Spaniards

Last updated

Spaniards
Españoles  (Spanish) [lower-alpha 1]
Flag of Spain.svg
Rojigualda (Current Constitutional Spanish flag)
Total population
Spain nationals 41,539,400 [1]
(for a total population of 47,059,533)

Hundreds of millions of Latin Americans of full or partial Spanish ancestry [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] Nationals abroad : 2,183,043 [8]

Contents

Total abroad: 2,183,043, [9] which of them:
733,387 are born in Spain
1,303,043 are born in the country of residence
137,391 others [9]
Regions with significant populations
Flag of Spain.svg  Spain    41,539,400 (2015) [10]
Diaspora
Flag of Argentina.svg Argentina 404,111 (92,610 born in Spain) [8] [11] [11]
Flag of France.svg France 215,183 (124,153 born in Spain) [8] [11]
Flag of Venezuela.svg Venezuela 188,585 (56,167 born in Spain) [8] [11]
Flag of Germany.svg Germany 146,846 (61,881 born in Spain) [11] [12] [13]
Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil 117,523 (29,848 born in Spain) [8] [11]
Flag of Cuba.svg  Cuba 108,858 (2,114 born in Spain) [8] [11]
Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico 108,314 (17,485 born in Spain) [8] [11]
Flag of the United States.svg United States
(including Puerto Rico)
103,474 (48,546 born in Spain) [8] [11]
Flag of Switzerland.svg Switzerland 103,247 (46,947 born in Spain) [8] [11]
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 81,519 (54,418 born in Spain) [8] [11]
Flag of Uruguay.svg  Uruguay 63,827 (12,023 born in Spain) [8] [11]
Flag of Chile.svg  Chile 56,104 (9,669 born in Spain) [8] [11]
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium 53,212 (26,616 born in Spain) [14]
Flag of Colombia.svg  Colombia 30,683 (8,057 born in Spain) [8] [11]
Flag of Andorra.svg  Andorra 24,485 (17,771 born in Spain) [8] [11]
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 21,974 (12,406 born in Spain) [8] [11]
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 20,898 (11,734 born in Spain) [8] [11]
Flag of Peru.svg  Peru 19,668 (4,028 born in Spain) [8] [11]
Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg  Dominican Republic 18,928 (3,622 born in Spain) [11] [14]
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 18,353 (10,506 born in Spain) [8] [11]
Flag of Costa Rica.svg  Costa Rica 16,482 [15]
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 15,390 [16]
Flag of Panama.svg  Panama 12,375 [15]
Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg  United Arab Emirates 12,000 [17]
Flag of Guatemala.svg  Guatemala 9,311 [18]
Flag of Morocco.svg Morocco 8,003 [11]
Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland 6,794 [19]
Flag of Poland.svg  Poland 5,000 [20]
Flag of the Philippines.svg  Philippines 3,110 [21]
Flag of Qatar.svg  Qatar 2,500 [22]
Flag of El Salvador.svg  El Salvador 2,450 [15]
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 2,118–45,935 [11] [23]
Flag of Nicaragua.svg  Nicaragua 1,826 [24]
Flag of Greece.svg  Greece 1,489 [11]
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic 1,007 [11]
Languages
Spanish (see languages)
Religion
Catholic Christianity [25]
Related ethnic groups
White Hispanic Americans, Mestizos, Mediterranean people, Romance people, Celtic people
Part of a series on the
Spanish people
Flag of Spain (Civil) alternate colours.svg
Rojigualda (historical Spanish flag)
Regional groups

Other groups
Significant Spanish diaspora
Languages

Other languages
Folder Hexagonal Icon.svg Category
Flag of Spain.svg Spainportal

Spaniards, [lower-alpha 1] or Spanish people, are a Romance nation native to Spain. [26] [27] Within Spain, there are a number of National and regional ethnic identities that reflect the country's complex history and diverse cultures, including a number of different languages, among which Spanish is the majority language and the only one that is official throughout the whole country.

Commonly spoken regional languages include, most notably, Basque (a Paleohispanic language), Catalan and Galician (the latter two are both Romance languages like Spanish). Many populations outside Spain have ancestors who emigrated from Spain and share elements of a Hispanic culture. The most notable of these comprise Hispanic America in the Western Hemisphere.

The Roman Republic conquered Iberia during the 2nd and 1st centuries BC. As a result of Roman colonization, the majority of local languages, with the exception of Basque, stem from the Vulgar Latin.

At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established relatively independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi, Alans and Vandals. Eventually, the Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including the Byzantine province of Spania, into the Visigothic Kingdom, which more or less unified politically, ecclesiastically and legally all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was then documented as Hispania.

In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom was conquered by the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, that arrived to the peninsula in the year 711. The Muslim rule in the Iberian Peninsula (al-Andalus) soon became autonomous from Baghdad. The handful of small Christian pockets in the north left out of Muslim rule, along the presence of the Carolingian Empire near the Pyreneean range, would eventually led to the emergence of the Christian kingdoms of León, Castile, Aragon, Portugal and Navarre. Along seven centuries, an intermittent southwards expansion of the latter kingdoms (metahistorically dubbed as a reconquest: the Reconquista ) took place, culminating with the Christian seizure of the last Muslim polity (the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada) in 1492, the same year Christopher Columbus arrived in the New World. During the centuries after the Reconquista, the Christian kings of Spain persecuted and expelled ethnic and religious minorities such as Jews and Muslims through the Spanish Inquisition.

A process of political conglomeration among the Christian kingdoms also ensued, and the late 15th-century saw the dynastic union of Castile and Aragon under the Catholic Monarchs, sometimes considered as the point of emergence of Spain as unified country. The Conquest of Navarre occurred in 1512. There was also a period called Iberian Union, the dynastic union of the Kingdom of Portugal and the Spanish Crown; during which, both countries were ruled by the Spanish Habsburg kings between 1580 and 1640.

In the early modern period, Spain ruled one of the largest empires in history which was also one of the first global empires, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes over 570 million Hispanophones, [28] making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were also many advancements in the arts, with the rise of renowned painters such as Diego Velázquez. The most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote , was also published during the Golden Age.

The population of Spain has become more diverse due to immigration of the late 20th and early 21st centuries. From 2000 to 2010, Spain had among the highest per capita immigration rates in the world and the second-highest absolute net migration in the world (after the United States). [29] The diverse regional and cultural populations mainly include the Castilians, Catalans, Andalusians, Valencians, Balearics, Canarians, Basques and the Galicians among others.

Historical background

Early populations

Lady of Elche, a piece of Iberian sculpture from the 4th century BC Dama de Elche (M.A.N. Madrid) 01.jpg
Lady of Elche, a piece of Iberian sculpture from the 4th century BC
A young Hispano-Roman nobleman from the 1st century BC Cabeza masculina romana de Azaila (M.A.N. 32644) 02.jpg
A young Hispano-Roman nobleman from the 1st century BC
Marble bust of Roman Emperor Trajan, born in Roman Hispania (in Italica near modern-day Seville) Traianus Glyptothek Munich 336.jpg
Marble bust of Roman Emperor Trajan, born in Roman Hispania (in Italica near modern-day Seville)

The earliest modern humans inhabiting the region of Spain are believed to have been Neolithic peoples, who may have arrived in the Iberian Peninsula as early as 35,000–40,000 years ago. The Iberians are believed to have arrived or emerged in the region as a culture between the 4th millennium BC and the 3rd millennium BC, settling initially along the Mediterranean coast.

Celts settled in Spain during the Iron Age. Some of those tribes in North-central Spain, who had cultural contact with the Iberians, are called Celtiberians. In addition, a group known as the Tartessians and later Turdetanians inhabited southwestern Spain. They are believed to have developed a separate culture influenced by Phoenicia. The seafaring Phoenicians, Greeks, and Carthaginians successively founded trading colonies along the Mediterranean coast over a period of several centuries. Interaction took place with indigenous peoples. The Second Punic War between the Carthaginians and Romans was fought mainly in what is now Spain and Portugal. [30]

The Roman Republic conquered Iberia during the 2nd and 1st centuries BC, and established a series of Latin-speaking provinces in the region. As a result of Roman colonization, the majority of local languages, with the exception of Basque, stem from the Vulgar Latin that was spoken in Hispania (Roman Iberia). A new group of Romance languages of the Iberian Peninsula including Spanish, which eventually became the main language in Spain evolved from Roman expansion. Hispania emerged as an important part of the Roman Empire and produced notable historical figures such as Trajan, Hadrian, Seneca and Quintilian.

The Germanic Vandals and Suebi, with Iranian Alans under King Respendial, arrived in the peninsula in 409 AD. Part of the Vandals with the remaining Alans, now under Geiseric, removed to North Africa after a few conflicts with another Germanic tribe, the Visigoths. The latter were established in Toulouse and supported Roman campaigns against the Vandals and Alans in 415–19 AD.

The Visigoths became the dominant power in Iberia and reigned for three centuries. They were highly romanized in the eastern Empire and already Christians, so they became fully integrated into the late Iberian-Roman culture.

The Suebi were another Germanic tribe in the west of the peninsula; some sources said that they became established as federates of the Roman Empire in the old Northwestern Roman province of Gallaecia. But they were largely independent and raided neighboring provinces to expand their political control over ever-larger portions of the southwest after the Vandals and Alans left. They created a totally independent Suebic Kingdom. In 447 AC they converted to Roman Catholicism under King Rechila.

After being checked and reduced in 456 AD by the Visigoths, the Suebic Kingdom survived to 585 AD. It was decimated as an independent political unit by the Visigoths, after having been involved in the internal affairs of their kingdom.

Middle Ages

After two centuries of domination by the Visigothic Kingdom, the Iberian Peninsula was invaded by a Muslim force under Tariq Bin Ziyad in 711. This army consisted mainly ethnic Berbers from the Ghomara tribe, who were reinforced by Arabs from Syria once the conquest was complete. The Visigothic Kingdom totally collapsed and nearly the entire peninsula was conquered. A remote mountainous area in the far north retained independence, eventually developing as the Christian Kingdom of Asturias.

Muslim Iberia became part of the Umayyad Caliphate and would be known as Al-Andalus. The Berbers of Al Andalus revolted as early as 740 AD, halting Arab expansion across the Pyrenee Mountains into France. Upon the collapse of the Umayyad in Damascus, Spain was seized by Yusuf al Fihri. The exiled Umayyad Prince Abd al-Rahman I next seized power, establishing himself as Emir of Cordoba. Abd al Rahman III, his grandson, proclaimed a Caliphate in 929, marking the beginning of the Golden Age of Al Andalus. This policy was the effective power of the peninsula and Western North Africa; it competed with the Shiite rulers of Tunis and frequently raided the small Christian kingdoms in the North.

The Caliphate of Córdoba effectively collapsed during a ruinous civil war between 1009 and 1013; it was not finally abolished until 1031, when al-Andalus broke up into a number of mostly independent mini-states and principalities called taifas. These were generally too weak to defend themselves against repeated raids and demands for tribute from the Christian states to the north and west, which were known to the Muslims as "the Galician nations." These had expanded from their initial strongholds in Galicia, Asturias, Cantabria, the Basque country, and the Carolingian Marca Hispanica to become the Kingdoms of Navarre, León, Portugal, Castile and Aragon, and the County of Barcelona. Eventually they began to conquer territory, and the Taifa kings asked for help from the Almoravids, Muslim Berber rulers of the Maghreb. But the Almoravids went on to conquer and annex all the Taifa kingdoms.

In 1086 the Almoravid ruler of Morocco, Yusuf ibn Tashfin, was invited by the Muslim princes in Iberia to defend them against Alfonso VI, King of Castile and León. In that year, Tashfin crossed the straits to Algeciras and inflicted a severe defeat on the Christians at the Battle of Sagrajas. By 1094, Yusuf ibn Tashfin had removed all Muslim princes in Iberia and had annexed their states, except for the one at Zaragoza. He also regained Valencia from the Christians. About this time a massive process of conversion to Islam took place, and Muslims comprised the majority of the population in Spain by the end of the 11th century.

The Almoravids were succeeded by the Almohads, another Berber dynasty, after the victory of Abu Yusuf Ya'qub al-Mansur over the Castilian Alfonso VIII at the Battle of Alarcos in 1195. In 1212 a coalition of Christian kings under the leadership of the Castilian Alfonso VIII defeated the Almohads at the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa. But the Almohads continued to rule Al-Andalus for another decade, though with much reduced power and prestige. The civil wars following the death of Abu Ya'qub Yusuf II rapidly led to the re-establishment of taifas. The taifas, newly independent but weakened, were quickly conquered by the kingdoms of Portugal, Castile, and Aragon. After the fall of Murcia (1243) and the Algarve (1249), only the Emirate of Granada survived as a Muslim state, tributary of Castile until 1492.

In 1469 the marriage of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile signaled a joining of forces to attack and conquer the Emirate of Granada. The King and Queen convinced the Pope to declare their war a crusade. The Christians were successful and finally, in January 1492, after a long siege, the Moorish sultan Muhammad XII surrendered the fortress palace, the renowned Alhambra.

Spain conquered the Canary Islands between 1402 and 1496. Their indigenous Berber populations, the Guanches, were gradually absorbed by unions with Spanish settlers.

Spanish conquest of the Iberian part of Navarre was begun by Ferdinand II of Aragon and completed by Charles V. The series of military campaigns extended from 1512 to 1524, while the war lasted until 1528 in the Navarre to the north of the Pyrenees. Between 1568-1571, Charles V armies fought and defeated a general insurrection of the Muslims of the mountains of Granada. Charles V then ordered the expulsion of up to 80,000 Granadans from the province and their dispersal throughout Spain.

The union of the Christian kingdoms of Castile and Aragon as well as the conquest of Granada, Navarre and the Canary Islands led to the formation of the Spanish state as known today. This allowed for the development of a Spanish identity based on the Spanish language and a local form of Catholicism. This gradually developed in a territory that remained culturally, linguistically and religiously very diverse.

A majority of Jews were forcibly converted to Catholicism during the 14th and 15th centuries and those remaining were expelled from Spain in 1492. The open practice of Islam by Spain's sizeable Mudejar population was similarly outlawed. Furthermore, between 1609 and 1614, a significant number of Moriscos— (Muslims who had been baptized Catholic) were expelled by royal decree. [31] Although initial estimates of the number of Moriscos expelled such as those of Henri Lapeyre reach 300,000 moriscos (or 4% of the total Spanish population), the extent and severity of the expulsion has been increasingly challenged by modern historians. Nevertheless, the eastern region of Valencia, where ethnic tensions were highest, was particularly affected by the expulsion, suffering economic collapse and depopulation of much of its territory. Two of the eight masterpieces of Islamic architecture from around the world are located in Spain: The Alhambra of Granada and the Cordoba Mosque. [32]

Those who avoided expulsion or who managed to return to Spain merged into the dominant culture. [33] The last mass prosecution against Moriscos for crypto-Islamic practices took place in Granada in 1727, with most of those convicted receiving relatively light sentences. By the end of the 18th century, indigenous Islam and Morisco identity were considered to have been extinguished in Spain. [34]

Colonialism and emigration

In the 16th century, following the military conquest of most of the new continent, perhaps 240,000 Spaniards entered American ports. They were joined by 450,000 in the next century. [35] It is estimated that during the colonial period (1492–1832), a total of 1.86 million Spaniards settled in the Americas and a further 3.5 million immigrated during the post-colonial era (1850–1950); the estimate is 250,000 in the 16th century, and most during the 18th century as immigration was encouraged by the new Bourbon Dynasty. In contrast, the outcome for indigenous populations was much worse, with an estimated 8 million deaths following the initial conquest through contact with old world diseases. [36] After the conquest of Mexico and Peru these two regions became the principal destinations of Spanish colonial settlers in the 16th century. [37] In the period 1850–1950, 3.5 million Spanish left for the Americas, particularly Argentina, Uruguay, Mexico, [38] Brazil, Chile, Venezuela, and Cuba. [39] From 1840 to 1890, as many as 40,000 Canary Islanders emigrated to Venezuela. [40] 94,000 Spaniards chose to go to Algeria in the last years of the 19th century, and 250,000 Spaniards lived in Morocco at the beginning of the 20th century. [39]

By the end of the Spanish Civil War, some 500,000 Spanish Republican refugees had crossed the border into France. [41] From 1961 to 1974, at the height of the guest worker in Western Europe, about 100,000 Spaniards emigrated each year. [39] The nation has formally apologized to expelled Jews and since 2015 offers the chance for people to reclaim Spanish citizenship. By 2019, over 132,000 Sephardic Jewish descendants had reclaimed Spanish citizenship. [42] [43]

The population of Spain has become more diverse due to immigration of the late 20th and early 21st centuries. From 2000 to 2010, Spain had among the highest per capita immigration rates in the world and the second-highest absolute net migration in the world (after the United States). [29] Immigrants now make up about 10% of the population. But Spain's prolonged economic crisis between 2008 and 2015 reduced economic opportunities, and both immigration rates and the total number of foreigners in the country declined. By the end of this period, Spain was becoming a net emigrant country.

Ancestry

Historical origins and genetics

The Spanish people's genetic pool largely derives from the pre-Roman inhabitants of the Iberian Peninsula, including pre-Celts (Iberians, Vettones, Turdetani, Aquitani) [44] [45] [46] and Celts (Gallaecians, Celtiberians, Turduli and Celtici), [47] [46] who were Romanized after the conquest of the region by the ancient Romans. [48] [49] A minor component of the genetic pool can be traced back to Germanic tribes who arrived after the Roman period as ruling elites, including the Suebi, Vandals, Alans and the Visigoths, who ruled for circa three hundred years. [50] [51] [52] [53] Following the long-lasting Reconquista against the Al-Andalus Moors and despite the expulsions in the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries against religious minorities, another small component of the pool can be traced to Jewish or Arab-Berber ancestry. [54] [49] [55] [56] [57]

Peoples of Spain

Nationalisms and regionalisms

Within Spain, there are various regional populations including the Andalusians, Castilians, the Catalans, Valencians and Balearics (who speak Catalan, a distinct Romance language in eastern Spain), the Basques (who live in the Basque country and north of Navarre and speak Basque, a non-Indo-European language), and the Galicians (who speak Galician, a descendant of old Galician-Portuguese).

Respect to the existing cultural pluralism is important to many Spaniards. In many regions there exist strong regional identities such as Asturias, Aragon, the Canary Islands, León, and Andalusia, while in others (like Catalonia, Basque Country or Galicia) there are stronger national sentiments. Some of them refuse to identify themselves with the Spanish ethnic group and prefer some of the following:

Regional identities

Romani minority

Gypsies of Granada Robert Kemm Granadinos.jpg
Gypsies of Granada

Spain is home to one of the largest communities of Romani people (commonly known by the English exonym "gypsies", Spanish: gitanos). The Spanish Roma, which belong to the Iberian Kale subgroup ( calé ), are a formerly-nomadic community, which spread across Western Asia, North Africa, and Europe, first reaching Spain in the 15th century.

Data on ethnicity is not collected in Spain, although the Government's statistical agency CIS estimated in 2007 that the number of Gitanos present in Spain is probably around one million. [58] Most Spanish Roma live in the autonomous community of Andalusia, where they have traditionally enjoyed a higher degree of integration than in the rest of the country. A number of Spanish Calé also live in Southern France, especially in the region of Perpignan.

Modern immigration

The population of Spain has become increasingly diverse due to recent immigration. From 2000 to 2010, Spain had among the highest per capita immigration rates in the world and the second highest absolute net migration in the World (after the United States) [29] and immigrants now make up about 10% of the population. Since 2000, Spain has absorbed more than 3 million immigrants, with thousands more arriving each year. [59] In 2008 immigrant population tops over 4.5 million. [60] They come mainly from Europe, Latin America, China, the Philippines, North Africa, and West Africa. [61]

Languages

The vernacular languages of Spain (simplified)
Spanish official; spoken all over the country
Catalan, co-official
Basque, co-official
Galician, co-official
Occitan (Aranese), co-official
Asturian (and Leonese), recognised but not official
Aragonese, recognised but not official Llengues d'Espanya.svg
The vernacular languages of Spain (simplified)
   Spanish official; spoken all over the country
   Catalan , co-official
   Basque , co-official
   Galician , co-official
   Occitan (Aranese), co-official
   Asturian (and Leonese) , recognised but not official
   Aragonese , recognised but not official

Languages spoken in Spain include Spanish (castellano or español) (74%), Catalan (català, called valencià in the Valencian Community) (17%), Galician (galego) (7%), and Basque (euskara) (2%). [62] Other languages with a lower level of official recognition are Asturian (asturianu), Aranese Gascon (aranés), Aragonese (aragonés), and Leonese, each with their own various dialects. Spanish is the official state language, although the other languages are co-official in a number of autonomous communities.

Peninsular Spanish is typically classified in northern and southern dialects; among the southern ones Andalusian Spanish is particularly important. The Canary Islands have a distinct dialect of Spanish which is close to Caribbean Spanish. The Spanish language is a Romance language and is one of the aspects (including laws and general "ways of life") that causes Spaniards to be labelled a Latin people. Spanish has a significant Arabic influence in vocabulary; between the 8th and 12th centuries, Arabic was the dominant language in Al-Andalus [63] and nearly 4,000 words are of Arabic origin, including nouns, verbs and adjectives. [64] It also has influences from other Romance languages such as French, Italian, Catalan, Galician or Portuguese. Traditionally, the Basque language has been considered a key influence on Spanish, though nowadays this is questioned. Other changes are borrowings from English and other Germanic languages, although English influence is stronger in Latin America than in Spain.

The number of speakers of Spanish as a mother tongue is roughly 35.6 million, while the vast majority of other groups in Spain such as the Galicians, Catalans, and Basques also speak Spanish as a first or second language, which boosts the number of Spanish speakers to the overwhelming majority of Spain's population of 46 million.

Spanish was exported to the Americas due to over three centuries of Spanish colonial rule starting with the arrival of Christopher Columbus to Santo Domingo in 1492. Spanish is spoken natively by over 400 million people and spans across most countries of the Americas; from the Southwestern United States in North America down to Tierra del Fuego, the southernmost region of South America in Chile and Argentina. A variety of the language, known as Judaeo-Spanish or Ladino (or Haketia in Morocco), is still spoken by descendants of Sephardim (Spanish and Portuguese Jews) who fled Spain following a decree of expulsion of practising Jews in 1492. Also, a Spanish creole language known as Chabacano, which developed by the mixing of Spanish and native Tagalog and Cebuano languages during Spain's rule of the country through Mexico from 1565 to 1898, is spoken in the Philippines (by roughly 1 million people). [65]

Religion

Religious in Spain (2019) [62]

  No Religion (27.1%)
  Other (2.8%)
  Unspecified (1.1%)

Roman Catholicism is by far the largest denomination present in Spain although its share of the population has been decreasing for decades. According to a study by the Spanish Centre for Sociological Research in 2013 about 71% of Spaniards self-identified as Catholics, 2% other faith, and about 25% identified as atheists or declared they had no religion. Survey data for 2019 show Catholics down to 69%, 2.8% "other faith" and 27% atheist-agnostic-non-believers. [62]

Emigration from Spain

Outside of Europe, Latin America has the largest population of people with ancestors from Spain. These include people of full or partial Spanish ancestry.

People with Spanish ancestry

CountryPopulation (% of country)ReferenceCriterion
Mexico: Spanish Mexican 94,720,000 (>80%) [2] estimated: 20% as Whites
75-80% as Mestizos.
United States: Spanish American 50,000,000 (16%) [3] 10,017,244 Americans who identify themselves with Spanish ancestry. [66]
26,735,713 (53.0%) (8.7% of total U.S. population) Hispanics in the United States are white (also mixed with other European origins), others are different mixes or races but with Spaniard ancestry.[ citation needed ]
Venezuela: Spanish Venezuelan 25,079,923 (90%) [67] 42% as white and 50% as mestizos .
Brazil: Spanish Brazilian 15,000,000 (8%) [5] estimate by Bruno Ayllón. [68]
Colombia: Spanish Colombian 39,000,000 (86%) [ citation needed ]Self-description as "Mestizo, white and mulatto"
Cuba: Spanish Cuban 10,050,849 (89%) [6] Self-description as white, mulatto and mestizo
Puerto Rico: Spanish Puerto Rican 3,064,862 (80.5%) [69] [70]
[71] [72]
Self-description as white.
83,879 (2%) identified as Spanish citizens
Canada: Spanish Canadian 325,730 (1%) [73] Self-description
Australia: Spanish Australian 58,271 (0.3%) [74] Self-description

The listings above shows the ten countries with known collected data on people with ancestors from Spain, although the definitions of each of these are somewhat different and the numbers cannot really be compared. Spanish Chilean of Chile and Spanish Uruguayan of Uruguay could be included by percentage (each at above 40%) instead of numeral size.

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 Native names and pronunciation:

Related Research Articles

Iberian Peninsula Peninsula located in southwest Europe

The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of the European continent. The peninsula is principally divided between Spain and Portugal, comprising most of their territory, as well as a small area of France, Andorra and the British overseas territory of Gibraltar. With an area of approximately 596,740 square kilometres (230,400 sq mi), and a population of roughly 53 million, it is the second largest European peninsula by area, after the Scandinavian Peninsula.

<i>Reconquista</i> Medieval Christian extended conquest of Muslim areas in the Iberian Peninsula

The Reconquista was a period in the history of the Iberian Peninsula of about 780 years between the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in 711, the expansion of the Christian kingdoms throughout Iberia, and the fall of the Nasrid kingdom of Granada in 1492.

Spain Kingdom in Southwestern Europe

Spain, officially the Kingdom of Spain, is a country in Southwestern Europe with some pockets of territory across the Strait of Gibraltar and the Atlantic Ocean. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula. Its territory also includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera, make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country (Morocco). Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are also part of Spanish territory. The country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar; to the north and northeast by France, Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay; and to the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean.

Moors Medieval Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, Iberian Peninsula, Sicily, and Malta

The Moors were the Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily, and Malta during the Middle Ages. The Moors initially were the indigenous Maghrebine Berbers. The name was later also applied to Arabs.

Names given to the Spanish language

There are two names given in Spanish to the Spanish language: español ("Spanish") and castellano ("Castilian"). Spanish speakers from different countries or backgrounds can show a preference for one term or the other, or use them indiscriminately, but political issues or common usage might lead speakers to prefer one term over the other. This article identifies the differences between those terms, the countries or backgrounds that show a preference for one or the other, and the implications the choice of words might have for a native Spanish-speaker.

Moriscos were former Muslims and their descendants whom the Roman Catholic church and the Spanish Crown obliged, under threat of death, to convert to Christianity after Spain outlawed the open practice of Islam by its sizeable Muslim population in the early 16th century.

Mozarabs Christians living under Muslim rule in Medieval Spain and Portugal

The Mozarabs are, in modern historical terms, the Iberian Christians who lived under Moorish rule in Al-Andalus. Although their descendants remained unconverted to Islam, they were mostly fluent in Arabic and adopted elements of Arabic culture. The local Romance vernaculars, heavily permeated by Arabic, spoken by Christians and Muslim alike has also come to be known as Mozarabic language. Mozarabs were mostly Roman Catholics of the Visigothic or Mozarabic Rite.

Kingdom of León Former country, from 910-1230 CE

The Kingdom of León was an independent kingdom situated in the northwest region of the Iberian Peninsula. It was founded in AD 910 when the Christian princes of Asturias along the northern coast of the peninsula shifted their capital from Oviedo to the city of León. The Kings of León fought civil wars, wars against neighbouring kingdoms as well as campaigns to repel invasions by both the Moors and the Vikings, to protect their kingdom's changing fortunes.

The culture of Spain is based on a variety of historical influences, primarily based on pre-Roman Celtic and Iberian culture. Other ancient peoples such as Romans, Phoenicians, Carthaginians, and Greeks also had some influence. In the areas of language and also religion, the Ancient Romans left a lasting legacy in the Spanish culture because Rome created Hispania as a political, legal and administrative unit. The subsequent course of Spanish history added other elements to the country's culture and traditions.

Alhambra Decree 1492 decree expulsion of Jews from Spain

The Alhambra Decree was an edict issued on 31 March 1492, by the joint Catholic Monarchs of Spain ordering the expulsion of practicing Jews from the Crowns of Castile and Aragon and its territories and possessions by 31 July of that year. The primary purpose was to eliminate their influence on Spain's large converso population and ensure they did not revert to Judaism. Over half of Spain's Jews had converted as a result of the religious persecution and pogroms which occurred in 1391. Due to continuing attacks, around 50,000 more had converted by 1415. A further number of those remaining chose to convert to avoid expulsion. As a result of the Alhambra decree and persecution in prior years, over 200,000 Jews converted to Catholicism and between 40,000 and 100,000 were expelled, an unknown number returning to Spain in the years following the expulsion.:17

In many ways, the history of Spain is marked by waves of conquerors who brought their distinct cultures to the peninsula. After the passage of the Vandals and Alans down the Mediterranean coast of Hispania from 408, the history of medieval Spain begins with the Iberian kingdom of the Arianist Visigoths (507–711), who were converted to Catholicism with their king Reccared in 587. Visigothic culture in Spain can be seen as a phenomenon of Late Antiquity as much as part of the Age of Migrations.

Iberian federalism

Iberian federalism, pan-Iberism or simply Iberism are the names for the pan-nationalist ideology supporting the federation of all the territories of the Iberian Peninsula.

This is a timeline of notable events during the period of Muslim presence in Iberia, starting with the Umayyad conquest in the 8th century.

Languages of Spain languages of a geographic region

The languages of Spain, or Spanish languages, are the languages spoken or once spoken in Spain. Most languages spoken in Spain belong to the Romance language family, of which Spanish is the only language which has official status for the whole country. Various other languages have co-official or recognised status in specific territories, and a number of unofficial languages and dialects are spoken in certain localities.

National and regional identity in Spain

Both the perceived nationhood of Spain, and the perceived distinctions between different parts of its territory are said to derive from historical, geographical, linguistic, economic, political, ethnic and social factors.

Emirate of Granada Historic Iberian state

The Emirate of Granada, also known as the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada, was an emirate established in southern Iberia in 1230 by Muhammad ibn al-Ahmar. After Prince Idris left Iberia to take the Almohad Caliphate leadership, the ambitious Ibn al-Ahmar established the last Muslim dynasty on the Iberian peninsula, the Nasrids. The Nasrid emirs were responsible for building part of the Alhambra palace complex. By 1250, the Emirate was the last part of the Iberian peninsula held by the Muslims. It roughly corresponded to the modern Spanish provinces of Granada, Almería, and Málaga. Andalusian Arabic was the mother tongue of the majority of the population. For two more centuries, the region enjoyed considerable cultural and economic prosperity.

Expulsion of the Moriscos 17th century expulsion of Moriscos from Spain

The Expulsion of the Moriscos was decreed by King Philip III of Spain on April 9, 1609. The Moriscos were descendants of Spain's Muslim population that had converted to Christianity by coercion or by royal decree in the early 16th century. Since the Spanish were fighting wars in the Americas, feeling threatened by the Turks raiding along the Spanish coast and by two Morisco revolts in the century since Islam was outlawed in Spain, it seems the expulsions were a reaction to an internal problem of the stretched Spanish Empire. Between 1609 through 1614, the Crown systematically expelled Moriscos through a number of decrees affecting Spain's various kingdoms, meeting varying levels of success.

Hispania Roman province

Hispania was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula and its provinces. Under the Republic, Hispania was divided into two provinces: Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior. During the Principate, Hispania Ulterior was divided into two new provinces, Baetica and Lusitania, while Hispania Citerior was renamed Hispania Tarraconensis. Subsequently, the western part of Tarraconensis was split off, first as Hispania Nova, later renamed "Callaecia". From Diocletian's Tetrarchy onwards, the south of remaining Tarraconensis was again split off as Carthaginensis, and probably then too the Balearic Islands and all the resulting provinces formed one civil diocese under the vicarius for the Hispaniae. The name Hispania was also used in the period of Visigothic rule.

Valencians are the native people of the Valencian Community, in eastern Spain. Legally, Valencians are the inhabitants of the community. Since 2006, the Valencian people is officially recognised in the Valencian Statute of Autonomy as a "historical nation" "within the unity of the Spanish nation". The official languages of Valencia are Valencian and Spanish.

Mudéjar refers to the group of Muslims who remained in Iberia in the late medieval period despite the Christian reconquest. It is also a term for Mudejar art, which was much influenced by Islamic art, but largely produced by Christian craftsmen for Christian patrons.

References

  1. "Official Population Figures of Spain. Population on 1 January 2013". INE Instituto Nacional de Estadística.
  2. 1 2 "Mexico – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 10 July 2010.
  3. 1 2 US Census Bureau 2014 American Community Survey B03001 1-Year Estimates HISPANIC OR LATINO ORIGIN BY SPECIFIC ORIGIN Archived 12 February 2020 at Archive.today retrieved 18 October 2015. Number of people of Hispanic and Latino Origin by specific origin(except people of Brazilian origin).
  4. Resultados Básicos Censo 2011 Archived 13 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  5. 1 2 "Brasil – España". hispanista.com.br. Retrieved 24 February 2014.
  6. 1 2 "Census of population and homes" (in Spanish). Government of Cuba. 16 September 2002. Retrieved 7 September 2009.
  7. "Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2000, Data Set: Census 2000 Summary File 1 (SF 1) 100-Percent Data". Factfinder.census.gov. Archived from the original on 3 April 2009. Retrieved 14 May 2017.
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 "Explotación estadística del Padrón de Españoles Residentes en el Extranjero a 1 de enero de 2015" (PDF). Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  9. 1 2 "Españoles residentes en el extranjero 2015 (CERA) por país" (PDF).
  10. "Official Population Figures of Spain. Population on 1 January 2013". INE Instituto Nacional de Estadística.
  11. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 "Padrón de Españoles Residentes en el Extranjero (PERE)" . Retrieved 5 December 2015.
  12. 31 December 2014 German Statistical Office. Zensus 2014: Bevölkerung am 31. Dezember 2014
  13. "Ausländeranteil in Deutschland bis 2015 - Statistik".
  14. 1 2 "Explotación estadística del Padrón de Españoles Residentes en el Extranjero a 1 de enero de 2014" (PDF). Retrieved 19 June 2014.
  15. 1 2 3 Censo electoral de españoles residentes en el extranjero 2009 Archived 27 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  16. "Födelseland Och Ursprungsland".
  17. "El número de españoles en Emiratos Árabes Unidos se duplica en sólo un año". www.abc.es (in Spanish). 15 October 2013. Retrieved 10 August 2018.
  18. "Embassy of Spain in Guatemala City, Guatemala profile. Guatemala" (PDF) (in Spanish). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Spain. Retrieved 17 April 2015.
  19. "CSO Emigration" (PDF). Census Office Ireland. Retrieved 29 January 2013.
  20. " Immigrant and Emigrant Populations by Country of Origin and Destination, Migration Policy Institute
  21. There are 3,110 immigrants from Spain according to INE, 1 January 2012
  22. Snoj, Jure (18 December 2013). "Population of Qatar by nationality". Archived from the original on 21 December 2014.
  23. "ФМС России".
  24. "Embassy of Spain in Managua, Nicaragua profil e Nicaragua" (PDF) (in Spanish). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Spain. Retrieved 17 April 2015.
  25. Tapiador, Francisco J. (2019). The Geography of Spain: A Complete Synthesis. Springer Nature. ISBN   9783030189075. Catholicism is the nominal religion of most of the Spaniards
  26. Pop, Ioan-Aurel (1996). Romanians and Hungarians from the 9th to the 14th century. Romanian Cultural Foundation. ISBN   0880334401. We could say that contemporary Europe is made up of three large groups of peoples, divided on the criteria of their origin and linguistic affiliation. They are the following: the Romanic or neo-Latin peoples (Italians, Spaniards, Portuguese, French, Romanians, etc.), the Germanic peoples (Germans proper, English, Dutch, Danes, Norwegians, Swedes, Icelanders, etc.), and the Slavic peoples (Russians, Ukrainians, Belorussians, Poles, Czechs, Slovaks, Bulgarians, Serbs, Croats, Slovenians, etc.)CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  27. Minahan, James (2000). One Europe, Many Nations: A Historical Dictionary of European National Groups. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 776. ISBN   0313309841. Romance (Latin) nations... Spaniards
  28. "572 millones de personas hablan español, cinco millones más que hace un año, y aumentarán a 754 millones a mediados de siglo". www.cervantes.es.
  29. 1 2 3 "Eurostat – Population in Europe in 2005" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 August 2008. Retrieved 24 February 2014.
  30. "Ethnographic map of Pre-Roman Iberia". Luís Fraga da Silva – Associação Campo Arqueológico de Tavira, Tavira, Portugal. Archived from the original on 11 June 2004. Retrieved 25 April 2007.
  31. "Morisco – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 24 February 2014.
  32. "8 Masterpieces of Islamic Architecture".
  33. Adams, Susan M.; Bosch, Elena; Balaresque, Patricia L.; Ballereau, Stéphane J.; Lee, Andrew C.; Arroyo, Eduardo; López-Parra, Ana M.; Aler, Mercedes; Grifo, Marina S. Gisbert; Brion, Maria; Carracedo, Angel; Lavinha, João; Martínez-Jarreta, Begoña; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Picornell, Antònia; Ramon, Misericordia; Skorecki, Karl; Behar, Doron M.; Calafell, Francesc; Jobling, Mark A. (December 2008). "The Genetic Legacy of Religious Diversity and Intolerance: Paternal Lineages of Christians, Jews, and Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 83 (6): 725–736. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2008.11.007. PMC   2668061 . PMID   19061982.
  34. Vínculos Historia: The Moriscos who remained. The permanence of Islamic origin population in Early Modern Spain: Kingdom of Granada, XVII-XVIII centuries (In Spanish)
  35. Axtell, James (September–October 1991). "The Columbian Mosaic in Colonial America". Humanities. 12 (5): 12–18. Archived from the original on 17 May 2008. Retrieved 8 October 2008.
  36. Forsythe, David P. (2009). Encyclopedia of Human Rights, Volume 4. Oxford University Press. p. 297. ISBN   978-0195334029.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  37. "Migration to Latin America". Let.leidenuniv.nl. Retrieved 24 February 2014.
  38. Patricia Rivas. "Reconocerán nacionalidad española a descendientes de exiliados :: YVKE Mundial". Radiomundial.com.ve. Archived from the original on 5 January 2011. Retrieved 10 July 2010.
  39. 1 2 3 Nieves Ortega Pérez (1 February 2003). "Spain: Forging an Immigration Policy". Migrationinformation.org. Retrieved 24 February 2014.
  40. "The Spanish of the Canary Islands".
  41. Caistor, Nick (28 February 2003). "Spanish Civil War fighters look back". BBC News. Retrieved 24 February 2014.
  42. The Guardian (2 October 2019): 132,000 descendants of expelled Jews apply for Spanish citizenship
  43. BBC (8 October 2019): España y los judíos sefardíes: quién se beneficia de la decisión de ofrecer la nacionalidad a esta comunidad
  44. https://web.archive.org/web/20091030032902/http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761568486/Iberians.html
  45. Álvarez-Sanchís, Jesús (28 February 2005). "Oppida and Celtic society in western Spain". E-Keltoi: Journal of Interdisciplinary Celtic Studies. 6 (1).
  46. 1 2 https://web.archive.org/web/20040611215344/http://www.arqueotavira.com/Mapas/Iberia/Populi.htm
  47. "Spain - History".
  48. Bycroft, Clare; Fernandez-Rozadilla, Ceres; Ruiz-Ponte, Clara; Quintela, Inés; Carracedo, Ángel; Donnelly, Peter; Myers, Simon (1 February 2019). "Patterns of genetic differentiation and the footprints of historical migrations in the Iberian Peninsula". Nature Communications. 10 (1): 551. Bibcode:2019NatCo..10..551B. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-08272-w. PMC   6358624 . PMID   30710075.
  49. 1 2 Olalde, Iñigo; Mallick, Swapan; Patterson, Nick; Rohland, Nadin; Villalba-Mouco, Vanessa; Silva, Marina; Dulias, Katharina; Edwards, Ceiridwen J.; Gandini, Francesca; Pala, Maria; Soares, Pedro; Ferrando-Bernal, Manuel; Adamski, Nicole; Broomandkhoshbacht, Nasreen; Cheronet, Olivia; Culleton, Brendan J.; Fernandes, Daniel; Lawson, Ann Marie; Mah, Matthew; Oppenheimer, Jonas; Stewardson, Kristin; Zhang, Zhao; Arenas, Juan Manuel Jiménez; Moyano, Isidro Jorge Toro; Salazar-García, Domingo C.; Castanyer, Pere; Santos, Marta; Tremoleda, Joaquim; Lozano, Marina; et al. (15 March 2019). "The genomic history of the Iberian Peninsula over the past 8000 years". Science. 363 (6432): 1230–1234. Bibcode:2019Sci...363.1230O. doi:10.1126/science.aav4040. PMC   6436108 . PMID   30872528.
  50. "Kingdoms of the Germanic Tribes - Suevi (Suebi)".
  51. Galazak, José (2013). "A diarquia sueva: sociedade e poder no regnum dos Quados ocidentais e no Regnum Suevorum (358–585 d.C.)" [The Swiss Diarchy: Society and Power in the Regnum of the Western Quados and in the Regnum Suevorum (AD 358–585)](PDF). Revista Portuguesa de Arqueologia (in Portuguese). 16: 323–350.
  52. Quiroga, Jorge López. "IN TEMPORE SUEBORUM. The time of the Suevi in Gallaecia (411-585 AD). Exhibition Catalogue (English)". Jorge López Quiroga-Artemio M. Martínez Tejera (Coord.): In Tempore Sueborum. The Time of the Sueves in Gallaecia (411-585 Ad). The First Medieval Kingdom of the West, Ourense.
  53. "Spain: Visigothic Spain to c. 500". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 2015. Retrieved 1 January 2015. https://books.openedition.org/cvz/2148?lang=en
  54. Jónsson 2007, p. 195.
  55. Adams, Susan M.; Bosch, Elena; Balaresque, Patricia L.; Ballereau, Stéphane J.; Lee, Andrew C.; Arroyo, Eduardo; López-Parra, Ana M.; Aler, Mercedes; Grifo, Marina S. Gisbert; Brion, Maria; Carracedo, Angel; Lavinha, João; Martínez-Jarreta, Begoña; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Picornell, Antònia; Ramon, Misericordia; Skorecki, Karl; Behar, Doron M.; Calafell, Francesc; Jobling, Mark A. (12 December 2008). "The Genetic Legacy of Religious Diversity and Intolerance: Paternal Lineages of Christians, Jews, and Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula". American Journal of Human Genetics. 83 (6): 725–736. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2008.11.007. PMC   2668061 . PMID   19061982.
  56. Torres, Gabriela (31 December 2008). "El español "puro" tiene de todo". BBC Mundo.
  57. Cervantes virtual: La invasión árabe. Los árabes y el elemento árabe en español. Adams SM, Bosch E, Balaresque PL, Ballereau SJ, Lee AC, Arroyo E, López-Parra AM, Aler M, Grifo MS, Brion M, Carracedo A, Lavinha J, Martínez-Jarreta B, Quintana-Murci L, Picornell A, Ramon M, Skorecki K, Behar DM, Calafell F, Jobling MA (December 2008). "The Genetic Legacy of Religious Diversity and Intolerance: Paternal Lineages of Christians, Jews, and Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 83 (6): 725–736. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2008.11.007. PMC   2668061 . PMID   19061982.
  58. "Diagnóstico social de la comunidad gitana en España" (PDF). msc.es. 2007.
  59. "Spain: Immigrants Welcome". Businessweek.com. 20 May 2007. Archived from the original on 6 October 2008. Retrieved 24 February 2014.
  60. "National Institute of Statistics: Advance Municipal Register to January 1, 2006. provisional data" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 July 2008. Retrieved 24 February 2014.
  61. Tremlett, Giles (26 July 2006). "Spain attracts record levels of immigrants seeking jobs and sun". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 25 April 2007.
  62. 1 2 3 "CIA – The World Factbook – Spain". Cia.gov. Retrieved 24 February 2014.
  63. Arabic Contributions to the Spanish Language and Culture
  64. "The History of the Spanish Language" - The importance of this influence can be seen in words such as admiral (almirante), algebra, alchemy and alcohol, to note just a few obvious examples, which entered other European languages, like French, English, German, from Arabic via medieval Spanish. Modern Spanish has around 100,000 words.
  65. Fennig, Charles D., ed. (2016). Ethnologue: Languages of the World (Nineteenth ed.). Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  66. Szucs, Loretto Dennis; Luebking, Sandra Hargreaves (1 January 2006). The Source: A Guidebook to American Genealogy . Ancestry Publishing. p.  361. ISBN   9781593312770 via Internet Archive. English US census 1790.
  67. Resultados Básicos Censo 2011 Archived 13 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  68. Más de 15 millones de brasileños son descendientes directos de españoles.
  69. "Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2000, Data Set: Census 2000 Summary File 1 (SF 1) 100-Percent Data". Factfinder.census.gov. Archived from the original on 3 April 2009. Retrieved 14 May 2017.
  70. "Puerto Rico's History on race" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 February 2012. Retrieved 24 February 2014.
  71. "Puerto Rican ancestry" (PDF). p. 6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 December 2004. Retrieved 24 February 2014.
  72. "Puerto Rican identity". Names.mongabay.com. 3 January 2013. Retrieved 24 February 2014.
  73. "Ethnocultural Portrait of Canada Highlight Tables (2006 Census)". Statistics Canada . Retrieved 21 June 2009.
  74. Statistics, c=AU; o=Commonwealth of Australia; ou=Australian Bureau of. "Redirect to Census data page".

Sources