 2014.
  22. Studio BentStuff. Final Fantasy X Ultimania Omega (in Japanese). Square Enix. pp. 191–193, 476.
  24. Harris, Craig (May 16, 2007). "Interview: Final Fantasy XII Revenant Wings". IGN . Retrieved June 25, 2016.
  25. Square Enix (March 25, 2008). Final Fantasy Crystal Chronicles: My Life as a King. Wii. Square Enix. Scene: credits.
  27. Final Fantasy XIII Original Soundtrack Limited Edition. 2010-01-27. SQEX-10178~82.
  28. Final Fantasy XIII-2 Original Soundtrack. 2011-12-14. SQEX-10296~9.
  29. "[TGS 2013]「新生FFXIV」に登場する「LRFF13」コラボはハイクオリティ。「出張プロデューサーレターLIVE in 幕張」(22日分)をレポート". September 22, 2013.
  30. Lightning Returns: Final Fantasy XIII Original Soundtrack. 2013-11-21. SQEX-10392~5.
  31. "Square Enix's Latest Countdown Wasn't As… Badass As Expected". Siliconera. November 7, 2014.
  32. "そろそろ語ろうか(其の壱)". Yoichi Wada. July 7, 2016.
  33. "Message from Motomu Toriyama and Yoshinori Kitase (Taipei Game Show 2017)". January 20, 2017.
  34. Square Enix (February 2017). Mobius Final Fantasy. Square Enix. Scene: Final Fantasy VII event credits.
  35. "メビウスFF「2周年だョ!全員集合! メビウス ファイナルファンタジー2周年記念 公開生放送!」第28回". May 27, 2017.
  36. 1 2 Square Enix (July 2017). Mobius Final Fantasy. Square Enix. Scene: Act 1 credits.
  38. "Staff Credit".
  39. "Final Fantasy XIII Episode Zero -Promise-". Square Enix . Retrieved 2016-05-16.
  40. "Final Fantasy XIII: Episode Zero: Promise". Yen Press . Retrieved 2019-05-03.
  41. "Final Fantasy XIII Episode Zero -Promise- Fabula Nova Dramatica α". Sony . Retrieved 2016-05-16.
  42. Benny Matsuyama. Final Fantasy XIII Ultimania Omega (in Japanese). Square Enix.
  43. "Final Fantasy XIII Episode Zero -Promise- Fabula Nova Dramatica Ω". Sony . Retrieved 2016-05-16.
  44. Jun Eishima. Final Fantasy XIII -Episode i-. Square Enix.
  45. "小説ファイナルファンタジー XIII-2 Fragments Before". Square Enix . Retrieved 2016-05-16.
  46. "小説ファイナルファンタジーXIII-2 Fragments After". Square Enix . Retrieved 2016-05-16.
  47. 1 2 "Release of Lightning Returns: Final Fantasy XIII Novel Canceled Due to the Author's Illness". DualShockers. November 26, 2013.
  48. 1 2 "『ファイナルファンタジーXIII REMINISCENCE -tracer of memories-』著者、渡辺大祐氏にインタビュー" [Final Fantasy XIII: Reminiscence -tracer of memories-: Interview with author Daisuke Watanabe]. Famitsu . 2014-07-11. Archived from the original on 2014-07-11. Retrieved 2014-07-11.