Naga, Camarines Sur

Last updated
Nueva Caceres
City of Naga
Naga montage.jpg
(From top, left to right) Holy Rosary Seminary, Universidad de Santa Isabel, Naga Metropolitan Cathedral, Our Lady of Peñafrancia, Ateneo de Naga University, Our Lady of Peñafrancia Shrine, Malabsay Falls, Naga City Hall, Carmelite Monastery, Peñafrancia Festival
Flag of Naga, Camarines Sur.png
Naga City CamSur Seal.svg
  • Queen City of Bicol
  • The Heart of Bicol
  • An Maogmang Lugar (The Happy Place)
  • Pilgrim City of Naga
  • One of the Seven Golden Cities of the Sun
Naga, Na! (Naga, Now!)
Ph locator camarines sur naga.png
Map of Camarines Sur with Naga highlighted
Naga, Camarines Sur
Philippines location map (square).svg
Red pog.svg
Location within the Philippines
Coordinates: 13°37′28″N123°11′11″E / 13.6244°N 123.1864°E / 13.6244; 123.1864 Coordinates: 13°37′28″N123°11′11″E / 13.6244°N 123.1864°E / 13.6244; 123.1864
Country Philippines
Region Bicol Region
Province Camarines Sur (geographically only)
District 3rd district
Founded (as Ciudad de Nueva Caceres)1575
Royal City-Charter1595
Renamed as Naga1919
CityhoodJune 18, 1948
Founded byCapt. Pedro de Chavez
Barangays 27 (see Barangays)
  Type Sangguniang Panlungsod
  MayorNelson S. Legacion [2]
   Vice Mayor Cecilia V. de Asis [2]
   Representative Gabriel H. Bordado Jr.
   City Council
   Electorate 105,366 voters (2019)
   Independent component city 84.48 km2 (32.62 sq mi)
225.79 km2 (87.18 sq mi)
1,342 km2 (518 sq mi)
66 m (217 ft)
Highest elevation
1,864 m (6,115 ft)
Lowest elevation
−1 m (−3 ft)
 (2020 census) [4]
   Independent component city 209,170
  Density2,500/km2 (6,400/sq mi)
  Urban density1,500/km2 (3,900/sq mi)
  Metro density640/km2 (1,700/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Nagueño (masculine)
Nagueña (feminine)
Nagueñians (English, unofficial)
   Income class 1st city income class
   Poverty incidence 9.12% (2018) [5]
   Revenue ₱1,362,455,732.76 (2020)
   Assets ₱5,536,429,754.93 (2020)
   Expenditure ₱1,293,811,218.42 (2020)
   Liabilities ₱718,795,774.34 (2020)
Service provider
  ElectricityCamarines Sur 2 Electric Cooperative (CASURECO 2)
Time zone UTC+8 (PST)
ZIP code
IDD : area code +63(0)54
Native languages Central Bikol
Inagta Partido
Feast dateThird Saturday and Third Sunday of September
Catholic diocese Archdiocese of Caceres
Patron saint Our Lady of Peñafrancia

Naga, officially known as the City of Naga (Central Bikol: Syudad nin Naga; Rinconada Bikol: Syudad ka Naga; Tagalog : Lungsod ng Naga) or the Pilgrim City of Naga, is a 1st class independent component city in the Bicol Region of the Philippines. According to the 2020 census, it has a population of 209,170 people. [4]


The town was established in 1575 by order of Spanish Governor-General Francisco de Sande. The city, then named Ciudad de Nueva Cáceres (New Cáceres City), was one of the Spanish royal cities in the Spanish East Indies, along with Manila, Cebu, and Iloilo, the third oldest to be exact. [6]

Geographically and statistically classified, as well as legislatively represented within Camarines Sur, but administratively independent of the provincial government, Naga is the Bicol Region's trade, [7] [8] business, [8] religious, cultural, industrial, commercial, [9] medical, [10] [11] educational, [9] [12] and financial center. [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [ excessive citations ]

Naga is known as the "Queen City of Bicol" due to the historical significance of Naga in the Bicol Region; [19] as the "Heart of Bicol", [20] [21] due to its central location on the Bicol Peninsula; and as the "Pilgrim City," as Naga is also the destination of one of the largest Marian pilgrimages in Asia to the shrine of Our Lady of Peñafrancia, an image that is one of the country's most popular objects of devotion. [22] Naga is also known as "One of the Seven Golden Cities of the Sun" as stated by Nick Joaquín. [23]

The city is the seat of the metropolitan Archdiocese of Cáceres, which includes all the suffragan sees of Bicol.

It is one of the two Philippine cities named Naga, the other being Naga in Cebu.


Lignum nephriticum cup made of narra wood (the namesake of the province) produced opalescent colors when water is poured into it. These wooden cups were a major pre-colonial and colonial industry of Naga. Lignum nephriticum - cup of Philippine lignum nephriticum, Pterocarpus indicus, and flask containing its fluorescent solution Hi.jpg
Lignum nephriticum cup made of narra wood (the namesake of the province) produced opalescent colors when water is poured into it. These wooden cups were a major pre-colonial and colonial industry of Naga.

Naga is the native pre-colonial name of the city. It is named after the narra tree ( Pterocarpus indicus ), which is known as naga in the Bikol language. It was abundant in the region and was part of a pre-colonial industry of wooden cups and bowls made from narra that produced distinctive blue and yellow opalescent colors when water is poured into them (later known to Europeans as lignum nephriticum ). During the Spanish colonial era, they were exported to Mexico as luxury goods for their purported diuretic properties via the Manila-Acapulco Galleons, and from there, to Europe. They were often presented as gifts to European nobility. [24] [25]

The Jesuit missionary and historian Juan José Delgado (1697-1755) describes the industry in the following:

"The city called Nueva Cáceres by the Spaniards bears among the natives the name Naga, on account of the abundance of this tree throughout those provinces of Camarines and Albay, where they carve very curious cups out of it for drinking water. Those made of female naga (pale white wood) are much the better, for this wood tinges the water very quickly to a celestial color, more quickly than the male (reddish wood). These cups are much esteemed in Europe and are regarded as a gift well worthy of any prince. Out of one of these cups they made me drink when I was a child, in Cadiz (Spain), as a remedy for hydropsy and oppilation, and I think that it might have helped me had I not drunk too much."

Juan José Delgado, Biblioteca Histórica Filipina: Historia general sacro-profana, política y natural de las islas del poniente llamadas Filipinas (1751), [24]


Precolonial era

The Bicolandia was closely allied with the Kedatuan of Madja-as Confederation, which was located southeast on Panay Island. According to the epic Maragtas , two datus and their followers, who followed Datu Puti, arrived at Taal Lake, with one group later settling around Laguna de Bay, and another group pushing southward into the Bicol Peninsula, placing the Bicolanos between people from Luzon and people from the Visayas. An ancient tomb preserved among the Bicolanos, discovered and examined by anthropologists during the 1920s, refers to some of the same deities and personages mentioned in the Maragtas . [26]

Spanish colonial period

In 1573, on his second expedition to this region, the conquistador Juan de Salcedo landed in a settlement named Naga in the native languages, because of the abundance of narra trees (naga in Bikol).

In 1575, Captain Pedro de Chávez, the commander of the garrison left behind by Salcedo, founded on the site of the present business centre (across the river from the original Naga) a Spanish city which he named La Ciudad de Cáceres, in honor of Francisco de Sande, the Governor-General and a native of Cáceres in Spain. It was by this name that it was identified in the papal bull of August 14, 1595, which established the see of Cáceres, together with Cebú and Nueva Segovia, and made it the seat of the new bishopric subject to the Archdiocese of Manila. Nueva Caceres was settled by around 100 Spaniards from Europe [27] and reinforced by migrations from Mexico.

In time, the Spanish city and the native village merged into one community and became popularly known as "Nueva Cáceres", to distinguish it from its namesake in Spain. It had a city government as prescribed by Spanish law, with an ayuntamiento and cabildo of its own. At the beginning of the 17th century, there were only five other ciudades in the Philippines. Nueva Cáceres remained the capital of the Ambos Camarines provinces and later of Camarines Sur province until the formal creation of the independent chartered city of Naga under a sovereign Philippines.

For hundreds of years during the Spanish colonial era, Naga grew to become the center of trade, education, and culture, and the seat of ecclesiastical jurisdiction in Bicol.

American colonial period

Naga in 1935 Naga in 1935.jpg
Naga in 1935
Aerial view of Naga, circa pre-1942 Philippine Island - Luzon Island - NARA - 68156993.jpg
Aerial view of Naga, circa pre-1942

With the advent of American rule, the city was reduced to a municipality. In 1919, it lost its Spanish name and became officially known as Naga.

World War II and Japanese occupation

Naga came under Japanese occupation on December 18, 1941, following the Japanese invasion of Legaspi a few days earlier. [28]

In 1945, toward the end of World War II, combined U.S. and Philippine Commonwealth troops—of the United States Army, Philippine Commonwealth Army, Philippine Constabulary, as well as Bicolano guerrilla resistance groups—liberated Naga from Imperial Japanese troops.

Independent Philippines

After Naga was liberated from the Japanese, Naga began rebuilding. Having suffered only a few casualties, Naga was able to rebuild quickly after the war.


After many petitions, Naga became a city on June 18, 1948, when it acquired its present city charter; and its city government was inaugurated on December 15 of the same year by virtue of Republic Act No. 305. [29]


Naga is located within the province of Camarines Sur at the southeastern tip of Luzon, 435 kilometres (270 mi) southeast of Manila, the nation's capital, and near the center of the Bicol Region. It is surrounded on all sides by forests and by rich agricultural and fishing areas. It has an area of 8,448 hectares (20,880 acres) and is located on the serpentine and historic Naga River, at the confluence of the Naga and Bikol rivers. Thus, it has always been an ideal place for trade, and as center for schools, church, and government offices. Included in its territory is Mount Isarog, a declared protected area known as Mount Isarog Natural Park. [30]


Climate data for Naga
Average high °C (°F)30.2
Daily mean °C (°F)25.6
Average low °C (°F)20.9
Average precipitation mm (inches)6.3
Average rainy days1.
[ citation needed ]

According to the Köppen climate classification system, Naga has a tropical savanna climate.

The weather in the city from March to May is hot and dry, with temperatures ranging from 24 to 34 °C (75 to 93 °F). The typhoon season is from June to October, and the weather then is generally rainy. From November to February, the climate is cooler with temperatures ranging from 22 to 28 °C (72 to 82 °F). The average year-round humidity is 77%. [31]


Variant of city seal used in some occasions by the city government Naga Camarines Sur.png
Variant of city seal used in some occasions by the city government

Naga is politically subdivided into 27 barangays. [32]

Visit of Gov.-Gen Narciso Claveria y Zaldua at Nueva Caceres in Feb. 16, 1845 Claveria visit to NC Feb 16 1845.jpg
Visit of Gov.-Gen Narciso Claveria y Zaldua at Nueva Caceres in Feb. 16, 1845

Painting by Honorato Lozano

Political subdivisions of Naga Ph fil naga camarines sur.png
Political subdivisions of Naga
BarangaysClassPopulation [33] Barangay head [34]
AbellaUrban4,788Eduardo Albo
Bagumbayan NorteUrban2,991Dodit Beltran
Bagumbayan SurUrban6,959Jorge I. Salva Jr.
BalatasUrban10,404Pedro San Juan Jr.
CalauagUrban11,513Corazon Peñaflor
CararayanUrban15,998Rodrigo B. Agravante Jr.
CarolinaUrban5,841Alicia V. Saba
Concepcion GrandeUrban11,137Leticia Punzalan
Concepcion PequeñaUrban23,577Jewelin G. Regmalos
DayangdangUrban4,568Joshua Calleja
Del RosarioUrban9,332Gina Alcantara
DinagaUrban456Gemma Joy Antonio
Igualdad InteriorUrban3,379Domingo Alamer
LermaUrban2,337Domingo Serrado
LibotonUrban3,075Salvadora Ortua
MaboloUrban7,611Magno Reyes
PacolUrban11,673Josue Perez
PanicuasonUrban2,715Domingo Ramos
PeñafranciaUrban5,712Jeffrey Moralde
SabangUrban7,000Cyrus Caballero
San FelipeUrban17,444Alfonso Rodriguez
San FranciscoUrban947Tomas Ramon Sanchez Jr.
San IsidroUrban2,768Veronica C. Panganiban
Santa CruzUrban7,442Lorenzo D. Narvaez
TabucoUrban4,129Marcelo R. Bagadiong
TinagoUrban3,268Jose Importante
TrianguloUrban9,019Allan Beriso


Population census of Naga
YearPop.±% p.a.
1903 17,943    
1918 9,396−4.22%
1939 22,505+4.25%
1948 56,238+10.71%
1960 55,506−0.11%
YearPop.±% p.a.
1970 79,846+3.70%
1975 83,337+0.86%
1980 90,712+1.71%
1990 115,329+2.43%
1995 126,972+1.82%
YearPop.±% p.a.
2000 137,810+1.77%
2007 160,516+2.13%
2010 174,931+3.18%
2015 196,003+2.19%
2020 209,170+1.29%
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority [35] [36] [37] [38]

According to the 2020 census, the population of Naga is 209,170 people, with a density of 2,300/km2. Naga had an average annual population growth of 1.29% between 2010 and 2020 according to same census. All populated areas of the city are classified as urban. Naga City has about the same population as Legazpi City (209,533).


Roman Catholicism

Minor Basilica of Our Lady of Penafrancia Penafrancia Basilica Minore.jpg
Minor Basilica of Our Lady of Peñafrancia

The city is the ecclesiastical seat of the Archdiocese of Caceres, which oversees the Catholic population in the Bicol Region, whose archbishop is the primate of the region. This dominant faith is supported by the presence of old and influential Catholic institutions, from universities to churches run by different religious institutes, notably the Ateneo de Naga University by the Jesuits; the Universidad de Santa Isabel by the Daughters of Charity; the Naga Metropolitan Cathedral, which is the oldest cathedral that is still standing in Luzon outside Metro Manila; Peñafrancia Basilica Minore, which is the largest Catholic structure in southern Luzon in terms of size and land area; Our Lady of Peñafrancia Shrine; the historic San Francisco Church; and Peñafrancia Museum.

Other Christian faiths

Protestant denominations in the city include Seventh-day Adventists and Bible Baptists, whose churches are located along Magsaysay Avenue, while other Protestants attend the Methodist Church which is among the old structures along Peñafrancia Avenue.

The Assemblies of God maintains a fast-growing ministry in Naga. Aside from Naga Bethel Church (formerly Naga Bethel Temple), which is located on Felix Plazo Street, other local congregations are Philippians Christian Fellowship (in barangays San Felipe), Gethsemane Christian Ministries (in Carolina), and outreach ministries in other barangays.

The largest minority religion in Naga is Iglesia ni Cristo (INC). INC has several chapels in different barangays in the city, and the local congregation is the largest in the district.

There is also a concentration of Jesus Miracle Crusade ministries in the city.

Other religions

Taoist Temple along Naga river Taoist Temple along Naga River.jpg
Taoist Temple along Naga river

Muslims, Sikhs, and Taoists can also be found in the city.


The Coastal Bikol-Central dialect of the Coastal Bikol language is the dominant dialect spoken by the population in Naga. [39] Central Standard Bikol is also the basis for other dialects in the Bicol Region. [40] The majority of the city's population can understand and speak English, Filipino, and Tagalog. Because of the influx of people from the Rinconada area that are studying in different universities, Rinconada Bikol can also be heard in different schools and throughout the city. Some Nagueños have varying degrees of proficiency with Rinconada Bikol, due to the fact that the southern half of Pili, which is the boundary between Rinconada Bikol and Coastal Bikol speakers, is just few kilometers away from Naga. Although the main language is Bikol, and the medium of instruction in school is English, people in Naga usually tell time and count in Spanish.

Isarog Agta Language

In 2010, UNESCO released its 3rd volume of Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger , where three critically endangered languages were in the Philippines. One of these is the Isarog Agta language, of the Isarog Agta people, who live on Mount Isarog and are one of the original Negrito settlers in the Philippines, belonging to the Aeta people classification but with language and belief systems unique to their own culture and heritage.

Only five Isarog Agta spoke their indigenous language in the year 2000. The language was classified as "Critically Endangered", meaning the youngest speakers are grandparents and older, speak the language partially and infrequently, and hardly pass the language to their children and grandchildren. If the remaining 150 Isarog Agta do not pass their native language to the next generation, it will be extinct within one to two decades.


Central Business District 2 WTNaga STAR X1.jpg
Central Business District 2

Naga is the Bicol Region's center of commerce and industry. [18] Strategically located at the heart of Bicol, Naga is the trade center in Bicol for goods from Visayas and Manila.

Naga is cited as one of the "Most Business-Friendly Cities in Asia", is considered to be one of the Philippines's Top-10 cities, and is a "most competitive city" of the Philippines. [48] [49] Some entrepreneurs cited the city as the most business-friendly in the region. [50]

Business districts

Panganiban Drive WTNaga EURO C1.JPG
Panganiban Drive

Downtown Naga is located in the southern part of the city. It is bordered on the north by the Naga University Belt and on the south by the historical Naga City Peoples Mall or simply Naga City Community Supermarket. It encompasses the three plazas of Naga: The Plaza Quince Martires, The Plaza Quezon, and the Plaza Rizal, which is the center of Central Business District 1 (CBD-1). Downtown Naga is the location of local businesses that sell local delicacies and native products from neighboring municipalities and provinces.

A second business district, known as the Central Business District 2 (CBD-2), is located along Panganiban Drive and Roxas, Ninoy, and Cory avenues. It is also the location of 3 shopping complexes, a bus terminal, [51] and the Camarines Sur Industrial and Technological Park, which houses several business process outsourcing offices. [7]

South Riverfront growth area

South Riverfront is composed of the whole of Barangay Sabang except those areas that are socialized housing sites or are otherwise excluded by the Naga City land-use plan for commercial or industrial development. It is bordered by CBD-1 (to the east), the Naga River, and the town of Camaligan, Camarines Sur. [52]

Magsaysay district

The main road in the city is Magsaysay Avenue, or Boulevard, which runs from Bagumbayan Road (Naga-Calabanga Siruma Garchitorena Partido North Road), connecting it to Magsaysay district, where accommodations and restaurants catering to travelers are found. [53] Businesses are open until late at night, with some shops open 24/7. Naga also has its share of fastfood restaurant chains. The city hall and several provincial offices are also located in the district, around the Peñafrancia Basilica.

Banking and finance

Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (Central Bank of the Philippines) Naga Office, handling Clearing house and Gold trade. WTNaga LAPANAK C43.JPG
Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (Central Bank of the Philippines) Naga Office, handling Clearing house and Gold trade.

In 2017, the banks in the city numbered around 66, excluding Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas. The city hosts the regional bank offices of Banco De Oro, Philippine National Bank, Development Bank of the Philippines, Metrobank, RCBC, Allied Bank, China Banking Corporation, Philtrust Bank, UnionBank of the Philippines, Philippine Veterans Bank, Asia United Bank, Maybank, Bank of Commerce, East West Bank, Bank of Makati, Bank of the Philippine Islands, and the Philippine Postal Savings Bank.

Shopping malls

SM City Naga is one of the largest and most-visited shopping malls in the Bicol Region. Robinsons Place Naga opened in 2017. Nagaland E-Mall is in Downtown Naga. LCC Central Mall Naga is located on Felix Plazo Street. Gaisano Mall Naga is near the Bicol Medical Center. The Vista Mall is located on Maharlika Highway, in Barangay Del Rosario. There are two Puregold supermarkets in Naga. Avenue Square is the region's first "lifestyle center", built in 2005 along Magsaysay Avenue. There are also leisure hubs in the city, the majority being along Magsaysay Avenue, since that street is the center of nightlife in the region.

IT–Business Process outsourcing

Naga was cited as one of the best places to conduct information technology–business process outsourcing (IT–BPO) activities in the Philippines. [54]

The city currently has three IT parks—Naga City IT Park, Camarines Sur Industrial and Technological Park, and Naga City Technology Center.

IBM leased their own client innovation center in front of SM City Naga. [55]


Naga is considered to be Bicol's cultural center, due to the largest festival in the region, the Peñafrancia Festival, being held in the city.


Fluvial Procession for Our Lady of Penafrancia Penafrancia Fluvial Parade Naga City.jpg
Fluvial Procession for Our Lady of Peñafrancia

The Peñafrancia Festival

The city celebrates the feast of Nuestra Señora de Peñafrancia (Our Lady of Peñafrancia), the patroness of the Bicol Region. Starting on the second Friday of September each year, the 10-day feast, the largest Marian devotion in the country. The start of the festival is signalled by a procession (or Translacion) when the centuries-old image of the Blessed Virgin Mary is transferred from its shrine at the Peñafrancia Basilica Minore de Nuestra Señora de Peñafrancia to the 400-year-old Naga Metropolitan Cathedral. Coinciding with nine days of novena prayer at the cathedral, the city celebrates with parades, pageants, street parties, singing contests, exhibits, concerts, and other activities. Finally, on the third Saturday of September, the image is returned, shoulder-borne by so-called voyadores, to the basilica via the historic Naga River. The following day marks the feast day of Our Lady of Peñafrancia, when Pontifical High Masses are celebrated in the basilica, attended by hundreds of thousands of faithful devotees.

Kamundagan Festival

Naga celebrates the Kamundagan Festival every Christmas. It begins with the lighting of the Christmas Village in the Plaza Quezon Grandstand.

Kinalas Festival

Naga celebrates the Kinalas Festival during its yearly anniversary of chartership or cityhood. It honors local delicacies, including kinalas and siling labuyo, with a food contest.

Food and delicacies

Naga is known for some native foods and delicacies.

Kinalas and lug-lug are noodle soup dishes served Bicol style, similar to mami except for a topping of what looks like a pansit palabok sauce, and the meaty dark soup made from boiling a cow's or a pig's head until the flesh falls off. Kinalas is from the old Bicol word kalas, [56] [57] which refers to the "fall off the bone" meat that is placed on top of the noodles. The soup is the broth of beef bone and bone marrow (sometimes skull and brain included) or what Manileños call bulalo. [58] The soup is topped with very tender meat slices that also come from the head. It is usually served hot with an egg, and sprinkled with roasted garlic and spring onions. Kalamansi and patis may be added according to taste. Kinalas is usually paired with Baduya, or with Banana or camote cue.

Other delicacies, such as, buko juice, nata de coco , and pan de Naga are found in the city. [59] [60]


Jesse M. Robredo Coliseum Jesse M. Robredo Coliseum.jpg
Jesse M. Robredo Coliseum

The Metro Naga Sports Complex, in Barangay Pacol, has Olympic-sized swimming pools, tennis courts, and a track oval. [61]

The Jesse M. Robredo Coliseum, formerly the Naga City Coliseum which is renamed in honor of the late DILG secretary and former mayor of Naga, is the largest indoor arena in southern Luzon.



Naga Airport Naga Airport (WNP).JPG
Naga Airport

The city is served by the Naga Airport (WNP) located in Barangay San Jose in the neighboring town of Pili. It has a runway of 1,402 meters (4,600 ft) and thus is capable of handling only small aircraft.


Philippine National Railways Naga Station WTNaga BAHALANA B47.JPG
Philippine National Railways Naga Station

Naga is the regional head office and the center point of the Philippine National Railway's Bicol Line.

Naga—along with those of adjacent towns and cities, from Tagkawayan, Quezon Province, to Ligao, Albay—is served daily by the Bicol Express. There is a plan for extending the line to Legazpi in the near future. [62]

Roads and bridges

As of December 2009, Naga's total road network is 185.02 kilometers (114.97 mi) in length, of which 147.67 kilometers (91.76 mi) are paved with concrete, 14.63 kilometers (9.09 mi) with asphalt overlay, 4.10 kilometers (2.55 mi) with asphalt, 11.87 kilometers (7.38 mi) are gravel, while 5.76 kilometers (3.58 mi) are dirt. This translates to an increase of 19.74 kilometers (12.27 mi) since 1998. [63]

The city is connected to the capital Manila by the Andaya and Maharlika highways.

In order to spur development in the city, the Toll Regulatory Board declared Toll Road 5 the extension of South Luzon Expressway. [64] A 420 kilometres (260 mi), four-lane expressway starting from the terminal point of the under-construction SLEX Toll Road 4 at Barangay Mayao, Lucena City in Quezon, to Matnog, Sorsogon, near the Matnog Ferry Terminal. On August 25, 2020, San Miguel Corporation announced that they will fund the project, which will reduce travel time from Lucena to Matnog from 9 hours to 5.5 hours. [65]

Public transportation

The most common vehicles used for intra-city travel are public-utility jeepneys (PUJ), trimobiles, and padyaks .

Public utility jeepneys and multicabs, a total of 323 units, are a major mode of intra-city transport used by regular commuters.

Trimobiles are the most used land transport in the city. There are 1,500 units available for hire while 1,150 are for private use. There is now stiffer competition among drivers, which creates a wide range of problems, such as fare overcharging, refusal to convey passengers, an uneven distribution of trimobile service resulting in a shortage of transport service in some areas of the city, and rampant traffic violations. [63]

Padyaks can be used in subdivision and barangay transportation. They provide a moderate amount of speed for those travelling to the city center.

Inter-town trips are served by 403 filcab vans and 708 jeepneys, while inter-provincial trips are served by an average of 300 airconditioned and non-airconditioned buses and 88 Filcab vans.

Recently, about 50 taxi units became available in the city. They use the new SM Naga City mall as a waiting area for passengers. [63]

Public services

Health care

The Bicol Medical Center Bicol medical center 1.JPG
The Bicol Medical Center

Naga is the medical center of the Bicol Region. It has the largest hospitals in the region. The government-owned Bicol Medical Center and Camarines Sur Provincial Hospital, and the Universidad de Sta Isabel – Mother Seton Hospital, owned and operated by the Daughters of Charity, which are considered the largest hospitals in the region in size and accommodation. The Metropolitan Naga Medical District, in Naga, is the only medical district in Bicol.

Bicol Medical Center (BMC), the largest hospital in the region, is located in Concepcion Pequeña. It offers specialty training in internal medicine, pediatrics, general surgery, obstetric and gynecology, anesthesiology, radiology, ophthalmology, otolaryngology, orthopedics, and traumatology. It is also a base hospital of the Helen Keller Foundation, where eye specialists from all over the country are trained and later assigned to different parts of the Philippines. [66]

Universidad de Santa Isabel - Mother Seton Hospital (USI – MSH), is the largest private hospital in the region by number of admissions, medical equipment facilities, number of beds available, physical structure, and number of board-certified medical consultants. It is the only private hospital in Bicol offering specialty training programs, accredited by the Philippine Medical Association's component society, in major fields of medicine, such as internal medicine, pediatrics, and general surgery. [67]

The Plaza Medica houses the Naga Endocrine Laboratory (also called the Endolab), a modern hormone laboratory and facility.

Bicol Access Health Centrum is another large hospital located in the city. It houses the Regional Disease Research Center, the first and only in the region.

Several secondary and tertiary hospitals can be found in the city.

Waste management and disposal

Solid waste

The main pollutants in the city come in the form of solid waste generated daily. Generally, these wastes come from various sources: residential, commercial, industrial, and institutional.

Naga generates approximately 85.8 tons of waste per year, based on the latest 2009 estimates, where agricultural waste makes up a little more than one-fourth (26%) of the total volume. Food waste makes up a slightly smaller share, at 23%. Paper-based materials compose 12%, while other categories contribute smaller percentages.

Solid wastes are disposed of and collected via the city's garbage trucks, which traverse ten routes on a daily basis. Collected wastes are then dumped at the dump site in Barangay Balatas, where they are segregated according to type of waste, and whether biodegradable or non-biodegradable. [68] [69]

Liquid waste

A study of wastewater treatment facilities is incorporated in the proposed septage management ordinance, where the city will be very strict in forcing compliance with proper waste treatment by housing and establishment owners. The local water-utility agency has made the Metro Naga Water District its local partner in providing septage services, in exchange for adding environmental fees to water bills.

The new wastewater treatment facility of SM City Naga, operational since April 20, 2009, has a capacity of 500 cubic meters per day; but at present, it is treating only around 200. [69]

Fire safety

The Naga City Fire Station is one of the most well equipped fire stations in the country. Other fire stations include Naga Chin Po Tong Fire Brigade, and the Naga White Volunteers. [70]

Police and law enforcement

The city is the location of two of the largest police stations in the Bicol Region. The historic Naga City Police Station, which had been the military base of operations of the Guardia Civil in the region, during the time of Spanish rule. [71] [72] Another police office, located in Barangay Concepcion Grande, is the provincial office of the Philippine National Police for Camarines Sur. [73]


Naga is the home of the three largest universities in the Bicol Region. The city is also the home of several colleges.

Tertiary education

Ateneo de Naga University WTNaga HMMM A2.JPG
Ateneo de Naga University
Universidad de Santa Isabel WTNaga BAHALANA A13.JPG
Universidad de Santa Isabel

Ateneo de Naga University is a Jesuit university and the largest Catholic university in the Bicol Region. The school has been accredited by PAASCU since 1979 and is the first university in the Philippines to achieve PAASCU Institutional Accreditation, on top of its Autonomous and Level III status. It is a "center of excellence" in teacher education, and a center of development in business administration, entrepreneurship, and information technology. It has produced animators for the country since it launched its bachelor's degree in animation.

The Universidad de Santa Isabel was inaugurated on April 12, 1869, as a private Catholic university owned and run by the Daughters of Charity and is the "first normal school for women in the Philippines and Southeast Asia and the Heritage and Historical University of Bicol". [74] [75] It was established by six sisters of the order who arrived in the Bicol Region on April 4, 1868, with the Bishop of Caceres, Francisco Gainza, O.P., the founder of Colegio de Santa Isabel.

University of Nueva Caceres was the very first university in southern Luzon, and is considered to be largest in the region, due to its attendance and size, that offers courses from kindergarten to graduate school. Founded by Dr. Jaime Hernandez  [ bcl ] in 1948, it has grown to become one of the leading institutions of higher learning in the Philippines. All course offerings are recognized by the government, and the colleges of Arts and Sciences, Education, and Commerce are accredited by the Philippine Association of Colleges and Universities Commission on Accreditation (PACU-COA). Its College of Engineering and Architecture is now one of the few regional centers for technological education in the Philippines. [76]

Technical colleges in the city include the South East Asian University of Technology, Naga College Foundation, AMA Computer College, and STI College. [77] [78] Specialized computer schools include Worldtech Resources Institute (WRI), Philippine Computer Foundation College (PCFC), and Computer Communication Development Institute (CCDI).

The country's oldest live-in Christian higher educational institute for the clergy was established in the city in the early part of the 18th century. The Holy Rosary Seminary (El Seminario del Santissimo Rosario), a Roman Catholic seminary run by the Archdiocese of Caceres, has produced 22 bishops, including the first Filipino bishop, Jorge Barlin, and the first Filipino cardinal to work in the Roman Curia, Jose Tomas Sanchez. The seminary has contributed, as well, to the national heritage, through José María Panganiban, Tomás Arejola, and seven of the Fifteen Martyrs of Bicol. On January 29, 1988, the National Historical Institute declared the Holy Rosary Seminary a National Historical Landmark.

Secondary and primary education

The government-run Camarines Sur National High School, which was established in 1902, registers over 10,000 enrollees every school year, and it is the biggest secondary school in the region. Among other secondary schools in the city is the Tinago National High School.

Naga City Science High School was established in Naga in 1994. It has pilot curricula, including the Spanish curriculum, which is the third one in the Philippines, and the journalism curriculum, which allows students to receive training and exposure to college-level situations. The school is consistently a champion at the Doon Po Sa Amin national documentary contest. [79]

Two schools in the city, Saint Joseph School (SJS) and Naga Hope Christian School (NHCS), cater to Filipino-Chinese students.

Naga Parochial School (NPS) is the largest parochial school in the region; it receives 850 enrollees yearly. It is run by priests of the Archdiocese of Caceres. It is the first PAASCU-accredited parochial school in the Philippines. Some members of the clergy (63 as of 2007 with 3 bishops) assigned to the city are alumni of the school. Well-known personalities—such as the late Raul Roco, Jesse Robredo, Francis Garchitorena, Luis R. Villafuerte, Jaime Fabregas, Jonathan Dela Paz Zaens, Archbishop Tito Yllana, and Bishop Jose Rojas—are graduates of NPS.

Private schools—such as Arborvitae Plains Montessori, Inc.; Naga City Montessori School; and the Village Montessori School—can be found in the city. Tutorial and review centers for higher education are also found in the city.


Television networks

All of the major television broadcasting channels' regional offices are located in the city. ABS-CBN Corporation expanded its network in Bicol by establishing ABS-CBN Naga, which operates ABS-CBN channel 11 Naga, ABS-CBN Sports and Action Naga and MOR! Local shows such as TV Patrol Bicol, Marhay na Aga Kapamilya are broadcast throughout the region via ABS-CBN Regional, which is also stationed in the city. TV5 Network Inc.'s TV5 airs shows via channel 22, GMA Network's channel 7 and GMA News TV channel 28 are also available and the newscast Balitang Bicolandia.

Cable and satellite TV

The city's cable and satellite TV companies include South Luzon Cable and DCTV Cable Network Naga (Formerly SkyCable Naga).

Radio stations

Naga has a number of FM and AM radio stations, some of which operate 24 hours daily.

Notable personalities

Sister cities



See also

Related Research Articles

Bicol Region Region in Luzon, Philippines

Bicol, known formally as the Bicol Region or colloquially as Bicolandia, is an administrative region of the Philippines, designated as Region V. Bicol comprises six provinces, four on the Bicol Peninsula mainland – Albay, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, and Sorsogon – and the offshore island provinces of Catanduanes and Masbate.

Camarines Sur Province in Bicol Region, Philippines

Camarines Sur is a province in the Philippines located in the Bicol Region in Luzon. Its capital is Pili and the province borders Camarines Norte and Quezon to the northwest, and Albay to the south. To the east lies the island province of Catanduanes across the Maqueda Channel.

Tiwi, Albay Municipality in Bicol Region, Philippines

Tiwi, officially the Municipality of Tiwi is a 1st class municipality in the Province of Albay, Philippines. According to the 2020 census, it has a population of 56,444 people. 

Daet Municipality in Bicol Region, Philippines

Daet, officially the Municipality of Daet, is a 1st class municipality and capital of the province of Camarines Norte, Philippines. According to the 2020 census, it has a population of 111,700 people. 

Baao Municipality in Bicol Region, Philippines

Baao, officially the Municipality of Baao is 1st class municipality in the province of Camarines Sur, Philippines. According to the 2020 census, it has a population of 61,493 people. 

Bula, Camarines Sur Municipality in Bicol Region, Philippines

Bula, officially the Municipality of Bula, is a 1st class municipality in the province of Camarines Sur, Philippines. According to the 2020 census, it has a population of 73,143 people. 

Calabanga Municipality in Bicol Region, Philippines

Calabanga, officially the Municipality of Calabanga, is a 1st class municipality in the province of Camarines Sur, Philippines. According to the 2020 census, it has a population of 88,906 people. 

Camaligan Municipality in Bicol Region, Philippines

Camaligan, officially the Municipality of Camaligan, is a 4th class municipality in the province of Camarines Sur, Philippines. According to the 2020 census, it has a population of 25,036 people. . Camaligan rapidly became an urban town during the 90s.

Canaman Municipality in Bicol Region, Philippines

Canaman, officially the Municipality of Canaman is a 3rd class municipality in the province of Camarines Sur, Philippines. According to the 2020 census, it has a population of 36,205 people.  Canaman is known for its upscale shopping, heritage which dates back to Spanish era, and its new first class housings.

Gainza Municipality in Bicol Region, Philippines

Gainza, officially the Municipality of Gainza, is a 4th class municipality in the province of Camarines Sur, Philippines. According to the 2020 census, it has a population of 11,584 people. 

Goa, Camarines Sur Municipality in Bicol Region, Philippines

Goa, officially the Municipality of Goa, is a 1st class municipality in the province of Camarines Sur, Philippines. According to the 2020 census, it has a population of 71,368 people. 

Iriga Component city in Bicol Region, Philippines

Iriga, officially known as the City of Iriga, is a 4th class component city in the province of Camarines Sur, Philippines. According to the 2020 census, it has a population of 114,457 people. 

Lupi, Camarines Sur Municipality in Bicol Region, Philippines

Lupi, officially the Municipality of Lupi, is a 3rd class municipality in the province of Camarines Sur, Philippines. According to the 2020 census, it has a population of 33,897 people. 

Milaor Municipality in Bicol Region, Philippines

Milaor, officially the Municipality of Milaor, is a 3rd class municipality in the province of Camarines Sur, Philippines. According to the 2020 census, it has a population of 33,963 people. 

Ocampo, Camarines Sur Municipality in Bicol Region, Philippines

Ocampo, officially the Municipality of Ocampo, is a 3rd class municipality in the province of Camarines Sur, Philippines.

Pasacao Municipality in Bicol Region, Philippines

Pasacao, officially the Municipality of Pasacao, is a 3rd class municipality in the province of Camarines Sur, Philippines. According to the 2020 census, it has a population of 53,461 people. 

Pili, Camarines Sur Municipality in Bicol Region, Philippines

Pili, officially the Municipality of Pili is a 1st class municipality and capital of the province of Camarines Sur, Philippines.

Tigaon, Camarines Sur Municipality in Bicol Region, Philippines

Tigaon, officially the Municipality of Tigaon, is a 1st class municipality in the province of Camarines Sur, Philippines. According to the 2020 census, it has a population of 60,524 people. 

Tinambac Municipality in Bicol Region, Philippines

Tinambac, officially the Municipality of Tinambac, is a 1st class municipality in the province of Camarines Sur, Philippines. According to the 2020 census, it has a population of 70,176 people. 

Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cáceres

The Archdiocese of Cáceres is an archdiocese of the Roman Catholic Church in the Philippines. It is a Metropolitan See that comprises the Bicol Region, while directly overseeing the third, fourth, and fifth congressional districts of Camarines Sur, Naga City, Iriga City and the Municipality of Gainza. The archdiocese, having been founded in 1595 in Nueva Cáceres, is also considered one of the oldest dioceses in the Philippines with Cebu, Segovia and Manila, and once had jurisdiction that stretched from Samar in the south and Isabela Province in the north. The seat of the archdiocese is currently located in Naga City, also known as the Queen City of Bicol.


  1. City of Naga | (DILG)
  2. 1 2 "Welcome to the City of Naga!". Naga City. Retrieved July 7, 2019.
  3. "2015 Census of Population, Report No. 3 – Population, Land Area, and Population Density" (PDF). Philippine Statistics Authority. Quezon City, Philippines. August 2016. ISSN   0117-1453. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 25, 2021. Retrieved July 16, 2021.
  4. 1 2 Census of Population (2020). "Region V (Bicol Region)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. PSA . Retrieved 8 July 2021.
  5. "PSA Releases the 2018 Municipal and City Level Poverty Estimates". Philippine Statistics Authority. 15 December 2021. Retrieved 22 January 2022.
  6. "The oldest royal city in the Philippines". City Government of Naga Official Website. Retrieved May 19, 2020.
  7. 1 2 Perez, Jose B. (February 27, 2015). "Bicol's Boom Town: Bongat sees bullish Naga". Bicol Mail. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved February 13, 2019.
  8. 1 2 The Philippine Island World: A Physical, Cultural, and Regional Geography , p. 415, at Google Books
  9. 1 2 Orbita, Erlinda Hospicia V. (April 25, 2010). "Naga City, the Heart of Bicol: 'An Maogmang Lugar [The Happy Place]'". The Philippine Star. Archived from the original on April 13, 2014. Retrieved February 24, 2019.
  10. "Home". Bicol Medical Center. Retrieved February 24, 2019.
  11. "Bicol Medical Center Modernization". Naga City Deck. Retrieved February 24, 2019.
  12. "Education". Naga City. Retrieved February 25, 2019.
  13. Kawanaka, Takeshi (2002). "2. Naga City" (PDF). Power in a Philippine City. Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization (IDE-JETRO). ISBN   978-425852038-1 . Retrieved February 25, 2019.
  14. Bongat, John G. Naga Business Licensing Program (NBLP) (PDF) (Report). Retrieved February 25, 2019.
  15. Robredo, Jesse M. (May 3, 2000). City Strategy and Governance: The Naga City Experience (PDF). East Asia Urban and City Management Course. Retrieved February 25, 2019.
  16. "Bongat bares State of City, hails Naga as Bicol's tiger economy". Naga City. Retrieved February 25, 2019.
  17. "Naga cited as one of [the] most competitive cities". Bicol Mail. August 8, 2013. Archived from the original on September 2, 2013. Retrieved February 25, 2019.
  18. 1 2 "Naga City". Philippines Cities. Retrieved February 25, 2019.
  19. Hermoso, Christina I. (September 13, 2013). "Naga City set for traslacion". Manila Bulletin. Archived from the original on April 29, 2014. Retrieved February 26, 2019.
  20. Llorin, Jean N. (June 27, 2010). "Learning from 'The Heart of Bicol'". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on June 30, 2010. Retrieved February 27, 2019.
  21. "Naga City: Where Bicol's heart is". GMA News. September 19, 2012. Retrieved February 27, 2019.
  22. Abella, D. The Bikol Annals. Manila
  23. "The Naga We Know to be launched Aug. 31". Likhaan: The UP Institute of Creative Writing. August 26, 2018. Archived from the original on April 13, 2014. Retrieved April 4, 2019.
  24. 1 2 Safford, William Edwin (1916). "Lignum nephriticum" (PDF). Annual report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution. Washington: Government Printing Office. p. 271298.
  25. Muyskens, M.; Ed Vitz (2006). "The Fluorescence of Lignum nephriticum: A Flash Back to the Past and a Simple Demonstration of Natural Substance Fluorescence". Journal of Chemical Education. 83 (5): 765. Bibcode:2006JChEd..83..765M. doi:10.1021/ed083p765.
  26. G. Nye Steiger, H. Otley Beyer, Conrado Benitez, A History of the Orient, Oxford: 1929, Ginn and Company, p. 122.
  27. "A History of the Philippines by David P. Barrows". The City of Nueva Caceres, in the Camarines, was founded by Governor La-Sande. It, too, was the seat of a bishopric, and had one hundred Spanish inhabitants.
  28. "The First Landings" . Retrieved March 18, 2014.
  29. "R.A. No. 305, Naga City Charter". 1948. Archived from the original on April 6, 2012. Retrieved January 10, 2019.
  30. "Protected Areas in Region 5" Archived 2012-03-21 at the Wayback Machine . Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau. Retrieve don 2012-05-23.
  31. "General Information". See Naga – Official Website of Naga City. Retrieved on 2012-05-13.
  32. "Municipality/City: NAGA CITY". PSGC Interactive. Makati, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Archived from the original on November 13, 2015. Retrieved April 22, 2014.
  33. "Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay: as of May 1, 2010" (PDF). 2010 Census of Population and Housing. Philippine Statistics Authority. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 19, 2012. Retrieved January 7, 2013.
  34. "Barangay Officials 2010". Naga City. Retrieved April 4, 2019.
  35. Census of Population (2015). "Region V (Bicol Region)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. PSA . Retrieved 20 June 2016.
  36. Census of Population and Housing (2010). "Region V (Bicol Region)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. NSO . Retrieved 29 June 2016.
  37. Censuses of Population (1903–2007). "Region V (Bicol Region)". Table 1. Population Enumerated in Various Censuses by Province/Highly Urbanized City: 1903 to 2007. NSO.
  38. "Province of Camarines Sur". Municipality Population Data. Local Water Utilities Administration Research Division. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
  39. "Demography". Naga City. Retrieved April 4, 2019.
  40. "Useful Filipino Words – Bicol Translations". Cam Sur Guide Delights. 2012. Archived from the original on April 27, 2014. Retrieved April 4, 2019.
  41. "Poverty incidence (PI):". Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved 28 December 2020.
  42.; publication date: 29 November 2005; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  43.; publication date: 23 March 2009; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  44.; publication date: 3 August 2012; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  45.; publication date: 31 May 2016; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  46.; publication date: 10 July 2019; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  47. "PSA Releases the 2018 Municipal and City Level Poverty Estimates". Philippine Statistics Authority. 15 December 2021. Retrieved 22 January 2022.
  48. "Daet, Naga City among most competitive LGUs in 2014". Bicol Standard. 2014. Retrieved April 6, 2019.
  49. Perez, Jose B. (August 15, 2014). "Naga – PH's 3rd most competitive city; No. 1 in government efficiency". Bicol Mail. Archived from the original on August 26, 2014. Retrieved April 5, 2019.
  50. Macatangay, Analiza S. (January 2, 2014). "Naga City, among the most competitive LGUs in the country". Philippine Information Agency. Archived from the original on April 16, 2014. Retrieved February 16, 2019.
  51. "P2.9M ingreso kan bus terminal cada bulan" [P2.9 million for the bus terminal]. Naga City (in Filipino). Retrieved February 13, 2019.
  52. "South Riverfront Growth Area". City Government of Naga. Retrieved January 12, 2019.
  53. Atiyah, Jeremy (2002). "Rough Guide to Southeast Asia", pg. 880. Rough Guides Ltd., London. ISBN   1-85828-893-2.
  54. "Curran + Associates :: Home". Archived from the original on 2007-12-11.
  55. "IBM unit to set up BPO facility in Naga City". ABS-CBN News. ABS-CBN Corporation. May 21, 2013. Retrieved April 6, 2019.
  56. Lisboa, Maŕcos de. "Calas". Vocabulario de la lengua Bicol: compuesto por Maŕcos de Lisboa (in Spanish). p. 89. Retrieved April 8, 2019.
  57. Lisboa, Maŕcos de. "Hinglas". Vocabulario de la lengua Bicol: compuesto por Maŕcos de Lisboa (in Spanish). p. 181. Retrieved April 6, 2019.
  58. Naguenian (August 23, 2010). "Kinalas". Blogspot . Retrieved April 8, 2019.
  59. Gonzalez, Eduardo (January 16, 2013). "The Beneficial Buko Juice". Philippine Council For Health Research And Development. Archived from the original on April 24, 2013. Retrieved April 8, 2019.
  60. Leah (October 17, 2012). "Pan de Naga (Pugon Pandesal)". The Bright Spot. Retrieved April 22, 2019.
  61. "Heritage Tour". See Naga. Retrieved on 2012-06-13.
  62. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-08-20. Retrieved 2013-09-06.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  63. 1 2 3 "Transportation". Naga City. Retrieved February 16, 2019.
  64. "SLEX Toll Road 5 to connect Quezon province to Sorsogon". YugaTech. August 18, 2020. Retrieved January 9, 2021.
  65. "San Miguel investing P122B for SLEX Toll Road 5, Pasig River Expressway projects". GMA News Online. August 25, 2020. Retrieved January 9, 2021.
  66. "Bicol Medical Center" Archived 2005-07-27 at the Wayback Machine
  67. "Universidad de Santa Isabel-Mother Seton Hospital".
  68. Neola, Jason B. "Solid Waste Management Office created; also named as Special Concerns Office". Naga City. Retrieved February 27, 2019.
  69. 1 2 "Waste Management". Naga City. Retrieved February 27, 2019.
  70. Macatangay, Ana-Liza S. (March 4, 2014). "Naga City kicks off observance of Fire Prevention Month". Philippine Information Agency . Archived from the original on May 12, 2014. Retrieved April 10, 2019.
  71. "Naga City Police Station". Naga City. Retrieved April 10, 2019.
  73. Macatangay, Ana-Liza S. (28 November 2013). "PNP CamSur cites outstanding police stations, personnel". Philippine Information Agency. Archived from the original on 11 May 2014. Retrieved 19 November 2021.
  74. "Formation - Information - Sharing - Prayer... | Filles de la Charité de Saint Vincent de Paul" . Retrieved 2019-05-14.
  75. "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Sisters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul". Retrieved 2019-05-14.
  76. "About UNC". University of Nueva Caceres. 2013. Archived from the original on December 3, 2013. Retrieved April 11, 2019.
  77. "ACLC College". ACLC College. Retrieved April 11, 2019.
  78. "STI College - Naga". STI College. Retrieved on 2012-05-13.
  79. "Naga generates best hometown stories". Smart Communications, Inc. (Press release). February 20, 2014. Archived from the original on March 12, 2014. Retrieved April 11, 2019.
  80. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-04-13. Retrieved 2014-04-11.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  81. Chua-Eoan, Howard (September 21, 1987). "The Philippines – The Joker Was Not Laughing" . Time. Retrieved April 11, 2019.
  82. Toms, S. "The Philippine name game", BBC News, January 14, 2006. Accessed last February 21, 2007.
  83. Mydans, S. "Aquino, Under Pressure, Removes Her Closest Adviser", The New York Times, September 18, 1987. Accessed last February 21, 2007.
  84. Chua-Eoan, H. "The Philippines The Joker Was Not Laughing", Time p. 2, September 21, 1987. Accessed last February 21, 2007.
  85. "Tecla San Andres Ziga". Senate of the Philippines. Retrieved 23 November 2013.
  86. "Sister Cities". The Local Government of Quezon City. Archived from the original on 1 October 2017. Retrieved 9 April 2019.