Indian Ocean in World War II

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The pocket battleship Admiral Graf Spee brought World War II to the Indian Ocean in 1939. Panzerschiff Admiral Graf Spee in 1936.jpg
The pocket battleship Admiral Graf Spee brought World War II to the Indian Ocean in 1939.
Atlantis was the first disguised commerce raider in the Indian Ocean. Hilfskreuzer Atlantis.jpg
Atlantis was the first disguised commerce raider in the Indian Ocean.
Galileo Galilei was one of eight Italian submarines operating out of Massawa, and is shown here being captured by the Royal Navy. Italian Submarine Galileo Galilei.jpg
Galileo Galilei was one of eight Italian submarines operating out of Massawa, and is shown here being captured by the Royal Navy.
HMS Hermes as a convoy escort during the first year of wartime patrols. HMS Hermes June 1940.jpg
HMS Hermes as a convoy escort during the first year of wartime patrols.
Italian commerce raider Ramb I sinking. Ramb1.jpg
Italian commerce raider Ramb I sinking.
Fairey Albacore bombers launched from HMS Formidable raided Massawa. Fairey Albacore.jpg
Fairey Albacore bombers launched from HMS Formidable raided Massawa.
Pantera was one of the destroyers based at Massawa destroyed when the Allies captured Italy's east African colonies. Destroyer Pantera.JPG
Pantera was one of the destroyers based at Massawa destroyed when the Allies captured Italy's east African colonies.
Commerce raider Kormoran preparing to refuel a U-boat. Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1985-074-27, Hilfskreuzer Kormoran.jpg
Commerce raider Kormoran preparing to refuel a U-boat.
HMAS Sydney was the only cruiser to be sunk by a commerce raider. Sydney II camouflage.jpg
HMAS Sydney was the only cruiser to be sunk by a commerce raider.
USS Langley under air attack south of Java. USS Langley (AV-3) is torpedoed south of Java on 27 February 1942.jpg
USS Langley under air attack south of Java.
HMAS Yarra was sunk by Japanese warships south of Java. HMAS Yarra (AWM 016263).jpg
HMAS Yarra was sunk by Japanese warships south of Java.
HMS Cornwall and HMS Dorsetshire under attack by Japanese dive bombers on 5 April 1942. Dorsetshire&Cornwall.jpg
HMS Cornwall and HMS Dorsetshire under attack by Japanese dive bombers on 5 April 1942.
HMS Cornwall sinking following air attack. HMS Cornwall - 1942 - WWII.jpg
HMS Cornwall sinking following air attack.
HMIS Indus in Akyab harbour, Burma, 1942. HMIS indus IWM ADNO 9148.jpg
HMIS Indus in Akyab harbour, Burma, 1942.
Japanese submarine I-10 shown at Penang between Indian Ocean patrols. Japanese submarine I-10 at Penang port in 1942.jpg
Japanese submarine I-10 shown at Penang between Indian Ocean patrols.
Bristol Blenheims of No. 60 Squadron RAF flying low to attack a Japanese coaster off Akyab, Burma on 11 October 1942. Blenheims flying low.jpg
Bristol Blenheims of No. 60 Squadron RAF flying low to attack a Japanese coaster off Akyab, Burma on 11 October 1942.
Japanese commerce raider Hokoku Maru. Hokoku Maru-1942.jpg
Japanese commerce raider Hōkoku Maru .
HMAS Arunta evacuated troops from Japanese-occupied Timor. HMAS Arunta I30 July 1943.jpg
HMAS Arunta evacuated troops from Japanese-occupied Timor.
Italy's most successful submarine Leonardo da Vinci sank ships in the western Indian Ocean during patrols from European bases. Rm-Da-Vinci.jpg
Italy's most successful submarine Leonardo da Vinci sank ships in the western Indian Ocean during patrols from European bases.
Dutch submarine O-21 patrolled the Andaman Sea. O 21 haven van Gribalter.jpg
Dutch submarine O-21 patrolled the Andaman Sea.
Tenth Air Force B-24 Liberators sank several ships in the Andaman Sea. 7th Bombardment Group B-24 Liberators.jpg
Tenth Air Force B-24 Liberators sank several ships in the Andaman Sea.
German submarine U-511 was the first U-boat to reach the eastern Indian Ocean and was presented to Japan as IJN RO-500. Japanese submarine RO-500 in 1943.jpg
German submarine U-511 was the first U-boat to reach the eastern Indian Ocean and was presented to Japan as IJN RO-500.
HMS Tally-Ho was one of several British T-class submarines patrolling the Strait of Malacca. Tally-ho.jpg
HMS Tally-Ho was one of several British T-class submarines patrolling the Strait of Malacca.
HMS Illustrious operated with USS Saratoga for Indian Ocean air raids. HMS Illustrious bow 1944.jpg
HMS Illustrious operated with USS Saratoga for Indian Ocean air raids.
HMS Khedive was one of several escort carriers serving in the Indian Ocean. HMS Khedive.jpg
HMS Khedive was one of several escort carriers serving in the Indian Ocean.
Fireflies returning to HMS Indefatigable following Operation Lentil airstrikes. Fairey Fireflies on HMS Indefatigable 4 January 1945.jpg
Fireflies returning to HMS Indefatigable following Operation Lentil airstrikes.
Battleships HMS Valiant and Richelieu during Operation Bishop. The Royal Navy during the Second World War A23483.jpg
Battleships HMS Valiant and Richelieu during Operation Bishop.
Operation Dracula was the last major amphibious landing in the Indian Ocean. ElephantPoint01.jpg
Operation Dracula was the last major amphibious landing in the Indian Ocean.
German submarine U-532 was the last of the Monsun Gruppe to return to Europe, and is shown arriving in Liverpool after the German surrender. U-boat Warfare 1939-1945 A28677.jpg
German submarine U-532 was the last of the Monsun Gruppe to return to Europe, and is shown arriving in Liverpool after the German surrender.
Haguro was sunk evacuating Japanese troops from Port Blair. CruiserHaguro.jpg
Haguro was sunk evacuating Japanese troops from Port Blair.

Prior to World War II, the Indian Ocean was an important maritime trade route between European nations and their colonial territories in East Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, British India, Indochina, the East Indies (Indonesia), and Australia for a long time. Naval presence was dominated by the Royal Navy Eastern Fleet and the Royal Australian Navy as World War II began, with a major portion of the Royal Netherlands Navy operating in the Dutch East Indies and the Red Sea Flotilla of the Italian Regia Marina operating from Massawa.

World War II 1939–1945 global war

World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.

Indian Ocean The ocean between Africa, Asia, Australia and Antarctica (or the Southern Ocean)

The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering 70,560,000 km2 (27,240,000 sq mi). It is bounded by Asia on the north, on the west by Africa, on the east by Australia, and on the south by the Southern Ocean or, depending on definition, by Antarctica.

Europe Continent in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.

Contents

Axis naval forces gave a high priority to disrupting Allied trade in the Indian Ocean. Initial anti-shipping measures of unrestricted submarine warfare and covert raiding ships expanded to include airstrikes by aircraft carriers and raids by cruisers of the Imperial Japanese Navy. A Kriegsmarine Monsun Gruppe of U-boats operated from the eastern Indian Ocean after the Persian Corridor became an important military supply route to the Soviet Union.

Axis powers Alliance of countries defeated in World War II

The Axis powers, also known as "Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis", were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allies. The Axis powers agreed on their opposition to the Allies, but did not completely coordinate their activity.

Allies of World War II Grouping of the victorious countries of World War II

The Allies of World War II, called the "United Nations" from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945). The Allies promoted the alliance as a means to control German, Japanese and Italian aggression.

Unrestricted submarine warfare

Unrestricted submarine warfare is a type of naval warfare in which submarines sink vessels such as freighters and tankers without warning, as opposed to attacks per prize rules. Prize rules call for submarines to surface and search merchantmen and place crews in "a place of safety" before sinking them, unless the ship showed "persistent refusal to stop ... or active resistance to visit or search". During the First World War, the British introduced Q-ships with concealed deck guns, and armed many merchantmen, leading the Germans to ignore the prize rules; in the most dramatic episode they sank Lusitania in 1915 in a few minutes because she was carrying war munitions. The U.S. demanded it stop, and Germany did so. Admiral Henning von Holtzendorff, chief of the Admiralty staff, argued successfully in early 1917 to resume the attacks and thus starve the British. The German high command realized the resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare meant war with the United States but calculated that American mobilization would be too slow to stop a German victory on the Western Front.

Chronology

German cruiser <i>Admiral Graf Spee</i> Deutschland-class cruiser

Admiral Graf Spee was a Deutschland-class "Panzerschiff", nicknamed a "pocket battleship" by the British, which served with the Kriegsmarine of Nazi Germany during World War II. The two sister-ships of her class, Deutschland and Admiral Scheer, were reclassified as heavy cruisers in 1940. The vessel was named after Admiral Maximilian von Spee, commander of the East Asia Squadron that fought the battles of Coronel and the Falkland Islands, where he was killed in action, in World War I. She was laid down at the Reichsmarinewerft shipyard in Wilhelmshaven in October 1932 and completed by January 1936. The ship was nominally under the 10,000 long tons (10,000 t) limitation on warship size imposed by the Treaty of Versailles, though with a full load displacement of 16,020 long tons (16,280 t), she significantly exceeded it. Armed with six 28 cm (11 in) guns in two triple gun turrets, Admiral Graf Spee and her sisters were designed to outgun any cruiser fast enough to catch them. Their top speed of 28 knots left only the few battlecruisers in the Anglo-French navies fast enough and powerful enough to sink them.

Madagascar island nation off the coast of Southeast Africa, in the Indian Ocean

Madagascar, officially the Republic of Madagascar, and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, approximately 400 kilometres off the coast of East Africa. The nation comprises the island of Madagascar and numerous smaller peripheral islands. Following the prehistoric breakup of the supercontinent Gondwana, Madagascar split from the Indian subcontinent around 88 million years ago, allowing native plants and animals to evolve in relative isolation. Consequently, Madagascar is a biodiversity hotspot; over 90% of its wildlife is found nowhere else on Earth. The island's diverse ecosystems and unique wildlife are threatened by the encroachment of the rapidly growing human population and other environmental threats.

1940

The Regia Marina Red Sea Flotilla based at Massawa provided a focal point for Indian Ocean naval activity following Italian declaration of war on 10 June 1940; although Indian Ocean patrols of Kriegsmarine merchant raiders required defensive dispersion of Allied cruisers after May.

Regia Marina 1861–1946 maritime warfare branch of Italys military; predecessor of the Italian Navy

The Regia Marina was the navy of the Kingdom of Italy from 1861 to 1946. In 1946, with the birth of the Italian Republic, the Regia Marina changed its name to Marina Militare.

Red Sea Flotilla

The Red Sea Flotilla was part of the Regia Marina Italia based at Massawa in the colony of Italian Eritrea, part of Italian East Africa. In World War II, the Red Sea Flotilla was active against the East Indies Station of the Royal Navy, from the Italian declaration of war on 10 June 1940 until the fall of Massawa on 8 April 1941.

Massawa City in Northern Red Sea, Eritrea

Massawa is a city on the Red Sea coast of Eritrea located at the northern end of the Gulf of Zula beside the Dahlak Archipelago. As a historical and important port for many centuries, it was ruled by a succession of polities, including the Axumite Empire, Medri Bahri Kingdom, the Umayyad Caliphate, various Beja sultanates, the Ottoman Empire, the Khedivate of Egypt, Italy, Britain, and Ethiopia, until Eritrea's independence in 1991. Massawa was the capital of the Italian Colony of Eritrea until it was moved to Asmara in 1897.

Destroyer Type of warship

In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast, maneuverable long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet, convoy or battle group and defend them against smaller powerful short-range attackers. They were originally developed in the late 19th century by Fernando Villaamil for the Spanish Navy as a defense against torpedo boats, and by the time of the Russo-Japanese War in 1904, these "torpedo boat destroyers" (TBDs) were "large, swift, and powerfully armed torpedo boats designed to destroy other torpedo boats". Although the term "destroyer" had been used interchangeably with "TBD" and "torpedo boat destroyer" by navies since 1892, the term "torpedo boat destroyer" had been generally shortened to simply "destroyer" by nearly all navies by the First World War.

Submarine Watercraft capable of independent operation underwater

A submarine is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater. It differs from a submersible, which has more limited underwater capability. It is also sometimes used historically or colloquially to refer to remotely operated vehicles and robots, as well as medium-sized or smaller vessels, such as the midget submarine and the wet sub.

German auxiliary cruiser <i>Atlantis</i> ship

The German auxiliary cruiser Atlantis, known to the Kriegsmarine as Schiff 16 and to the Royal Navy as Raider-C, was a converted German Hilfskreuzer, or merchant or commerce raider of the Kriegsmarine, which, in World War II, travelled more than 161,000 km (100,000 mi) in 602 days, and sank or captured 22 ships with a combined tonnage of 144,384. Atlantis was commanded by Kapitän zur See Bernhard Rogge, who received the Oak Leaves to the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross. She was sunk on 22 November 1941 by the British cruiser HMS Devonshire.

1941

Early focus was Allied neutralisation and capture of Regia Marina African naval bases, followed by invasions of Iraq in April and Iran in August, to displace governments friendly to the Axis powers. Later Allied focus was on destruction of Kriegsmarine commerce raiders and moving troops to defend against anticipated Japanese expansion into south-east Asia.

Iraq Republic in Western Asia

Iraq, officially the Republic of Iraq, is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west. The capital, and largest city, is Baghdad. Iraq is home to diverse ethnic groups including Arabs, Kurds, Assyrians, Turkmen, Shabakis, Yazidis, Armenians, Mandeans, Circassians and Kawliya. Around 95% of the country's 37 million citizens are Muslims, with Christianity, Yarsan, Yezidism and Mandeanism also present. The official languages of Iraq are Arabic and Kurdish.

Iran Country in Western Asia

Iran, also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th most populous country. Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), it is the second largest country in the Middle East and the 17th largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center.

<i>Kriegsmarine</i> 1935–1945 naval warfare branch of Germanys armed forces

The Kriegsmarine was the navy of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945. It superseded the Imperial German Navy of the German Empire (1871–1918) and the inter-war Reichsmarine (1919–1935) of the Weimar Republic. The Kriegsmarine was one of three official branches, along with the Heer (Army) and the Luftwaffe of the Wehrmacht, the German armed forces from 1933 to 1945.

1942

Japanese submarine cruisers began patrolling the Indian Ocean during the Dutch East Indies campaign. Following the attack on Pearl Harbor, the Kido Butai fast carrier task force raided Darwin, Australia to cover the invasion of Timor and raided Ceylon to cover transport of Japanese troops to Rangoon. Kriegsmarine merchant raiders were less able to avoid Allied patrols; but the battle of the Atlantic spilled over into the Indian Ocean around Cape Agulhas as German Type IX submarines began patrolling the east coast of Africa.

1943

Axis submarine patrols of Indian Ocean trade routes were expanded with establishment of a Kriegsmarine base in Penang as Allied anti-submarine patrols became increasingly effective in the Atlantic. Allied submarines and aircraft began patrolling the Strait of Malacca and Andaman Sea to intercept shipping supporting Japanese forces in Burma.

1944

Use of Ultra intelligence information increased successful interceptions by Allied submarines and reduced Axis resupply opportunities in the Indian Ocean. Surrender of the Regia Marina and destruction of Kriegsmarine battleships made Royal Navy aircraft carriers available for raids of the Andaman Sea.

1945

Allied focus was on amphibious operations along the Burma coast of the Andaman Sea. Axis submarine operations were restricted by fuel shortage and maintenance difficulties.

List of sub-theatres and actions

Australia
Britain
France
Germany
Japan

Sources

Notes

  1. Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.6
  2. Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.14
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Muggenthaler, p.115
  4. Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.22
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.23
  6. "Regia Marina Italiana". Cristiano D'Adamo. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
  7. Rohwer & Hummelchen, pp. 30–31
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Muggenthaler, p.165
  9. Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.33
  10. Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.39
  11. Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.42
  12. Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.50
  13. Muggenthaler, p.98
  14. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.51
  15. Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.53
  16. 1 2 3 Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.55
  17. Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.57
  18. Muggenthaler, p.101
  19. Rohwer & Hummelchen, pp.58 & 59
  20. Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.62
  21. Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.67
  22. 1 2 Muggenthaler, p.189
  23. Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.91
  24. Cressman, pp.50 & 51
  25. Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.99
  26. Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.102
  27. Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.111
  28. Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.108
  29. Rohwer & Hummelchen, pp. 97–98
  30. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Klemen, L. "Allied Merchant Ship Losses in the Pacific and Southeast Asia (December 7th, 1941 - March 9th, 1942)". The Netherlands East Indies 1941-1942. Retrieved 26 December 2013.
  31. Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.115
  32. 1 2 Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.116
  33. Cressman, p.72
  34. 1 2 3 Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.123
  35. Brown, (1977) p.51
  36. Cressman, p.79
  37. 1 2 3 Brown, (1990) p.59
  38. 1 2 Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.127
  39. 1 2 Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.128
  40. Dull, p.109
  41. Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.129
  42. Cressman, p.83
  43. Cressman, p.84
  44. Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.131
  45. Dull, p.110
  46. Cressman, p.85
  47. Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.132
  48. 1 2 3 Cressman, p.86
  49. Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.134
  50. Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.136
  51. 1 2 3 4 5 Muggenthaler, p.251
  52. 1 2 Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.161
  53. Cressman, p.100
  54. Cressman, p.102
  55. Cressman, p.106
  56. Cressman, p.119
  57. Cressman, p.120
  58. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Blair, pp.72-81
  59. Cressman, p.126
  60. Cressman, p.129
  61. Cressman, p.130
  62. Cressman, p.132
  63. 1 2 Cressman, p.133
  64. 1 2 Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.179
  65. 1 2 Muggenthaler, p.258
  66. 1 2 Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.188
  67. Cressman, p.142
  68. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Blair, pp.226-233
  69. Rohwer & Hummelchen, pp.191 & 192
  70. 1 2 Cressman, p.147
  71. Cressman, p.150
  72. Cressman, p.151
  73. Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.199
  74. 1 2 Cressman, p.152
  75. Cressman, p.157
  76. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Blair, pp.296-306
  77. 1 2 Cressman, p.162
  78. 1 2 Cressman, p.165
  79. Cressman, p.167
  80. 1 2 Cressman, p.168
  81. Cressman, p.170
  82. Cressman, p.173
  83. Cressman, p.177
  84. 1 2 Brice, pp.131-133
  85. 1 2 3 4 5 Blair, pp.398-402
  86. Cressman, p.182
  87. Cressman, p.183
  88. Brice, p.136
  89. 1 2 3 Cressman, pp.197 & 198
  90. 1 2 Cressman, p.200
  91. Cressman, p.202
  92. 1 2 Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.255
  93. Cressman, p.205
  94. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Blair, pp.527-542
  95. Cressman, p.206
  96. Cressman, p.208
  97. Kemp, p.350
  98. Cressman, p.213
  99. 1 2 Blair, pp.465-468
  100. Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.256
  101. 1 2 Cressman, p.217
  102. Cressman, p.219
  103. Helgason, Guðmundur. "HMS Maaløy (J 136)". Uboat.net. Retrieved 28 December 2013.
  104. Helgason, Guðmundur. "Tulagi". Uboat.net. Retrieved 28 December 2013.
  105. Cressman, p.220
  106. Kemp, p.351
  107. Cressman, p.226
  108. Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.275
  109. Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.284
  110. 1 2 Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.278
  111. Cressman, p.243
  112. Kemp, p.352
  113. Helgason, Guðmundur. "Radbury". Uboat.net. Retrieved 1 January 2014.
  114. Helgason, Guðmundur. "Empire Lancer". Uboat.net. Retrieved 1 January 2014.
  115. Helgason, Guðmundur. "Nairung". Uboat.net. Retrieved 1 January 2014.
  116. Helgason, Guðmundur. "Wayfarer". Uboat.net. Retrieved 1 January 2014.
  117. Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.297
  118. Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.296
  119. Cressman, p.250
  120. Cressman, p.253
  121. Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.310
  122. 1 2 Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.316
  123. Cressman, p.271
  124. Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.317
  125. Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.319
  126. Cressman, p.284
  127. Kemp, p.354
  128. Kemp, p.357
  129. Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.328
  130. 1 2 3 Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.329
  131. Rohwer & Hummelchen, pp.329 & 330
  132. Cressman, p.292
  133. Cressman, p.293
  134. 1 2 Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.334
  135. 1 2 Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.335
  136. Cressman, p.301
  137. 1 2 Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.340
  138. Cressman, p.306
  139. Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.347
  140. Cressman, p.311
  141. 1 2 3 Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.350
  142. Kemp, pp.357 & 358
  143. 1 2 Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.355
  144. Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.357
  145. Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.359
  146. Rohwer & Hummelchen, p.360

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Western Local Escort Force (WLEF) referred to the organization of anti-submarine escorts for World War II trade convoys from North American port cities to the Western Ocean Meeting Point near Newfoundland where ships of the Mid-Ocean Escort Force (MOEF) assumed responsibility for safely delivering the convoys to the British Isles.

UG convoys

The UG convoys were a series of east-bound trans-Atlantic convoys from the United States to Gibraltar carrying food, ammunition, and military hardware to the United States Army in North Africa and southern Europe during World War II. These convoys assembled in Hampton Roads near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay and terminated in various North African locations as Axis forces retreated from 1942 through 1945.

CU convoys

The CU convoys were a World War II series of fast trans-Atlantic convoys to the British Isles. The earliest convoys of the series were tankers sailing directly from petroleum refineries at Curaçao to the United Kingdom. Most convoys of the series assembled in New York City and included fast freighters and troopships, with tankers arriving from Aruba via TAG convoys to Guantánamo Bay and GN convoys from Guantánamo to New York.

HMS <i>Tynedale</i> (L96)

HMS Tynedale was a Hunt-class destroyer of the first subgroup which served during the Second World War. She was sunk by the U-593 on 12 December 1943.

Arctic naval operations of World War II

The Arctic Circle defining the "midnight sun" encompasses the Atlantic Ocean from the northern edge of Iceland to the Bering Strait. The area is often considered part of the Battle of the Atlantic or the European Theatre of World War II. Pre-war navigation focused on fishing and the international ore trade from Narvik and Petsamo. Soviet settlements along the coast and rivers of the Barents Sea and Kara Sea relied upon summer coastal shipping for supplies from railheads at Arkhangelsk and Murmansk. The Soviet Union extended the Northern Sea Route past the Taymyr Peninsula to the Bering Strait in 1935.

<i>Aikoku Maru</i> (1940) Armed merchant cruiser of the Imperial Japanese Navy

Aikoku Maru (愛国丸) was an armed merchant cruiser of the Imperial Japanese Navy in World War II. The ship entered service in 1940, the ship was later converted to an ammunition ship. She was destroyed in February 1944.

K XII was a K XI class patrol submarines of the Royal Netherlands Navy. The ship was built by Fijenoord shipyard in Rotterdam.

8th Submarine Squadron (Imperial Japanese Navy) squadron of the Imperial Japanese Navy

The 8th Submarine Squadron of the Imperial Japanese Navy was based at Swettenham Pier, Penang, Malaya, until late 1944 during World War II. Its mission was to disrupt Allied supply lines in aid of Nazi Germany.

Convoy HG 53 was the 53rd of the numbered series of World War II HG convoys of Homeward bound merchant ships from Gibraltar to Liverpool. Convoy HG 53 lost nine ships during a coordinated attack in February 1941. HG 53 was one of the few Atlantic convoys to have ships sunk by submarines, by aircraft, and by surface ships.