Beechcraft Bonanza

Last updated
Bonanza
Beech Bonanza Takeoff (5517383917).jpg
Beech S35 Bonanza
RoleCivil utility aircraft
National originUnited States
Manufacturer Beechcraft
First flightDecember 22, 1945
Introduction1947 [1]
StatusIn service
Produced1947–present
Number built>17,000
Unit cost
US$914,000 (G36, 2019) [2]
Variants Beechcraft Travel Air
Bay Super V
Beechcraft T-34 Mentor

The Beechcraft Bonanza is an American general aviation aircraft introduced in 1947 by Beech Aircraft Corporation of Wichita, Kansas. The six-seater, single-engined aircraft is still being produced by Beechcraft and has been in continuous production longer than any other airplane in history. [3] [4] More than 17,000 Bonanzas of all variants have been built, [5] [6] produced in both distinctive V-tail and conventional tail configurations.

Contents

Design and development

A 1947 advertisement for the first Model 35 Bonanza

At the end of World War II, two all-metal light aircraft emerged, the Model 35 Bonanza and the Cessna 195, that represented very different approaches to the premium end of the postwar civil-aviation market. With its high-wing, seven-cylinder radial engine, fixed tailwheel undercarriage, and roll-down side windows, the Cessna 195 was little more than a continuation of prewar technology; the 35 Bonanza, however, was more like the fighters developed during the war, featuring an easier-to-manage, horizontally opposed, six-cylinder engine, a rakishly streamlined shape, retractable tricycle undercarriage (although the nosewheel initially was not steerable, but castering) [7] and low-wing configuration.

Designed by a team led by Ralph Harmon, the model 35 Bonanza was a relatively fast, low-wing monoplane at a time when most light aircraft were still made of wood and fabric. The Model 35 featured retractable landing gear, and its signature V-tail (equipped with combination elevator-rudders called "ruddervators"), which made it both efficient and the most distinctive private aircraft in the sky. The prototype 35 Bonanza made its first flight on December 22, 1945, with the first production aircraft debuting as 1947 models. [8] The first 30–40 Bonanzas produced had fabric-covered flaps and ailerons, after which those surfaces were covered with magnesium alloy sheet. [9] [10]

Three major variants eventually comprised the Bonanza family:

The ICAO aircraft type designators for the three variants are BE35, BE33, and BE36 respectively. [12]

The basic Bonanza fuselage was used for the twin-engined Travel Air, which was later developed into the Baron. Despite its name, the Twin Bonanza uses a different fuselage and is mostly dissimilar to the single-engined Bonanza.

All Bonanzas share an unusual feature: The yoke and rudder pedals are interconnected by a system of bungee cords that assist in keeping the airplane in coordinated flight during turns. The bungee system allows the pilot to make coordinated turns using the yoke alone, or with minimal rudder input, during cruise flight. Increased right-rudder pressure is still required on takeoff to overcome engine torque and P-factor. In the landing phase, the bungee system must be overridden by the pilot when making crosswind landings, which require cross-controlled inputs to keep the nose of the airplane aligned with the runway centerline without drifting left or right. This feature started with the V-tail and persists on the current production model.[ citation needed ]

Operational history

The V-tail design gained a reputation as the "forked-tail doctor killer", [13] due to crashes by overconfident wealthy amateur pilots, [14] fatal accidents, and inflight breakups. [15] "Doctor killer" has sometimes been used to describe the conventional-tailed version, as well. [16] [17] However, a detailed analysis by the Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association of accident records for common single-engine retractable-gear airplanes in the United States between 1982 and 1989 demonstrated that the Bonanza had a slightly lower accident rate than other types in the study. Pilot error was cited in 73% of V-tail crashes and 83% of conventional-tail crashes, with aircraft-related causes accounting for 15% and 11% of crashes respectively. [18] However, the study noted that the aircraft had an unusually high incidence of gear-up landings and inadvertent gear retractions on the ground, which were attributed to a non-standard gear-retraction switch on early models that is easily confused with the switch that operates the flaps. 1984 and later models use a more distinctive relocated landing-gear switch, augmented by "squat switches" in the landing gear that prevent its operation while compressed by the aircraft's weight, and a throttle position switch that prevents gear retraction at low engine power settings. [18]

In the late 1980s, repeated V-tail structural failures prompted the United States Department of Transportation and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to conduct extensive wind tunnel and flight tests, which proved that the V-tail did not meet type certification standards under certain conditions; the effort culminated with the issuance of an airworthiness directive to strengthen the tail, which significantly reduced the incidence of in-flight breakups. Despite this, Beech has long contended that most V-tail failures involve operations well beyond the aircraft's intended flight envelope. [18] [19] Subsequent analysis of National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) accident records between 1962 and 2007 revealed an average of three V-tail structural failures per year, while the conventional-tailed Bonanza 33 and 36 suffered only eleven such failures during the same time period. Most V-tail failures involved flight under visual flight rules into instrument meteorological conditions, flight into thunderstorms, or airframe icing. [20] In addition to the structural issues, the Bonanza 35 has a relatively narrow center of gravity envelope, and the tail design is intolerant of imbalances caused by damage, improper maintenance, or repainting; such imbalances may induce dangerous aeroelastic flutter. [18] Despite these issues, many Bonanza 35 owners insist that the aircraft is reasonably safe, and its reputation has lessened acquisition costs for budget-conscious buyers. [20]

In 1982, the production of the V-tail Bonanza stopped [21] but the conventional-tail Model 33 continued in production until 1995. [6] [22] Still built today is the Model 36 Bonanza, a longer-bodied, straight-tail variant of the original design, [23] introduced in 1968. [6] [24]

In January 2012, the Australian Civil Aviation Safety Authority issued an airworthiness directive grounding all Bonanzas, Twin Bonanzas, and Debonairs equipped with a single pole-style yoke and that have forward elevator control cables that are more than 15 years old until they could be inspected. The AD was issued based on two aircraft found to have frayed cables, one of which suffered a cable failure just prior to takeoff and resulting concerns about the age of the cables in fleet aircraft of this age. At the time of the grounding, some Bonanzas had reached 64 years in service. Aircraft with frayed cables were grounded until the cables were replaced and those that passed inspection were required to have their cables replaced within 60 days regardless. The AD affected only Australian aircraft and was not adopted by the airworthiness authority responsible for the type certificate, the US Federal Aviation Administration. The FAA instead opted to issue a Special Airworthiness Information Bulletin requesting that the elevator control cables be inspected during the annual inspection. [25] [26] [27]

QU-22 Pave Eagle

The QU-22 was a Beech 36/A36 Bonanza modified during the Vietnam War to be an electronic monitoring signal relay aircraft, developed under the project name "Pave Eagle" for the United States Air Force. An AiResearch turbocharged, reduction-geared Continental GTSIO-520-G engine was used to reduce its noise signature, much like the later Army-Lockheed YO-3A.[ citation needed ] These aircraft were intended to be used as unmanned drones to monitor seismic and acoustic sensors dropped along the Ho Chi Minh Trail in Laos and report troop and supply movements. When the project was put into operation in 1968, however, the aircraft were all flown by pilots of the 554th Reconnaissance Squadron Detachment 1, call sign "Vampire". A separate operation "Compass Flag" monitored the General Directorate of Rear Services along the Ho Chi Minh Trail linking to the 6908th security squadron. [28]

Six YQU-22A prototypes (modifications of the Beech 33 Debonair) were combat-tested in 1968, and two were lost during operations, with a civilian test pilot killed. Twenty-seven QU-22Bs were modified, 13 in 1969 and 14 in 1970, with six lost in combat. Two Air Force pilots were killed in action. All of the losses were due to engine failures or effects of turbulence. [29] A large cowl bump above the spinner was faired-in for an AC current generator, and higher weight set of Baron wings and spars were used to handle the 236-gallon fuel load. [28]

Variants

Model 33 Debonair/Bonanza

A 1987-built Bonanza F33A in 2016 G-JUST-Bonanza1656.jpg
A 1987-built Bonanza F33A in 2016
35-33 Debonair
(1959) An M35 Bonanza with conventional fin and tailplane, one 225 hp Continental IO-470-J, [30] 233 built
35-A33 Debonair
(1961) Model 33 with rear side windows and improved interior trim, 154 built
35-B33 Debonair
(1962-1964) A33 with contoured fin leading edge, N35 fuel tank modifications and P35 instrument panel, 426 built
35-C33 Debonair
(1965-1967) B33 with teardrop rear side windows, enlarged fin fairing and improved seats, 305 built
35-C33A Debonair
(1966-1967) C33 with a 285hp Continental IO-520-B engine and optional fifth seat, 179 built
D33 Debonair
One S35 modified as a military close-support prototype
E33 Bonanza
(1968-1969) C33 with improved Bonanza trim, 116 built
E33A Bonanza
(1968) E33 with a 285 hp Continental IO-520-B engine, 85 built
E33B Bonanza
E33 with strengthened airframe and certified for aerobatics
E33C Bonanza
(1968-1969) E33B with a 285 hp Continental IO-520-B engine, 25 built
F33 Bonanza
(1970) E33 with deeper rear side windows and minor improvements, 20 built
F33A Bonanza
(1970-1994) F33 with a 285 hp Continental IO-520-B engine, later aircraft have a longer S35/V35 cabin and extra seats, 821 built [22]
Beechcraft F33C BeechcraftF33C.jpg
Beechcraft F33C
F33C Bonanza
(1970) F33A certified for aerobatics, 118 built
G33 Bonanza
(1972-1973) F33 with a 260hp Continental IO-470-N engine and V35B trim, 50 built

Model 35 Bonanza

35
(1947–1948), main production with 165 hp (123 kW) Continental E-185-1 engine, 1500 built
A35
(1949) Model 35 with higher takeoff weight, and minor internal changes, 701 built
B35
(1950) A35 with a 165hp Continental E-185-8 engine and other minor changes, 480 built
C35
(1951-1952) B35 with a 185hp Continental E-185-11 engine, metal propeller, larger tail surfaces, and higher takeoff weight, approved for the Lycoming GO-435-D1 engine, [31] 719 built
D35
(1953) C35 with increased takeoff weight and minor changes, 298 built, approved for the Lycoming GO-435-D1 engine [31]
E35
(1954) D35 with optional E-225-8 engine and minor changes, 301 built
F35
(1955) E35 with extra rear window each side, 392 built
G35
(1956) F35 with a Continental E-225-8 engine, 476 built
H35
1957 Model H35 at Jackson Hole Airport. 1957 Bonanza H35 N5589D.jpg
1957 Model H35 at Jackson Hole Airport.
(1957) G35 with a Continental O-470-G engine, strengthened structure and internal trim changes, 464 built
J35
(1958) H35 with a fuel injected Continental IO-470-C engine, optional autopilot, and improved instruments, 396 built
K35
(1959) J35 with fuel load increase, optional fifth seat and increased takeoff weight, 436 built
M35
(1960) K35 with cambered wingtips and minor changes, 400 built
A 1965 model S35 at Flagstaff Pulliam Airport "The Fastest Model" Bonanza S35.jpg
A 1965 model S35 at Flagstaff Pulliam Airport
1966 Model V35 BeechV35-g-vtal.jpg
1966 Model V35
N35
(1961) M35 with a 260 hp Continental IO-470-N engine, increased fuel capacity, increased takeoff weight, and teardrop rear side windows, 280 built [32]
035
(1961) Experimental version, an N35 fitted with laminar flow airfoil and redesigned landing gear, only one built
P35
(1962–1963) N35 with new instrument panel and improved seating, 467 built
S35
(1964–1965) P35 with a Continental IO-520-B engine, higher takeoff weight, longer cabin interior, optional fifth and sixth seat, and new rear window, 667 built [33]
V35
(1966–1967) S35 with higher takeoff weight, single-piece windshield, optional turbocharged TSIO-520-D engine (as V35-TC), 873 built [34]
V35A
(1968–1969) V35 with a streamlined windshield and minor changes, optional turbocharged TSIO-520-D engine (as V35A-TC), 470 built
V35B
(1970–1982) V35A with minor improvements to systems and trim, optional turbocharged TSIO-520-D engine (as V35B-TC), 24-volt electrical system (1978 and on), 873 built [35]

Model 36 Bonanza

A36 Bonanza Ifta-a36-N812AD-071115-01-16.jpg
A36 Bonanza
Beechcraft A36 Bonanza modified with the Tradewind Turbine's turboprop conversion Beechcraft-A36-Soloy-KBFL-070207.jpg
Beechcraft A36 Bonanza modified with the Tradewind Turbine's turboprop conversion
36
(1968–1969) E33A with a ten-inch fuselage stretch, four cabin windows each side, starboard rear double doors and seats for six, one 285 hp Continental IO-520-B engine, 184 built
A36
(1970–2005) Model 36 with improved deluxe interior, a new fuel system, higher takeoff weight, from 1984 fitted with a Continental IO-550-BB engine and redesigned instrument panel and controls, 2128 built [24] [36]
A36TC
(1979–1981) Model 36 with a three-bladed propeller and a 300 hp turbocharged Continental TSIO-520-UB engine, 280 built
T36TC
(1979) A36 fitted with T-tail and a 325 hp Continental TSIO-520 engine, one built
B36TC
(1982–2002) A36TC with longer span wing, increased range, redesigned instrument panel and controls, higher takeoff weight, 116 built [37]
G36
(2006–present) – glass cockpit update of the A36 with the Garmin G1000 system [5] [38]

QU-22

YQU-22A (Model P.1079)
USAF military designation for a prototype intelligence-gathering drone version of the Bonanza 36, six built
YAU-22A (Model PD.249)
Prototype low-cost close-support version using Bonanza A36 fuselage and Baron B55 wings, one built
QU-22B
Production drone model for the USAF operation Pave Eagle, 27 built, modified with turbocharging, three-bladed propeller, and tip-tanks [39]

Modifications

Allison Turbine Bonanza
Allison, in conjunction with Soloy, certified a conversion of Beech A36 Bonanza aircraft to be powered by an Allison 250-B17C turboprop engine. [40]
Continental Voyager Bonanza (A36)
standard aircraft with a liquid-cooled Continental Motors TSIOL-550-B engine. [41] [42]
Propjet Bonanza (A36)
standard aircraft modified by Tradewind Turbines with an Allison 250-B17F/2 turboprop engine (Original STC # 3523NM by Soloy). [43]
TurbineAir Bonanza (B36TC)
Modification by Rocket Engineering subsidiary West Pacific Air, LLC with a 500 hp Pratt & Whitney PT6A-21 turboprop engine and 124 U.S. gallons (470 L; 103 imp gal) fuel capacity. [44] [45] [46] [47]
Whirlwind System II Turbonormalized Bonanza (36, A36, G36)
standard aircraft modified by Tornado Alley Turbo with a Tornado Alley Turbonormalizing (keeps power up to 20,000ft) [48] system and approved for a 4000 lb MTOW
Whirlwind TCP Bonanza (A36TC or B36TC)
standard aircraft modified by Tornado Alley Turbo with a TCM IO-550B engine and Tornado Alley Turbonormalizing system, this airframe is approved for a 4042 lb MTOW.
Bay Super V
A multiengine conversion of the C35 Bonanza

Model 40

The Beechcraft Model 40A was an experimental twin-engined aircraft based on the Bonanza. Only one prototype was built in 1948. It featured a unique over/under arrangement of two 180-hp Franklin engines mounted on top of each other and driving a single propeller. The plane had a different engine cowl from a standard Bonanza, and the nose gear could not fully retract, but otherwise it greatly resembled the production Bonanzas of the time. Certification rules demanded a firewall be fitted between the two engines, however, thus stopping development. [49] The status of the prototype is unknown.

Parastu

This is the standard F33 (1970) variant of the Bonanza which has been reverse engineered by Defense Industries Organization of Iran and is being manufactured without a license. [50] [51]

Operators

Civil

Astronaut Gordon Cooper, of Gemini V, poses on the wing of his personal Beechcraft Bonanza in 1963. Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper Jr. Boards Bonanza.jpg
Astronaut Gordon Cooper, of Gemini V, poses on the wing of his personal Beechcraft Bonanza in 1963.

The Bonanza is popular with air charter companies, and is operated by private individuals and companies.

In 1949, Turner Airlines (later renamed Lake Central Airlines) commenced operations using three V-tail Bonanzas. [52] That same year, Central Airlines began operations using eight Bonanzas, [53] later adding three more to the fleet before starting to phase them out in 1950 in favor of the Douglas DC-3. [54]

Military

Flag of Haiti.svg  Haiti
Haitian Air Corps – 1 x Bonanza F33 [55]
State Flag of Iran (1964).svg  Iran
Imperial Iranian Air Force – 10 x Bonanza F33A and 39 x Bonanza F33C [56]
Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia
Indonesian Naval Aviation [57]
Flag of Cote d'Ivoire.svg  Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast Air Force – 1 x Bonanza F33C [58]
Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico
Mexican Air Force – 10 x Bonanza F33C [59]
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands
Netherlands Government Flying School – 16 x Bonanza F33C [60]
Flag of Nicaragua.svg  Nicaragua
National Guard – 1 x Bonanaza A35 [61]
Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal
Portuguese Air Force – 1 × Bonanza A35 operated 1949–55. [62]
Flag of Spain.svg  Spain
Spanish Air Force – 29 x Bonanza F33C and 25 x Bonanza F33A [63]
Flag of Thailand.svg  Thailand
Royal Thai Navy – 3 x Beech 35 Bonanza [64]
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
United States Air Force

Notable flights

Accidents and incidents

There have been numerous accidents and incidents involving the Beechcraft Bonanza. Listed below are a select few of the most notable ones.

Specifications (2011 model G36)

Beechcraft Bonanza V35B.svg

Data from Hawker Beechcraft [79] [80]

General characteristics

Performance

Avionics

See also

Related development

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

Related lists

Related Research Articles

Beechcraft is a brand of Textron Aviation since 2014. Originally, it was a brand of Beech Aircraft Corporation, an American manufacturer of general aviation, commercial, and military aircraft, ranging from light single-engined aircraft to twin-engined turboprop transports, business jets, and military trainers. Beech later became a division of Raytheon and later Hawker Beechcraft before a bankruptcy sale turned its assets over to Textron.

Beechcraft King Air Twin engine turboprop aircraft family

The Beechcraft King Air family is part of a line of American utility aircraft produced by Beechcraft. The King Air line comprises a number of twin-turboprop models that have been divided into two families. The Model 90 and 100 series developed in the 1960s are known as King Airs, while the later T-tail Model 200 and 300 series were originally marketed as Super King Airs, with the name "Super" being dropped by Beechcraft in 1996.

Beechcraft Travel Air Light, twin-engined piston aircraft produced 1958–1968

The Beechcraft Travel Air was a twin-engine development of the Beechcraft Bonanza. It was designed to fill the gap between the single engine Model 35 Bonanza and the much larger Model 50 Twin Bonanza, and ultimately served as the basis for its replacement, the Baron.

Beechcraft Baron Light, twin-engined piston aircraft produced 1961-present

The Beechcraft Baron is a light, twin-engined piston aircraft designed and produced by Beechcraft, introduced in 1961. A development of the Travel Air, it remains in production.

Beechcraft T-34 Mentor military training aircraft family by Beechcraft

The Beechcraft T-34 Mentor is an American propeller-driven, single-engined, military trainer aircraft derived from the Beechcraft Model 35 Bonanza. The earlier versions of the T-34, dating from around the late 1940s to the 1950s, were piston-engined. These were eventually succeeded by the upgraded T-34C Turbo-Mentor, powered by a turboprop engine. The T-34 remains in service more than six decades after it was first designed.

Beechcraft Twin Bonanza Small twin-engined aircraft build 1951–1961

The Beechcraft Model 50 Twin Bonanza is a small twin-engined aircraft designed by Beechcraft as an executive transport for the business market. It was developed to fill a gap in Beechcraft's product line between the single-engined Model 35 Bonanza and the larger Model 18. The Twin Bonanza is about 50% larger than the Bonanza, has more powerful engines, and is significantly heavier, while in its earliest form having only half the passenger capacity of the Model 18.

Beechcraft L-23 Seminole


The Beechcraft L-23 Seminole was the United States Armed Forces designation for the Beechcraft Twin Bonanza and Queen Air aircraft in its inventory.

Bay Super V

Beginning in the late 1950s the United States aircraft company Bay Aviation produced nine twin-engine conversions of the Beechcraft Bonanza called the Super "V" Bonanza. After production was shifted to Canada in 1962, five more aircraft were built for a total production run of fourteen. The basis of the conversion was the early Model 35 Bonanza with the original small V-tail surfaces. The Super-V competed with Beechcraft's own Travel Air twin-engine Bonanza derivative.

Piper PA-34 Seneca Twin engine light aircraft

The Piper PA-34 Seneca is a twin-engined light aircraft, produced in the United States by Piper Aircraft. It has been in non-continuous production since 1971. The Seneca is primarily used for personal and business flying.

Beechcraft Musketeer 1963-1983 light transport aircraft family by Beechcraft in the United States

The Beechcraft Musketeer is a family of single-engined, low-wing, light aircraft that was produced by Beechcraft. The line includes the Model 19 Musketeer Sport, the Model 23 Musketeer, Custom and Sundowner, the Model 23-24 Musketeer Super III the retractable gear Model 24-R Sierra and the military CT-134 Musketeer.

Cessna 177 Cardinal airplane

The Cessna 177 Cardinal is a light single-engine, high-wing general aviation aircraft that was intended to replace Cessna's 172 Skyhawk. First announced in 1967, it was produced from 1968 to 1978.

Beechcraft Duke Pressurized, twin-engined piston aircraft produced 1968–1983

The Beechcraft 60 Duke is an American-built twin-engine fixed-wing aircraft created by Beechcraft. The aircraft has retractable tricycle landing gear and a pressurized cabin. The two piston engines are turbocharged and the turbochargers also pressurize the cabin with bleed air.

Cessna 310 Family of twin-engine general aviation aircraft

The Cessna 310 is an American four-to-six-seat, low-wing, twin-engine monoplane produced by Cessna between 1954 and 1980. It was the first twin-engine aircraft that Cessna put into production after World War II.

Ryan Navion single-engine four seat aircraft

The RyanNavion is a United States single-engine, unpressurized, retractable gear, four-seat aircraft originally designed and built by North American Aviation in the 1940s. It was later built by Ryan Aeronautical Company and the Tubular Steel Corporation (TUSCO). The Navion was envisioned as an aircraft that would perfectly match the expected postwar boom in civilian aviation, since it was designed along the general lines of, and by the same company which produced the North American P-51 Mustang.

Beechcraft Queen Air family of utility transport aircraft

The Beechcraft Queen Air is a twin-engined light aircraft produced by Beechcraft in several versions from 1960 to 1978. Based upon the Twin Bonanza, with which it shared key components such as wings, engines, and tail surfaces, but featuring a larger fuselage, it served as the basis for the highly successful King Air series of turboprop aircraft. It is often used as a private aircraft, a utility, or a small commuter airliner. Production ran for 17 years.

Beechcraft Super King Air Light transport aircraft family

The Beechcraft Super King Air family is part of a line of twin-turboprop aircraft produced by Beechcraft. The Model 200 and Model 300 series were originally marketed as the "Super King Air" family; the "Super" designation was dropped in 1996. They form the King Air line together with the King Air Model 90 and 100 series.

Beechcraft Model 34

The Beechcraft Model 34 "Twin-Quad" was a prototype airliner designed and built by Beechcraft in the period between World War II and the Korean War. At this time many aircraft manufacturers in the United States anticipated a boom in civil aviation and a large number of designs left the drawing board only to ultimately fail. The Model 34 was one of these failures, partly because of its unusual design, and partly because of the thousands of ex-military transport aircraft that were available at the time for a fraction of the price of a new aircraft.

Continental O-520 family of flat-six piston aircraft engines

The Continental O-520 is a six-cylinder, horizontally opposed aircraft engine produced by Teledyne Continental Motors. First run in 1963 as a development of the IO-346, it has been produced in versions incorporating fuel injection (IO-520), turbo-charging (TSIO-520), and gearing (GTSIO-520).

Rockwell Commander 112 American monoplane

The Rockwell Commander 112 is an American four-seat single-engined general aviation aircraft designed and built by North American Rockwell starting in 1972. In 1976 they introduced the turbocharged 112TC and a version mounting a larger engine and other minor improvements as the Rockwell Commander 114. A total of approximately 1,000 examples of all models were produced before the production line shut down in 1980.

References

Notes
  1. ""Beech Bonanza: Celebrating 60 years of continuous production, and still going strong." by Mike Potts. World Aircraft Sales Magazine / www.AvBuyer.com. July 2007. Page 109" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-03-25.
  2. "Purchase Planning Handbook" (PDF). Business & Commercial Aviation. Aviation Week Network. June 2019.
  3. Anders Clark. "The Beechcraft A36 Bonanza". Disciples of Flight. Retrieved 2015-08-12.
  4. Scott Perdue (2007-05-01). "The Bonanza Hits 60 Strong and Fast!". PlaneAndPilotMag.com. Archived from the original on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2015-08-12.
  5. 1 2 "Beechcraft Bonanza G36. Product Analysis" (PDF). Wichita, Kansas: Hawker Beechcraft Corporation. pp. 3–4. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 25, 2009. Retrieved December 8, 2008.
  6. 1 2 3 "Beechcraft Serialization List, 1945 thru 2014" (PDF). beechcraft.com. Beechcraft. August 26, 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-10-16. Retrieved October 16, 2014.
  7. Flying magazine, ibid.
  8. "The Bonanza". Flying. New York: Ziff-Davis. September 1946. Retrieved October 16, 2014.
  9. 1 2 Karant, Max (February 1947). "FLYING's Check Pilot - The Bonanza". Flying. New York: Ziff-Davis. Retrieved October 16, 2014.
  10. Flying, Vol. 134, No. 8, August 2007, p. 62 "60 Years of Continuous Bonanza Production
  11. Jacobshagen, Norman (June 1960). "Check Pilot Report: Beech Debonair". Flying. New York: Ziff-Davis. Retrieved October 16, 2014.
  12. "Aircraft type designators" (PDF). International Civil Aviation Organization. Retrieved 23 March 2019.
  13. Emily Johns (2009-03-29). "Congressman gets bird's-eye view of flood". Star Tribune (Minneapolis-St.Paul).
  14. Alicia Caldwell (1988-09-13). "Pilot in crash had only student license". Tampa Bay Times.
  15. Bill Miller (2008-09-21). "Snapshot: Bad day for the Flying Dutchman". Mail Tribune.
  16. Hawes C. Spencer (June 22, 2006). "NEWS- Qroe quandary: Cause of crash shrouded in fog". The Hook.
  17. Lisa Greene (July 20, 2003). "Doctors find solace in high places". St. Petersburg Times.
  18. 1 2 3 4 Landsberg, Bruce (5 February 1994). "Bonanza Safety Review". www.aopa.org. Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association . Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  19. "Beechcraft Bonanza". www.aopa.org. Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association . Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  20. 1 2 Twombly, Ian J. (1 January 2018). "Budget Buy: Beechcraft Bonanza 35". www.aopa.org. Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association . Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  21. McClellan, J. Mac (April 2002). "V-Tail Bonanza to a Baron 58". Flying. New York: Ziff-Davis. Retrieved October 16, 2014.
  22. 1 2 Bradley, Patrick (October 1984). "Bargain Bonanza: Beech F33A". Flying. New York: Ziff-Davis. Retrieved October 16, 2014.
  23. Brechner, Berl (August 1984). "Airplane Evolution: Beech Bonanzas". Flying. New York: Ziff-Davis. Retrieved October 16, 2014.
  24. 1 2 Moll, Nigel (May 1984). "Pilot Report: Bonanza A36". Flying. New York: Ziff-Davis. Retrieved October 16, 2014.
  25. Niles, Russ (January 15, 2012). "Australia Grounds Older Bonanzas". AVweb. Retrieved January 16, 2012.
  26. AAP (January 16, 2012). "CASA issues directive on light planes". Herald Sun . Retrieved January 16, 2012.
  27. Niles, Russ (January 24, 2012). "No FAA Bonanza Cable AD". AVweb. Retrieved January 26, 2012.
  28. 1 2 Mike Collins (September 2014). "The Bonanza Goes to War Meet the QU-22B and the men that flew her". AOPA Pilot.
  29. "USAF Qu-22 Pave Eagle" . Retrieved September 29, 2014.
  30. FAA (April 12, 2013), Aircraft Specification 3A15, retrieved January 3, 2014
  31. 1 2 Federal Aviation Administration (March 26, 2007). "Aircraft Specification A-777" (PDF). Retrieved March 6, 2012.
  32. Jacobshagen, Norman (January 1961). "Check Pilot Report: Bonanza N35". Flying. New York: Ziff-Davis. Retrieved October 16, 2014.
  33. Schlaeger, Gerald J. (May 1964). "Pilot Report: Sweet Sixteen Plus 2". Flying. New York: Ziff-Davis. Retrieved October 16, 2014.
  34. Weeghman, Richard B. (September 1966). "Beach bumming south of Nassau in a great new Bonanza". Flying. New York: Ziff-Davis. Retrieved October 16, 2014.
  35. Collins, Richard L. (March 1976). "Bonanza [V35B]". Flying. New York: Ziff-Davis. Retrieved October 16, 2014.
  36. McClellan, J. Mac (September 1989). "Simply Irresistible: The Bonanza A36". Flying. New York: Ziff-Davis. Retrieved October 16, 2014.
  37. George, Fred (June 1992). "Coast-to-Coast Speed Record in a B36TC Bonanza". Flying. New York: Ziff-Davis. Retrieved October 16, 2014.
  38. McClellan, J. Mac (March 2006). "Beech First with Complete G1000 System". Flying. New York: Ziff-Davis. Retrieved October 16, 2014.
  39. Air Progress: 75. December 1971.Missing or empty |title= (help)
  40. John W.R. Taylor, ed. (1988). Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1988–89. London: Jane's Information Group. pp. 324–325. ISBN   0-7106-0867-5.
  41. McClellan, J. Mac (May 1989). "Now, Voyager". Flying. New York: Ziff-Davis. Retrieved October 16, 2014.
  42. "Supplemental Type Certificate Number SA3151SO" (PDF). faa.gov. Federal Aviation Administration. July 16, 2007. Retrieved October 16, 2014.
  43. "Tradewind Turbines" . Retrieved September 29, 2014.
  44. Pete Bedell (December 2013). "Performance Bonanza". AOPA Pilot: T=13.
  45. "TurbineAir" . Retrieved October 16, 2014.
  46. "Supplemental Type Certificate Number SA01156SE" (PDF). faa.gov. Federal Aviation Administration. July 16, 2007. Retrieved October 16, 2014.
  47. Pete Bidell (January 2015). "Turbine Bonanza Conversions". AOPA Pilot: T-2.
  48. "Speed: Buying 180 Knots for $180,000"
  49. Colby, Douglas. "The Ultimate V-Tail". Plane & Pilot Magazine. Werner Publishing Corporation. Retrieved July 21, 2009.
  50. John Pike. "GlobalSecurity.org – Parastu" . Retrieved September 29, 2014.
  51. "Payvand – Iranian Air Force Highly Equipped" . Retrieved September 29, 2014.
  52. Our History - Lake Central Airlines, US Airways website, retrieved January 14, 2014
  53. "Central Airlines Buys 8 Planes for Feeder Service in 3 States". The Dallas Morning News . Dallas, Texas. Associated Press. 11 August 1949. Retrieved 5 November 2019.
  54. "Central Airlines to Start DC-3 Service over Routes". The Dallas Morning News . Dallas, Texas. 7 September 1950. Retrieved 5 November 2019. Until other DC-3's are added to the present three, Central will continue using its Bonanzas—of which there are eleven—on the Fort Worth–Texarkana and Fort Worth–Wichita routes.
  55. Andrade 1982, p. 97.
  56. Andrade 1982, p. 107.
  57. "Empat Pesawat Latih Baru Puspenerbal Diserahterimakan Hari Ini – Surya". Surabaya.tribunnews.com. 2013-12-30. Retrieved 2015-06-28.
  58. Andrade 1982, p. 126.
  59. Andrade 1982, p. 156.
  60. Andrade 1982, p. 164.
  61. Andrade 1982, p. 166.
  62. Nicolli Air Enthusiast May–June 1998, p. 38.
  63. Andrade 1982, p. 203.
  64. World Air Forces – Historical Listings Thailand (THL), archived from the original on 25 January 2012, retrieved 30 August 2012
  65. Air & Space Vol. 22, No. 3, August 2007, "A Bonanza Anniversary", p. 14
  66. Air & Space, V 22, N 3, p. 14
  67. Ball 1971
  68. Air & Space, V 22, N 3, p. 15
  69. "MIT student finishes record flight around the world". BostonGlobe.com. Retrieved September 29, 2014.
  70. "Jailhouse Relic".
  71. Spokesman Review (via Google), "Cause of Plane Crash Sought" dated August 2, 1955, retrieved on June 6, 2015.
  72. "Aircraft Accident Report – File No. 2-0001" (PDF). Civil Aeronautics Board, Page 3, "The Aircraft" section. September 15, 1959.
  73. "N8972M". National Transportation Safety Board. Retrieved August 8, 2019.
  74. "Famous people who died in aviation accidents". planecrashinfo.com. Retrieved 1 October 2016.
  75. "NTSB Accident Summary LAX81FA044". ntsb.gov. National Transportation Safety Board. February 7, 1981. Archived from the original on 19 October 2012. Retrieved October 15, 2014.
  76. "NTSB preliminary report". Archived from the original on 16 October 2012.
  77. "NTSB preliminary report". Archived from the original on 2013-12-30.
  78. https://www.nbcnews.com/news/asian-america/teen-pilot-dad-killed-fatal-flight-inspire-donors-give-3-n258891
  79. Hawker Beechcraft G36 Specifications Archived 2011-07-02 at the Wayback Machine
  80. Hawker Beechcraft G36 Performance Archived 2011-06-28 at the Wayback Machine
Bibliography