|Kagawaran ng Edukasyon|
Department of Education building
|Formed||January 21, 1901|
|Headquarters||DepEd Complex, Meralco Avenue, Pasig, Metro Manila, Philippines|
|Annual budget||₱557.25 billion (2021)|
The Department of Education (abbreviated as DepEd; Filipino : Kagawaran ng Edukasyon) is the executive department of the Philippine government responsible for ensuring access to, promoting equity in, and improving the quality of basic education. It is the main agency tasked to manage and govern the Philippine system of basic education. It is the chief formulator of Philippine education policy and responsible for the Philippine primary and secondary school systems. It has its headquarters at the DepEd Complex in Meralco Avenue, Pasig.
The department is currently led by the Secretary of Education, nominated by the President of the Philippines and confirmed by the Commission on Appointments. The Secretary is a member of the Cabinet. The current Secretary of Education is Leonor Briones. Presently, its mission is to provide quality basic education that is equitably accessible to all and lay the foundation for lifelong learning and service for the common good. It has changed its vision statement, removing a phrase that some groups deem to be "too sectarian" for a government institution.
Philippine Education has undergone different stages of progress from the pre-Spanish era to the present. During the early Spanish period, education in the Philippines was religion-oriented and was primarily for the elite, especially in the first years of Spanish colonization. Access to education by Filipinos was later liberalized through the enactment of the Educational Decree of 1863, which provided for the establishment of at least one primary school for boys and girls in each town under the responsibility of the municipal government, and the establishment of a normal school for male teachers under the supervision of the Jesuits. Primary instruction was secularized and free, and the teaching of Spanish was compulsory. It was also through this decree that the 'Superior Commission of Primary Instruction' was established, the seminal agency of the Department of Education.
The defeat of Spain by United States forces in 1898 paved the way for Aguinaldo's Republic under a Revolutionary Government. The schools maintained by Spain for more than three centuries were closed temporarily but were reopened on August 29, 1898 by the Secretary of the Interior. A system of free and compulsory elementary education was established by the Malolos Constitution, under Article 23. However, this first sovereign education system was interrupted in 1899 with the start of the Philippine–American War, and was finally dismantled.
A secularized and free public school system during the first decade of American rule was established upon the recommendation of the Schurman Commission in 1900. Free primary instruction that trained the people for the duties of citizenship was enforced by the Taft Commission as per instructions of US President William McKinley. Chaplains and non-commissioned officers were assigned to teach using English as the medium of instruction.
A highly centralized public school system was instituted in January 1901 by the Taft Commission, by virtue of Act No. 74. This act also established the Department of Public Instruction, headed by a General Superintendent. The implementation of this Act created a heavy shortage of teachers so the Philippine Commission authorized the Superintendent of Public Instruction to bring 500 teachers from the United States to the Philippines. They would later be popularly known as the Thomasites.
In 1908, the Philippine Legislature approved Act No. 1870, creating the University of the Philippines.
The Organic Act of 1916 reorganized the Department of Public Instruction, mandating that it be headed by a Secretary. This act also mandated the Filpinization of department secretaries, except that of the Secretary of Public Instruction.
During World War II, the department was reorganized once again through the Japanese's Military Order No. 2 in February 1942, splitting the department into the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Health, Labor and Public Instruction. Under the Japanese, the teaching of Tagalog, Philippine history, and character education was given priority. Love for work and the dignity of labor were also emphasized.
In October 1944, months after Pres. Manuel L. Quezon's death, the department was renamed as the Department of Public Instruction and Information, with Carlos P. Romulo at the helm. Upon the return and resumption of the Commonwealth Government in February 1945, its name was changed to the Department of Instruction.
In 1947, by virtue of Executive Order No. 94 by Pres. Manuel Roxas,the department was reorganized to the Department of Education. During this period, the regulation and supervision of public and private schools belonged to the Bureau of Public and Private Schools.
Upon the start of Martial Law in September 1972, it became the Department of Education and Culture and subsequently reorganized into the Ministry of Education and Culture in June 1978 by virtue of Presidential Decree No. 1397,due to the shift to a parliamentary system of government. Thirteen regional offices were created and major organizational changes were implemented in the educational system.
The Education Act of 1982created the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports, which became the Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS) in 1987 via Executive Order No. 117 by President Corazon C. Aquino.
The structure of DECS as embodied in EO 117 has practically remained unchanged until 1994, when the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) was established, and on August 25, 1994, when the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) was established to supervise tertiary degree programs and non-degree technical-vocational programs, respectively. The trifocal education system refocused the department's mandate to basic education which covers elementary, secondary and non-formal education, including culture and sports. CHED is responsible for tertiary education, while TESDA now administers the post-secondary, middle-level manpower training and development.
In August 2001, the Governance of Basic Education Actwas passed, renaming the DECS to the Department of Education (DepEd) and redefining the role of field offices, which include regional offices, division offices, district offices, and schools.
The Act removed the administration of cultural and sports activities from the department. The National Historical Institute, Records Management and Archives Office, and the National Library are now administratively attached to the National Commission for Culture and the Arts (NCCA). All previous functions, programs, and activities related to sports competition were transferred to the Philippine Sports Commission (PSC). In addition, the Bureau of Physical Education and School Sports was abolished.
At present, the Department is headed by the Secretary of Education, with the following undersecretaries and assistant secretaries:
Under the Office of the Secretary are the following offices and services:
A director is assigned to each of the 17 regions of the Philippines; the Ministry of Basic, Higher and Technical Education (Bangsamoro) (BARRM) is governed by a regional minister. A division superintendent is assigned to each of the school divisions defined by the department.
DepEd is composed of 18 bureaus and services:
The following agencies, councils and schools are attached to DepEd for policy and program coordination:
The Commission on Higher Education (CHED) is now attached to the Office of the President, while the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) is now attached to the Department of Trade and Industry.
The executive departments of the Philippines are the largest component of the executive branch of the government of the Philippines. These departments comprise the largest part of the country's bureaucracy.
The Commission on Higher Education of the Philippines, abbreviated as CHED, is a government agency attached to the Office of the President of the Philippines for administrative purposes. It covers both public and private higher education institutions as well as degree-granting programs in all post-secondary educational institutions in the country.
The Philippine Statistics Authority, abbreviated as PSA, is the central statistical authority of the Philippine government that collects, compiles, analyzes and publishes statistical information on economic, social, demographic, political affairs and general affairs of the people of the Philippines and enforces the civil registration functions in the country.
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The Philippines' Department of Social Welfare and Development is the executive department of the Philippine Government responsible for the protection of the social welfare of rights of Filipinos and to promote the social development.
The Department of Public Works and Highways, abbreviated as DPWH, is the executive department of the Philippine government solely vested with the Mandate to “be the State's engineering and construction arm” and, as such, it is “tasked to carry out the policy” of the State to “maintain an engineering and construction arm and continuously develop its technology, for the purposes of ensuring the safety of all infrastructure facilities and securing for all public works and highways the highest efficiency and the most appropriate quality in construction” and shall be responsible for “(t)he planning, design, construction and maintenance of infrastructure facilities, especially national highways, flood control and water resources development systems, and other public works in accordance with national development objectives,” provided that, the exercise of which “shall be decentralized to the fullest extent feasible.”
The Department of the Interior and Local Government, abbreviated as DILG, is the executive department of the Philippine government responsible for promoting peace and order, ensuring public safety and strengthening local government capability aimed towards the effective delivery of basic services to the citizenry.
The Department of Trade and Industry is the executive department of the Philippine government tasked as the main economic catalyst that enables innovative, competitive, job generating, inclusive business, and empowers consumers. It acts as a catalyst for intensified private sector activity in order to accelerate and sustain economic growth through comprehensive industrial growth strategy, progressive and socially responsible trade liberalization and deregulation programs and policymaking designed for the expansion and diversification of Philippine trade – both domestic and foreign.
The Department of Tourism is the executive department of the Philippine government responsible for the regulation of the Philippine tourism industry and the promotion of the Philippines as a tourist destination.
The Department of Health is the executive department of the Government of the Philippines responsible for ensuring access to basic public health services by all Filipinos through the provision of quality health care, the regulation of all health services and products. It is the government's over-all technical authority on health. It has its headquarters at the San Lazaro Compound, along Rizal Avenue in Manila.
The Department of Finance is the executive department of the Philippine government responsible for the formulation, institutionalization and administration of fiscal policies, management of the financial resources of the government, supervision of the revenue operations of all local government units, the review, approval and management of all public sector debt, and the rationalization, privatization and public accountability of corporations and assets owned, controlled or acquired by the government.
The Department of Agriculture, is the executive department of the Philippine government responsible for the promotion of agricultural and fisheries development and growth. It has its headquarters at Elliptical Road corner Visayas Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City.
Education in the Philippines is provided by public and private schools, colleges, universities, and technical and vocational institutions in the country. Funding for public education comes from the national government. For the academic year 2017–2018, about 83% of K–12 students attended public schools and about 17% either attended private schools or were home-schooled.
The Technical Education and Skills Development Authority serves as the Philippines' Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) authority. As a government agency, TESDA is tasked to both manage and supervise the Philippines' Technical Education and Skills Development (TESD). Its goals are to develop the Filipino workforce with "world-class competence and positive work values" and to provide quality technical-educational and skills development through its direction, policies, and programs.
The Davao del Norte State College is a public college in New Visayas, Panabo City, Philippines which provides instruction and progressive leadership in education, engineering, arts, sciences, fisheries, and other fields.
Florencio "Butch" Barsana Abad is a Filipino lawyer and politician. Having held many cabinet-level ranks in the past, he was appointed by President Benigno Aquino III as Secretary of the Philippine Department of Budget and Management. Abad held various cabinet-level positions in the past, particularly as Secretary of the Department of Education and Secretary of the Department of Agrarian Reform.
Tonisito M.C. Umali, Esq. is a Filipino, who is the current Undersecretary for Legislative Liaison Office, External Partnerships Service and Project Management Service of the Department of Education of the Philippines. He is formerly the Undersecretary for Legislative Liaison Office, External Partnerships Service and School Sports of the Department of Education of the Philippines and also formerly the Assistant Secretary for Legal and Legislative Affairs of the Department of Education of the Philippines. He is a member of the Integrated Bar of the Philippines after having obtained his Juris Doctor degree from Ateneo de Manila University. He is also licensed to practice law in the State of California as well as the United States (Federal) District Courts of Central, Eastern and Southern California.
The Office of the President of the Philippines (OP), is an administrative, advisory, consultative government agency which aids the president of the Philippines in performing their duty as head of state and chief of the executive branch of government.
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