The Japanese company Enix was established as a publisher of home computer games in August 1982, after founder Yasuhiro Fukushima noticed how popular these were in the United States.Fukushima had no programming knowledge and did not employ internal programmers or game designers. Instead, he held a contest for programming hobbyists in order to pool talents and publish selected games, with a ¥1 million award for the top prize (US$5,000). Due to a lack of brand recognition and the unusually high award (several times more than other contests of the time), few entries were received in the first month; however, after a successful marketing campaign on television and in appliance stores, hobby clubs, and computer and manga magazines promising that the award was real, three hundred entries were received by the end of the "First Game Hobby Program Contest".
Enix Corporation was a Japanese video game publisher that produced video games, anime and manga. Enix is known for publishing the Dragon Quest series of role-playing video games.
Home computers were a class of microcomputers that entered the market in 1977, that started with what Byte Magazine called the "trinity of 1977", and which became common during the 1980s. They were marketed to consumers as affordable and accessible computers that, for the first time, were intended for the use of a single nontechnical user. These computers were a distinct market segment that typically cost much less than business, scientific or engineering-oriented computers of the time such as the IBM PC, and were generally less powerful in terms of memory and expandability. However, a home computer often had better graphics and sound than contemporary business computers. Their most common uses were playing video games, but they were also regularly used for word processing, doing homework, and programming.
The yen is the official currency of Japan. It is the third most traded currency in the foreign exchange market after the United States dollar and the euro. It is also widely used as a reserve currency after the U.S. dollar, the euro, and the pound sterling.
This contest allowed Enix to release numerous games with a wide variety of genres early on, as thirteen winning entries were polished and chosen for release in February 1983.Among these were Morita no Battle Field by Kazurou Morita; Door Door by Koichi Nakamura; and Love Match Tennis by Yuji Horii, a young columnist for Weekly Shōnen Jump . In addition to two more contests, Enix began recruiting developers on a project basis. For each project, Enix outsourced development and handled production and promotion duties, which made cost control more efficient. Unlike software houses of the time, Fukushima tried to instill a commercial mindset in his developers, as he thought games should be treated as books or movies in terms of copyright. He employed a royalty payment between the company and the developer, so that the latter would be compensated proportionally to the sales of their games. Each of Enix's home computer release featured a photo and resume of the developer on the back cover of the package.
Door Door is a puzzle-platform video game designed by Koichi Nakamura and published by Enix. As Enix's debut title, Door Door first released in February 1983 for the NEC PC-8801 and was subsequently converted for other Japanese computers. The game's success prompted a Famicom port and an expanded edition in 1985 as well as a mobile phone release in 2004. In 2006, editors of the popular Japanese gaming magazine Famitsu placed the game among classics such as Super Mario Bros. and Donkey Kong in its listing of the best Famicom games. Despite its popularity, Door Door has never been released outside Japan.
Koichi Nakamura is a Japanese video game designer. A programming prodigy, Nakamura gained fame while still in high school; in 1982, he entered Enix's national programming contest and claimed first place with his entry, Door Door. In 1984, he founded the video game company Chunsoft, where he remains its president.
Yuji Horii is a Japanese video game designer and scenario writer best known as the creator of the Dragon Quest series of role-playing games, supervising and writing the scenario for Chrono Trigger, as well as the first visual novel adventure game Portopia Serial Murder Case.
Enix's home computer games were commercially successful; on their release, the first batch of February 1983 ranked first, second, third, fifth and seventh in the top ten Japanese best-selling games, leading to other game releases and a profit of ¥300 million (US$1.5 million) by the end of the year.Some of the most successful games were ported for the rising Famicom console market, starting with Door Door, which sold 200,000 copies, and The Portopia Serial Murder Case , which sold 700,000. Enix eventually focused on the console market, which became bigger than the home computer one. With the exception of the character designer Akira Toriyama, the development team of Enix's future flagship series Dragon Quest was recruited thanks to the company's programming contests: Horii and Nakamura had won the first contest, and Koichi Sugiyama was contacted after sending in a questionnaire postcard for Morita Kazurou no Shogi.
The Nintendo Entertainment System is an 8-bit home video game console developed and manufactured by Nintendo. It is a remodeled export version of the company's Family Computer (FC) platform in Japan, also known as the Famicom for short, which launched on July 15, 1983. The NES was launched through test markets in New York City and Los Angeles in 1985, before being given a wide release in the rest of North America and parts of Europe in 1986, followed by Australia and other European countries in 1987. Brazil saw only unlicensed clones until the official local release in 1993. In South Korea, it was packaged as the Hyundai Comboy and distributed by SK Hynix which then was known as Hyundai Electronics; the Comboy was released in 1989.
Portopia Renzoku Satsujin Jiken, often translated to The Portopia Serial Murder Case in English, is an adventure game designed by Yuji Horii and published by Enix. It was first released on the NEC PC-6001 in June 1983, and has since been ported to other personal computers, the Nintendo Famicom, and mobile phone services.
Akira Toriyama is a Japanese manga artist, game artist and character designer. He first achieved mainstream recognition for his highly successful manga series Dr. Slump, before going on to create Dragon Ball—his best-known work—and acting as a character designer for several popular video games such as the Dragon Quest series, Chrono Trigger and Blue Dragon. Toriyama is regarded as one of the artists that changed the history of manga, as his works are highly influential and popular, particularly Dragon Ball, which many manga artists cite as a source of inspiration.
(winning entries in the 1st Game Hobby Program Contest)
|Morita no Battle Field(森田のバトルフィールドMorita no Batoru Fīrudo)||NEC PC-8801|
|Door Door (ドア・ドアDoa Doa)||NEC PC-8801, other models|
|Guest Mariko Hashimoto(マリちゃん危機一髪Mari-chan Kikiippatsu)||FM-8, other models|
|Cosmic Soldier(宇宙の戦士Uchū no Senshi)||NEC PC-8801|
|D.I.S Airport(Ｄ・Ｉ・ＳエアポートD.I.S Eapōto)||Sharp X1|
|Seiko's Adventure(星子のアドベンチャーSeiko no Adobenchā)||NEC PC-8801|
|Underground Monster(地底のモンスターChitei no Monsutā)||NEC PC-8801, other models|
|Bacteria Escape(バクテリアエスケープBakuteria Esukēpu)||FM-7, other models|
|Love Match Tennis(ラブマッチテニスRabu Macchi Tenisu)||NEC PC-6001|
|Bōsō! Orient Kyūkō(暴走！オリエント急行Bōsō! Oriento Kyūkō)||Sharp MZ-80K, other models|
|Piranha-kun no Isshūkan(ピラニア君の一週間Pirania-kun no Isshūkan)||Sharp MZ-80B, other models|
|Poker Extra(ポーカーエキストラPōka Ēkisutora)||NEC PC-8001, other models|
|June||Alphos(アルフォスArufosu)||NEC PC-8801, other models|
|The Portopia Serial Murder Case (ポートピア連続殺人事件Pōtopia Renzoku Satsujin Jiken)||NEC PC-6001, other models|
|Raita no Growing Up(雷太のグローイングアップRaita no Gurōinguappu)||NEC PC-6001, other models|
|Titan Bōeisen(タイタン防衛戦Taitan Bōeisen)||Sharp X1|
|Gekisen! Minamitaiheiyō(激戦！南太平洋)||NEC PC-8801, other models|
|Joshiryō Panic(女子寮パニックJoshiryō Panikku)||FM-7, other models|
|Light Flipper(ライト・フリッパーRaito Furippā)||NEC PC-8801, other models|
|Toward 8(トワード８Towādo 8)||Sharp X1, other models|
(winning entries in the 2nd Game Hobby Program Contest)
|Fan Fun(ファンファンFan Fan)||NEC PC-8001, other models|
|Game Kyōjin no Uchū Ryokō(芸夢狂人の宇宙旅行)||NEC PC-8001mkII, other models|
|Dokuron no Yakata(ドクロンの館)||Sharp X1, other models|
|Kagirinaki Tatakai (限りなき戦い)||Sharp X1, other models|
|Lolita Syndrome (ロリータ・シンドロームRorīta Shindorōmu)||FM-7, other models|
|Fushigi na Tabi(不思議な旅)||FM-7, other models|
|Tropical Boy(トロピカルボーイToropikaru Boī)||NEC PC-8801|
|Magnetic Field(マグネチックフィールドMagunechikku Fīrudo)||NEC PC-8001mkII, other models|
|PushMan(プッシュマンPusshuman)||NEC PC-8001, other models|
|Checker Flag(チェッカーフラッグChiekkā Furaggu)||NEC PC-8801, other models|
|Cosmo Crash(コスモクラッシュKosumo Kurasshu)||FM-7|
|November||Parallel World(パラレルワールドParareru Wārudo)||Sharp X1, other models|
|May||Newtron(ニュートロンNyūtoron)||NEC PC-8801, other models|
|New Fan Fun(ニューファンファンNyūfanfan)||NEC PC-6001mkII, other models|
|No.1 Golf(Ｎｏ．１ゴルフNo.1 Gorufu)||Sharp X1, other models|
|High School Adventure(ハイスクールアドベンチャーHai Sukūru Adobenchā)||FM77|
|Rukteu Dark Castle: Dragon Angel's Miracle Voyage(暗黒城Ankoku Shiro)||FM-7, other models|
|Flipflop(フリップフロップFurippufuroppu)||FM-7, other models|
|August||Karakuri Ninpou(カラクリ忍法)||NEC PC-8801|
|Swarm(スウォームSūōmu)||Sharp X1, other models|
|Zarth(ザースZāsu)||FM-7, other models|
|September||Arare no Janpu Up(アラレのジャンプＵＰ)||NEC PC-8001mkII|
|Magic Garden(マジックガーデンMajikku Gāden)||NEC PC-8801, other models|
|November||Wingman(ウイングマンUinguman)||NEC PC-8801, other models|
|Shabon Tama Arare(シャボン玉アラレ)||NEC PC-6001mkII|
|December||Gumball(ガムボールGamubōru)||NEC PC-8801mkII, other models|
(winning entries in the 3rd Game Hobby Program Contest)
|Blue Fox(ブルーフォックスBurū Fokkusu)||FM-7, other models|
|Zunou 4989(頭脳４９８９)||FM-7, other models|
|Again(アゲインAgein)||FM-7, other models|
|Unknown||Dr. Slump Bubble Daisakusen(Dr.スランプ バブル大作戦Dr. Suranpu Baburu Daisakusen)|
|Okhotsk ni Kiyu: Hokkaido Rensa Satsujin Jiken (北海道連鎖殺人 オホーツクに消ゆ)|
|January||El Dorado Denki(エルドラド伝奇Eru Dorado Denki)||FM-7, other models|
|February||Door Door mk2 (ドアドアｍｋ２Doa Doa mk2)||Sharp MZ-1500, other models|
|Hashire Senbeisan(走れせんべいさん)||Sharp X1, other models|
|Zaxus(ザクサスZakusasu)||NEC PC-8001, other models|
|Typing Exercise(ゲームDeタイプGēmu De Taipu)|
|April||Tokyo Nampa Street(ＴｏｋｙｏナンパストリートTokyo Nanpa Sutorīto)||FM-7, other models|
|May||Karuizawa Yūkai Annai(軽井沢誘拐案内)||NEC PC-8801, other models|
|July||World Golf(ワールドゴルフWārudo Gorufu)|
|August||Morita Kazurou no Shogi(森田和郎の将棋)||NEC PC-9801, other models|
|November||Xevious (ゼビウスZebiusu)||NEC PC-8801|
|Savior(セイバーSeibā)||NEC PC-9801E, other models|
|The Earth Fighter Rayieza (地球戦士ライーザChikyū Senshi Raīza)||FM-7, other models|
|Unknown||Brain Breaker (ブレインブレイカーBurein Bureikā)||Sharp X1, other models|
|April||Wingman 2: Kītakurā no Fukkatsu(ウイングマン２ キータクラーの復活Uinguman 2: Kītakurā no Fukkatsu)|
|May||Cannon Shot(キャノンショットKyanon Shotto)||SMC-777|
|November||Dragon Quest (ドラゴンクエストDoragon Kuesuto)||MSX2, other models|
|Unknown||Hokuto no Ken(北斗の拳)|
|April||Jesus (ジーザスJīzasu)||NEC PC-8801 VA, other models|
|May||Gandhara: Buddha no Seisen(ガンダーラ 仏陀の聖戦Gandāra: Budda no Seisen)||NEC PC-8801 VA, other models|
|July||Animal Land Satsujin Jiken(アニマルランド殺人事件Animaru Rando Satsujin Jiken)||MSX|
|August||Dragon Buster (ドラゴンバスターDoragon Basutā)||NEC PC-8801 VA, other models|
|October||World Golf II(ワールドゴルフIIWārudo Gorufu II)||NEC PC-8801 VA, other models|
|December||Wingman Special(ウイングマンスペシャルUinguman Supesharu)||NEC PC-8801 FA, other models|
|February||Dragon Quest II (ドラゴンクエストIIDoragon Kuesuto II)||MSX|
|December||The Old Village Story||NEC PC-8801 FE, other models|
|February||Burning Point(バーニングポイントBāningu Pointo)||NEC PC-8801 FE, other models|
|March||Morita Shogi 2(森田将棋２)||NEC PC-9801 RA, other models|
|May||Angelus: The Gospel on Evil (アンジェラス～悪魔の福音～Anjierasu: Akuma no Fukuin)||NEC PC-8801 FE, other models|
|December||Prajator: Image Ranger(プラジェータPurajiēta)||NEC PC-8801 FE, other models|
|March||Misty Blue(ミスティ・ブルーMisuti Burū)||NEC PC-8801 MC, other models|
|April||Ryūou Hanyuu Yoshiharu Jissen Shū(竜王 羽生善治実践集)||NEC PC-9801 RA, other models|
|May||46 Okunen Monogatari The Shinkaron(４６億年物語ＴＨＥ進化論)||NEC PC-9801 VM, other models|
|July||Formula C.M.S||NEC PC-8801 SR, other models|
|September||Shutendouji(手天童子)||NEC PC-9801 VM, other models|
|October||World Golf 3(ワールドゴルフ３Wārudo Gorufu 3)||NEC PC-8801 SR, other models|
|January||Raihisurittā(ライヒスリッター)||NEC PC-9801 RA, other models|
|March||Jesus 2 (ジーザス2Jīzasu 2)||NEC PC-8801mkII SR, other models|
|August||Gunyū Sangokushi(群雄三国志)||NEC PC-9801 VM, other models|
|November||Code-0(コード０Kōdo 0)||Sharp X68000|
|December||Fangs: The Saga of Wolf Blood(ファングスFangusu)||NEC PC-8801 FH, other models|
|October||Morita Shogi 4(森田将棋４)||NEC PC-9801 DA, other models|
The TurboGrafx-16 Entertainment SuperSystem, known in Japan and France as the PC Engine, is a cartridge based home video game console manufactured and marketed by NEC Home Electronics, and designed by Hudson Soft. It was released in Japan on October 30, 1987 and in the United States on August 29, 1989. It also had a limited release in the United Kingdom and Spain in 1990, known as simply TurboGrafx and based on the American model, while the Japanese model was imported and distributed in France in 1989. It was the first console released in the 16-bit era, although it used an 8-bit CPU. Originally intended to compete with the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES), it ended up competing with the Sega Genesis, and later on the Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES).
Ice Climber is a vertical platform video game developed and published by Nintendo for the Nintendo Entertainment System in 1985. In Ice Climber, the characters Popo and Nana, collectively known as the Ice Climbers, venture up 32 ice-covered mountains to recover stolen vegetables from a giant condor. In some European countries, the NES console was sold bundled with the game, increasing Ice Climber's familiarity outside Japan.
An eroge is a Japanese erotic video game.
Balloon Fight is an action video game developed by Nintendo. The original arcade version was released for the Nintendo VS. System as Vs. Balloon Fight, and its Nintendo Entertainment System counterpart was internationally released in 1986. The gameplay is similar to the 1982 game Joust from Williams Electronics. The home Nintendo Entertainment System version was ported to the NEC PC-8801 in October 1985, the Sharp X1 in November 1985, the Game Boy Advance as Balloon Fight-e for the e-Reader in the United States on September 16, 2002, and as part of the Famicom Mini Series in Japan on May 21, 2004. It was later released through Nintendo's Virtual Console and is currently available to play on Nintendo Switch Online.
The PC-8800 series, commonly shortened to PC-88, are a brand of Zilog Z80-based 8-bit home computers released by Nippon Electric Company (NEC) in 1981 and primarily sold in Japan
1982 was the peak year of arcade and console games during the Golden age of arcade video games. Troubles at Atari, Inc. late in the year triggered the North American video game crash of 1983. Many games were released that would spawn franchises, or at least sequels, including Dig Dug, Pole Position, Mr. Do!, Pitfall!, Q*bert, and Xevious. Additional consoles add to a crowded market. The new Commodore 64 goes on to eventually dominate the 8-bit home computer market.
Yuzo Koshiro is a Japanese video game music composer, arranger, music programmer, and president of the game development company, Ancient. He is often regarded as one of the most influential innovators in chiptune and video game music, producing music in a number of genres, including various electronic genres, experimental, symphonic, hip hop, jazz, and synth-rock.
The inclusion of sex and nudity in video games has been a controversial topic since the early days of the industry. While many video games have used scantily clad images or characters to sell or enhance games, some go further, using sex acts or nudity as a character motivation, in-game reward, or simply as a gameplay element. These games originate worldwide, on most platforms and can be of any video game genre. While releases in Europe and North America have been sporadic and often unlicensed, Japan has seen the emergence of a pornographic video game subgenre—eroge, first appearing on the NEC PC-88 computer platform in the 1980s. In the 1990s NEC and Sega were the only companies who officially allowed sexual content on their consoles in Japan, but eroge was more prevalent on the NEC PC-98 and FM Towns computer platforms.
Exile is an action role-playing video game series developed by Telenet Japan. The first two games in the series, XZR and XZR II were both released in Japan in 1988, with versions available for the NEC PC-8801, NEC PC-9801, MSX2 and the X1 turbo. In 1991, a remake of XZR II simply titled Exile was released for the PC Engine and Mega Drive. These versions were both released in North America the following year, with Working Designs handling the localization for the TurboGrafx-CD version, while Renovation Products published the Genesis version. A sequel exclusive to the Super CD-ROM² format, titled Exile: Wicked Phenomenon, was released in 1992, which was also localized by Working Designs for the North American market.
King's Knight is a 1986 scrolling shooter video game by Square for the Nintendo Entertainment System and MSX. The game was released in Japan on September 18, 1986, and in North America in 1989. It was later re-released for the Wii's Virtual Console in Japan on November 27, 2007 and in North America on March 24, 2008. This would be followed by a release on the Virtual Console in Japan on February 4, 2015 for 3DS and July 6, 2016 for Wii U.
The Death Trap (ザ・デストラップ) is a text adventure video game developed and published by Square for the NEC PC-8801, NEC PC-9801, and Fujitsu FM-7 in 1984. The game and its supporting computer platforms were only released in Japan.
Thexder is a run and gun game from Game Arts, originally released as a PC game for the NEC PC-8001 in 1985 and subsequently ported to a number of other personal computer platforms throughout the 1980s and 1990s as well as the Nintendo Entertainment System.
Hydlide is a 1984 open world action role-playing video game developed and published by T&E Soft. It was originally released for the NEC PC-6001 and PC-8801 computers in 1984, in Japan only; ports for the MSX, MSX2, FM-7 and NEC PC-9801 were released the following year. A Nintendo Famicom version was first released under the name Hydlide Special on March 18, 1986 in Japan; three years later, in June 1989, that version saw a North American release for the Nintendo Entertainment System by FCI, its title having been returned to simply Hydlide. The game sold 2 million copies in Japan, across all platforms.
An adventure game is a video game in which the player assumes the role of a protagonist in an interactive story driven by exploration and puzzle-solving. The genre's focus on story allows it to draw heavily from other narrative-based media, literature and film, encompassing a wide variety of literary genres. Many adventure games are designed for a single player, since this emphasis on story and character makes multi-player design difficult. Colossal Cave Adventure is identified as the first such adventure game, first released in 1976, while other notable adventure game series include Zork, King's Quest, The Secret of Monkey Island, and Myst.
Eastern role-playing video games (RPGs) are RPGs developed in East Asia. Most Eastern RPGs are Japanese role-playing video games (JRPGs), developed in Japan. RPGs are also developed in South Korea and in China.