as of May 13, 2022, 14:47 PhST
Marcos Robredo Pacquiao Mangondato
A map showing which city and provincial certificates of canvass will be canvassed by Congress, highlighting each area's most voted candidate according to the latest, unofficial results. Congress will canvass the vote tallies and officially declare the winners in late May. General Santos will have its results canvassed separately from South Cotabato for the first time. Metro Manila is shown at the inset in the upper right.
2022 Philippine vice presidential election
Duterte Pangilinan Sotto
A map showing the provinces of the Philippines. The inset shows Metro Manila.
The 2022 Philippine presidential election was held on Monday, May 9, 2022, as part of the 2022 general election. This was the 17th direct presidential election and 16th vice presidential election in the Philippines since 1935, and the sixth sextennial presidential and vice presidential election since 1992.
Incumbent president Rodrigo Duterte was ineligible for re-election because the president is limited to a single term under the 1987 Philippine Constitution. Incumbent vice president Leni Robredo was eligible for re-election but chose to run for the presidency instead. Therefore, this election determined the 17th president and the 15th vice president. The president and vice president are elected separately, so the two winning candidates can come from different political parties.
Bongbong Marcos and Sara Duterte won the presidency and vice presidency, respectively, becoming the first presidential and vice presidential candidates to be elected by a majority since 1986, and the first presidential ticket to win together since 2004. This is expected to also mark the return of the Marcos family to power for the first time since the People Power Revolution.The Congress of the Philippines will meet in late May to canvass the results and formally proclaim the winners of the election.
According to the Constitution of the Philippines of 1987, the election is held every six years after 1992, on the second Monday of May. The incumbent president is term-limited. The incumbent vice president may run for two consecutive terms. The first-past-the-post voting system is used to determine the winner: the candidate with the highest number of votes, whether or not one has a majority, wins the presidency.
The vice-presidential election is separate, is held on the same rules, and voters may split their ticket. If two or more candidates get the most votes for either position, Congress shall vote from among them which shall be president or vice president, as the case may be. Both winners will serve six-year terms commencing at noon on June 30, 2022, and ending on the same day, six years later.
In the 2016 presidential and vice presidential elections, Davao City mayor Rodrigo Duterte of Partido Demokratiko Pilipino–Lakas ng Bayan (transl. Philippine Democratic Party–People Power; PDP–Laban) won the presidency against four other candidates, while House representative from Camarines Sur Leni Robredo of the Liberal Party won against Senator Bongbong Marcos and four others in the vice presidential election that is the closest margin since 1965. Marcos put the result under protest in the Presidential Electoral Tribunal.
On Marcos's electoral protest against Robredo, the Presidential Electoral Tribunal released in October 2019 the report on Marcos's pilot provinces of Camarines Sur, Iloilo and Negros Oriental, and showed that Robredo increased her lead by 15,742 votes. The tribunal voted to defer on deciding on the protest and instead proceeded with Marcos's plea to nullify the votes from the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) provinces of Basilan, Lanao del Sur and Maguindanao.
Those who dissented to the decision said that the protest should have been dismissed, as Marcos failed to recover votes from his 3 pilot provinces, citing the rules of the tribunal. They were overruled when the others said that Marcos's plea on the ARMM provinces should also be resolved.
In July 2016, Vice President Robredo was appointed to head the Housing and Urban Development Coordinating Council (HUDCC),but later resigned in December 2016 after she was told to stop attending all cabinet meetings, amid her criticism of the administration's war on drugs. The president later told his allies to stop trying to impeach Robredo.
In the 17th Congress, the representative from Davao del Norte, Pantaleon Alvarez, was elected Speaker of the House of Representatives in July 2016. Alliance for Change; HNP), a regional political party in the Davao Region where both Davao del Norte and Davao City are a part of.Midway during the 17th Congress, former president Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, who was the representative from Pampanga, ousted Alvarez from the speakership. The ouster was reportedly due to a dispute between Alvarez and Davao City mayor Sara Duterte, the president's daughter, when the latter branded the former as being from the opposition when she launched the Hugpong ng Pagbabago (transl.
In the 2019 midterm Senate election, the opposition fielded the Otso Diretso (transl. Straight Eight) coalition, while the administration fielded their slate under the Hugpong ng Pagbabago banner. Hugpong won 9 of the 12 seats contested, while Otso Diretso won no seats. Cynthia Villar, wife of defeated 2010 presidential candidate Manuel Villar, topped the election, while 2013's Senate election topnotcher and 2016 defeated presidential candidate Grace Poe finished second. While Sara Duterte's Hugpong won in the Davao Region, they notably failed to unseat Alvarez, and PDP–Laban defeated Hugpong's candidate for governor of Davao del Norte, and won the province's both seats in the House of Representatives.
Administration-allied parties also won in the House of Representatives, but there was a dispute on who should be Speaker. President Duterte negotiated a term-sharing agreement with Alan Peter Cayetano and Lord Allan Velasco, with the former serving the first 15 months of the term, while Velasco will serve out the final 18 months.Meanwhile, Tito Sotto was re-elected as Senate President.
In November 2019, the president challenged Robredo to co-chair the Inter-Agency Committee on Anti-Illegal Drugs (ICAD), the office that oversees the war on drugs, along with the Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency chief, which she accepted.A week later, Duterte said that he will fire Robredo if she shares state secrets about the drug war. Several days later, Duterte said he cannot trust Robredo after she asked the government for a list of high-value targets in the drug war. Robredo replied that "He should tell me straight if he wants me out." A day later, Duterte fired Robredo as co-chair of the ICAD.
During the COVID-19 pandemic in the Philippines, the government was criticized by the opposition on its response to the pandemic. Robredo had a televised speech in August claiming that the government had no plans on how to resolve the pandemic and shared 10 recommendations on how to resolve it.Duterte himself, in a separate speech days later, asked Robredo not to "add fuel to the fire".
In June 2020, American boxing promoter Bob Arum said that Senator Manny Pacquiao confided to him that he will run for president in 2022.Pacquiao later denied talking about politics with Arum. On December 3, 2020, Pacquiao was elected as party president of PDP–Laban, of which President Duterte is the party chairman. On May 3, 2021, when Pacquiao was asked for plans of running for president, he replied "for now, let's not think about that."
In March 2021, former Supreme Court Associate Justice Antonio Carpio launched "1Sambayan" (read as "isambayan", meaning "one nation"), a coalition that aimed to place one lone candidate against Duterte's endorsed successor.Carpio is aiming not to split the vote, pointing out that Duterte won over Mar Roxas and Grace Poe in 2016 as those who were against him were not united.
1Sambayan was considering one among Robredo, Moreno, Poe, and Senator Nancy Binay as candidates.Both Moreno and Pacquiao, with the former being one of 1Sambayan's choices, stated that they do not want to talk about politics during the pandemic. Former senator Antonio Trillanes IV said that there was never an offer from 1Sambayan for him to run, but if Robredo won't seek the presidency in 2022, he'll entertain entering the presidential race.
A dispute within the PDP–Laban began on March 12, 2021when Senator Pacquiao began to criticize President Duterte and the government regarding the dispute in the South China Sea, alleged corruption in the government agencies under the Duterte administration, the government handling of the COVID-19 pandemic and the endorsement of the candidates for the 2022 presidential election, leading to the creation of two factions within the party.
On March 23, 2021, Senate President Tito Sotto stated that he and Panfilo Lacson were being pushed to form a tandem. Sotto said both of them are yet to be convinced on this, and when asked if he'd run for higher office in 2022, he said that he hadn't made a decision yet.Lacson later declined the offer from 1Sambayan in a letter to Justice Carpio, in which he cited his principal sponsorship of the Anti-Terrorism Law as "inconsistent and incongruent" to the goals of the coalition.
On June 12, 2021, 1Sambayan announced their six initial nominees who will go through the coalition's selection process for a presidential and vice-presidential tandem. The nominees (who members of the coalition may vote for as their candidate for either post) include: senator Poe, vice president Robredo, former senator Trillanes, human rights lawyer and former senatorial candidate Chel Diokno, incumbent house deputy speaker Vilma Santos-Recto, and CIBAC representative and house deputy speaker Eddie Villanueva.Moreno and Binay declined 1Sambayan's offer to run under their coalition. Soon after, Senator Poe and Representative Santos also withdrew their names from contention. At the same time, Vice President Robredo, former Senator Trillanes, and Representative Villanueva expressed their support for unity in 2022 under 1Sambayan.
Lacson and Sotto formally announced their candidacies on July, with their campaign to be launched in August. Party for Democratic Reforms), the party of former secretary of Defense Renato de Villa who lost the 1998 presidential election. On September 8, Lacson and Sotto formally launched their tandem via social media, in a taped production in an undisclosed studio. The tandem filed their candidacies on October 6.Lacson was later sworn in as a member of the Partido para sa Demokratikong Reporma (transl.
Isko Moreno, who had returned to the political limelight after being elected as the mayor of Manila, was reportedly to take his oath as a member of Aksyon Demokratiko (transl. Democratic Action), the party founded by Senator Raul Roco. This was after he resigned from the National Unity Party. However, this did not happen as an unexpectedly large number of people turned up on vaccination sites, particularly in Manila. Moreno was subsequently elected party president a week later. He later announced his presidential bid on September 22 with Dr. Willie Ong as his running mate. They filed their certificates of candidacy (COCs) on October 4.
On September 30, 2021, 1Sambayan nominated Robredo as their standard bearer. On October 7, Robredo accepted the nomination and announced she will run for president.She later filed her certificate of candidacy on the same day as an independent. Robredo explained that she is running as an independent to show that she is open to making alliances. After Vice President Robredo announced her presidential candidacy, several sources from the Liberal Party indicated that Senator Francis Pangilinan would be her running mate for her presidential bid. Pangilinan filed his candidacy for vice president a day after Robredo.
By January 2020, Bongbong Marcos confirmed that he is running "for a national position" in 2022, although he did not specify which position. Federal Party of the Philippines) nominated Marcos to run for president. During the national convention of the Kilusang Bagong Lipunan (KBL; transl. New Society Movement) in Binangonan, the party founded by his father, he was nominated as the party's candidate for president. Marcos, who remained a member of the Nacionalista Party, thanked KBL for the nomination, but said that he will announce his plans "when the time comes." On October 5, Marcos announced his presidential candidacy. Marcos then resigned from the Nacionalistas and was sworn in at the PFP chairman. Marcos ultimately filed his presidential candidacy under the PFP on October 6.On September 21, 2021, the Partido Federal ng Pilipinas (PFP; transl.
Davao City mayor Sara Duterte, despite being a frontrunner in early opinion polls, did not file a candidacy for a national position; she instead ran for re-election in the Davao mayoral race. She earlier stated on July 9, 2021, that she is open to running for president.During the final day for the filing of candidacies, mayor Duterte did not show up; instead, Ronald dela Rosa filed his candidacy for president. dela Rosa has stated that he is open to being substituted by Duterte. Dela Rosa was running alongside Go, who earlier filed his candidacy for the vice presidency on October 2, despite calls from the PDP-Laban Cusi wing for him to run for president. At the end of the period for the filing of COCs, a total of 97 individuals manifested their intention to run for president, while 29 did so for vice president.
On November 9, Duterte withdrew from the mayoral race in Davao. On November 11, she resigned from Hugpong ng Pagbabago and subsequently joined Lakas–CMD on the same day.She filed her candidacy for the vice presidential post on November 13, 2021, substituting Lyle Fernando Uy. Partido Federal ng Pilipinas adopted Duterte as their vice presidential candidate. Dela Rosa and Go both withdrew their candidacies on the same day. A few days later, Go launched his campaign for the presidential post. Go explained that he withdrew his bid to run for vice president, to avoid complicating Sara Duterte's vice presidential campaign. President Duterte was reported to be his running mate and was to file his candidacy on November 15, but filed for senator instead.
Upon filing his candidacy on November 15 via substitution, presidential aspirant and former National Task Force to End Local Communist Armed Conflict (NTF-ELCAC) spokesperson Antonio Parlade Jr. accused fellow presidential aspirant Senator Bong Go of controlling Duterte's decisions.Defense Secretary Delfin Lorenzana dismissed Parlade's claim, calling it baseless.
On November 18, 2021, President Duterte claimed that an unnamed presidential aspirant from a well-known family was using cocaine and added that the aspirant is a "weak leader" and "not a very strong leader, except for his name, the father."The next day, presidential aspirants reacted on Duterte's statement. Leni Robredo and Leody de Guzman said that the government should file charges against the candidate allegedly using cocaine. Isko Moreno and Panfilo Lacson denied that the statement alluded to them. A report speculated that his statement was alluded to Bongbong Marcos, but Marcos's camp dismissed Duterte's claims. Lacson and Sotto, Marcos and Duterte, and Moreno and Ong all subsequently took drug tests and tested negative, while Pacquiao presented a negative drug test from the Voluntary Anti-Doping Association. Robredo, Go, and de Guzman expressed their willingness to undergo a drug test.
On November 30, 2021, Go announced his intention to withdraw his candidacy for the presidency, without any substitute.He earlier expressed his doubts about his presidential run on November 25. The COMELEC stated that Go has to personally file his statement of withdrawal. He officially withdrew on December 14.
On January 17, 2022, the commission's second division dismissed the petition cancelling Marcos's candidacy. The petitioners cited Marcos's conviction on violating the National Internal Revenue Code when he didn't file income tax returns in the early 1980s when he was governor of Ilocos Norte, which allegedly carried the punishment of perpetual disqualification from public office. The commission ruled that when the crime was committed, it didn't carry the punishment cited by the petitioners, so Marcos did not misrepresent certificate of candidacy where he stated that he was not convicted of a crime of moral turpitude.Marcos has a separate disqualification case in the first division; its release of the decision was delayed when several of its staffers tested positive for COVID-19.
On January 22, 2022, The Jessica Soho Presidential Interviews premiered on GMA. Moreno, Robredo, Lacson, and Pacquiao participated in the interview,while Marcos refused to take part; his camp stated that Soho is "biased" against him. GMA later responded to the allegation and refuted his camp's statement. In a separate interview in One PH, Marcos equated bias with being "anti-Marcos," adding that it was useless as he was not going to answer issues about his father's presidency.
On January 23, 2022, as part of its efforts against online disinformation, Twitter suspended more than 300 accounts. Rappler has alleged that the accounts were linked to Marcos, although his camp has denied the claims.
The Commission on Elections released the official list of candidates on January 25, 2022,although it was finalized nine days before. Some candidates can still be disqualified but still appear on the ballot; candidates can still be disqualified until their proclamation. This is ordered by the surname of the presidential candidate.
|Presidential candidate||Vice presidential candidate||Campaign|
|Candidate name and party||Most recent political position||Candidate name and party||Most recent political position|
| Ernesto Abella |
| Undersecretary of Foreign Affairs for Strategic Communications and Research|
| Leody de Guzman |
|No prior public office|| Walden Bello |
|House representative for Akbayan |
| Norberto Gonzales |
| Secretary of National Defense |
| Panfilo Lacson |
(Incumbent since 2016)
| Tito Sotto |
| Senate President |
(Incumbent since 2019)
| Faisal Mangondato |
|No prior public office||Carlos Serapio|
|Councilman of Catanghalan, Obando, Bulacan|
| Bongbong Marcos |
| Sara Duterte |
| Mayor of Davao City |
(Incumbent since 2016)
|Jose Montemayor Jr.|
|No prior public office||Rizalito David|
|No prior public office|
| Isko Moreno |
| Mayor of Manila |
(Incumbent since 2019)
| Willie Ong |
|No prior public office|| |
| Manny Pacquiao |
(Incumbent since 2016)
| Lito Atienza |
|House representative for Buhay |
(Incumbent since 2013)
| Leni Robredo |
| Vice President |
(Incumbent since 2016)
| Francis Pangilinan |
(Incumbent since 2016)
|none|| Manny SD Lopez |
|No prior public office|
Ernesto Abella said he was running since "ordinary people were being set aside", and that he was running as an independent since the ruling PDP–Laban did not choose him as their standard bearer.He later said that he was confident of not being declared as a nuisance candidate.
His platform is centered on three main pillars: "a fair society, a government that is felt by the people, and a strong nation." He plans to push for more public participation in government affairs. He also plans to prioritize job creation and the agricultural sector in the country.
Leody de Guzman, chairman of the Bukluran ng Manggagawang Pilipino, a progressive labor group, ran for senator in 2019 and lost. De Guzman is running for president this time under the Partido Lakas ng Masa.
According to his running mate, their vision for the country is democratic socialism. He is running on a platform based on labor and social issues. Some of his advocacies include repealing the TRAIN and CREATE taxation laws as well as the Anti-Terrorism Act of 2020, pushing for the increase of minimum wage, implementing a universal basic income, and legalizing divorce and same-sex marriage, among others.
The Laban ng Masa (transl. Struggle of the Masses) coalition launched a campaign to collect 300,000 signatures to urge activist and former party-list lawmaker Walden Bello to run for president in the 2022 elections. In a statement, Laban ng Masa said it wants to "push for an ambitious platform that focuses on the poor, prioritizes the neglected, and fights for the rights of ordinary Filipinos." Bello's group sought talks with Vice President Robredo's backers for three months but were ignored. This caused them to support Leody de Guzman's presidential candidacy, instead.
Later in October 20, Bello decided to run for the vice presidency, substituting Raquel Castillo who was supposed to be de Guzman's running mate.
Former secretary of National Defense Norberto Gonzales said that his campaign is "new and more politically mature approach to winning the nation's heart and its consent to govern."He filed his candidacy on October 6, 2021, under the Partido Demokratiko Sosyalista ng Pilipinas. His platform is focused on making significant changes in the country's government, such as making all regions of the Philippines autonomous and shifting from a presidential system to a parliamentary system.
In July 2021, Senate President Tito Sotto confirmed that Panfilo Lacson will run for president in a tandem with him.On September 8, the duo announced their candidacies for the upcoming election. He filed his candidacy under the Partido para sa Demokratikong Reporma. On 24 March 2022, Lacson resigned from Partido Reporma and became an independent candidate after the said party switched its endorsement to Robredo.
If elected, he plans to restore trust in the government,with a platform that revolves around addressing corruption. He plans to initiate an anti-corruption drive, reform the national budget, and digitalize government services.
In July 2021, Tito Sotto announced that he will be Lacson's eventual running mate in the presidential race;this was followed by an official campaign announcement on September 8, 2021.
Faisal Mangondato, who ran for senator in 2019 and lost, filed to run for president on October 4 under the Katipunan ng Kamalayang Kayumanggi.He plans to push for federalism in the Philippines, planning to make a provisional government for three years to complete the shift.
Serapio, Magondato's running mate, said that he will push for federalism in the Philippines if he wins.
On October 5, 2021, Marcos announced his presidential candidacy.Initially nominated by four parties, Marcos chose to run under the Partido Federal ng Pilipinas. He resigned from the Nacionalistas and was sworn in at the PFP chairman on the same day. Marcos ultimately filed his presidential candidacy under the PFP on October 6.
Marcos faces seven petitions against his bid.The electoral commission dismissed the petition declaring him a nuisance candidate on early December. They also dismissed another petition which claims Marcos Jr. died decades ago and an impostor took his place. The consolidated disqualification case against him was dismissed on February 10, 2022, although one of the petitioners have filed a motion for reconsideration. The last petition against his candidacy was dismissed on April 20, 2022.
His platform is centered on uniting the country,emphasizing the need for unity to recover from the pandemic. If elected, he plans to prioritize job creation, infrastructure development, modernization of the agricultural and industrial sectors, improving healthcare, and support for small and medium-sized enterprises. He also promises to continue President Duterte's policies.
On July 9, 2021, Davao City mayor Sara Duterte said that she is open to run for president. However, there was no final decision yet.On September 9, 2021, she said that she is not running for president since her father, President Duterte was running for vice president, and they agreed that only one of them will run on a national position. On November 11, she resigned from Hugpong ng Pagbabago and later joined Lakas–CMD on the same day. She filed her candidacy on November 13, 2021, substituting Lyle Fernando Uy. Partido Federal ng Pilipinas adopted Duterte as their vice presidential candidate as Bongbong Marco s's running mate. Lakas and Duterte then announced that they are supporting Marcos's presidential bid; PDP–Laban first turned down her appeal for support. Later, on March 22, PDP-Laban endorsed Marcos Jr., but President Duterte chose to remain neutral.
Cardiologist Jose Montemayor Jr. filed his candidacy on October 1, 2021, under the Democratic Party of the Philippines. He vows to eliminate COVID-19, corruption, and criminality once he becomes president.
David filed his candidacy on October 8.David was most notable for losing a quo warranto petition against Grace Poe in the 2016 election.
At the start of 2021, pollster Pulse Asia published an opinion poll showing Isko Moreno in second place for president, and statistically tied for first with President Duterte in the vice presidential race.The 1Sambayan convenors group then included Moreno as one of the people they are choosing to run for president. Moreno begged off, as he was concentrating on his mayoral duties. By June, Moreno informed them that they are declining their offer. On September, Moreno was named president of Aksyon Demokratiko, the party founded by the late Raul Roco. Moreno announced his candidacy on September 22; his running mate will be Dr. Willie Ong.
Some of Moreno proposed policies include maintaining the Duterte administration's "Build! Build! Build! Program", additional public housing, development of agriculture, tourism and creative industries, strengthening of policies in healthcare and education, maintaining peaceful international relations, and ending divisive politics in favor of an "open governance" rooted in "competence" over "connections".
Ong will be the running mate of Moreno; their ticket was officially announced on September 22, 2021.
On September 19, Pacquiao accepted the nomination of the PDP-Laban faction led by senator Koko Pimentel.On October 1, 2021, Pacquiao filed his certificate of candidacy for the presidency under PROMDI, the party founded by the late Cebu governor Lito Osmeña.
His platform is centered around the impoverished. If elected, he plans to initiate housing programs for the poor, eliminating corruption, economic development, and healthcare reform.
Buhay Party-List representative Lito Atienza was chosen by Pacquiao as his vice presidential running mate.
On September 30, 2021, the 1Sambayan coalition (the coalition of the opposition), nominated Robredo as their standard bearer.According to Armin Luistro, one of the conveyor of 1Sambayan, Robredo accepted the nomination and will file her candidacy on October 5. Robredo's spokesman clarified that she hasn't accepted a decision yet, but will make a decision on this before October 8. On October 7, Robredo accepted the nomination and announced she will run for president. She later filed her certificate of candidacy on the same day as an independent. Robredo explained that she is running as an independent to show that she is open to making alliances.
Her platform is focused on good governance and transparency.She plans to prioritize healthcare and the economy. Some of her proposals include improving the quality of education in the country, developing the country's industries, supporting small and medium-sized enterprises, providing stable employment, strengthening the country's healthcare system, and implementing more anti-corruption measures.
In June 2021, Pangilinan announced that he was seeking reelection to the Senate.After Vice President Robredo announced her presidential candidacy, several sources from the Liberal Party indicated that the senator would be her running mate for her presidential bid. Pangilinan filed his candidacy for vice president a day after Robredo.
He is promising food security to all if elected as vice president.
Manny SD Lopez said that if elected vice president, he'd prefer to head the Department of Foreign Affairs or the Department of Trade and Industry.
The Commission on Elections (COMELEC) confirmed that they will organize debates for both candidates running for president and vice-president. Unlike the debates in the 2016 elections, three presidential debates, three vice-presidential debates will be held. Candidates will be following safety protocols stated by Inter-Agency Task Force for the Management of Emerging Infectious Diseases (IATF) with no audience participation due to the risks of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.
A few weeks later, the commission said that in addition to the three debates each per position, they will hold a primary debate, as a teaser of sorts for the upcoming debates per position. They will also organize the debates themselves, a deviation from 2016 where they let the media organizations organize it.By January 2022, the commission said they might forego with the teaser debates, as the number of candidates have been reduced to a more manageable number.
The commission, under the law, cannot mandate candidates to join debates though the commission does expect candidates to attend debates that the commission themselves organize, as it presents them with massive exposure, and that it is not counted on the limits of the airtime that they are allowed to advertise on broadcast networks.
The presidential debate organized by Sonshine Media Network International (SMNI) was noted for the non attendance of several candidates. Manny Pacquiao declined to participate due to the indictment of Apollo Quiboloy, leader of the Kingdom of Jesus Christ which is affiliated with SMNI, allegedly for sex trafficking by the United States federal government. Panfilo Lacson on his part declined due to Quiboloy having already openly endorsed the candidacy of Bongbong Marcos while Leni Robredo and Isko Moreno cited scheduling conflicts and prior commitments for their non-attendance.
This comes at the heels of Marcos declining an invitation of CNN Philippines for their presidential debate, citing prior commitments.Marcos had earlier declined joining the forum organized by the Kapisanan ng mga Brodkaster ng Pilipinas (the broadcasters association) for the same reason.
SMNI also planned to hold a vice presidential debate on February 22, 2022. The debate was later cancelled to make way for a second presidential debate.Prior to its cancellation, two candidates, Sotto and Pangilinan, declined to participate.
|P Participated A Absent NI Not invited|
| Abella |
| De Guzman |
| Gonzales |
| Lacson |
| Marcos |
| Moreno |
| Pacquiao |
| Robredo |
|PiliPinas Debates 2022|
|Mar 19||COMELEC||Syndication||Sofitel Philippine Plaza Manila, Pasay||Luchi Cruz-Valdez||P||P||P||P||P||A||P||P||P||P|
|Apr 3||Ces Drilon||P||P||P||P||P||A||P||P||P||P|
|PiliPinas Forum 2022|
|May 3 – 6||COMELEC and KBP||KBP member networks||Various||Various||P||P||P||A||P||A||P||A||P||A|
|Other debates and forums|
|Feb 4||KBP||KBP member networks||TV5 Media Center, Mandaluyong||Karen Davila and Rico Hizon||NI||P||NI||P||NI||A||NI||P||P||P|
|Feb 15||SMNI||SMNI and The Manila Times||Okada Manila, Parañaque||Karen Jimeno||P||P||P||A||A||P||A||A||A||A|
|Feb 27||CNN Philippines||CNN Philippines and BusinessMirror||University of Santo Tomas, Manila||Pia Hontiveros and Pinky Webb||P||P||P||P||P||A||P||P||P||P|
|Mar 26||SMNI||SMNI and The Manila Times||Okada Manila, Parañaque||Karen Jimeno||P||P||P||A||A||P||P||A||A||A|
| Atienza |
| Bello |
| Duterte |
| Lopez |
| Ong |
| Pangilinan |
| Sotto |
|PiliPinas Debates 2022|
|Mar 20||COMELEC||Syndication||Sofitel Philippine Plaza Manila, Pasay||Ruth Cabal||A||P||P||A||P||P||P||P||P|
|PiliPinas Forum 2022|
|May 3 – 6||COMELEC and KBP||KBP member networks||Various||Various||A||P||P||A||P||A||A||P||P|
|Feb 22||SMNI||SMNI and The Manila Times||Okada Manila, Parañaque||Karen Jimeno||Cancelled|
|Feb 26||CNN Philippines||CNN Philippines and BusinessMirror||University of Santo Tomas, Manila||Ruth Cabal and Rico Hizon||A||P||P||A||P||P||P||P||P|
Opinion polling, commonly known as "surveys" in the Philippines, is conducted by Social Weather Stations (SWS), Pulse Asia, OCTA Research, and other third-party pollsters.
The tables below the latest five polls that were administered.
|MoE|| Abella |
| De Guzman |
| Gonzales |
| Lacson |
| Marcos |
| Moreno |
| Pacquiao |
| Robredo |
|Exit poll||Publicus Asia||29,024||—||—||—||3||—||58||—||6||7||25||1||—||—|
|May 2–5||Publicus Asia||1,500||±3.0%||1||2||1||4||—||54||—||8||2||22||0||6 / 0||—|
|Apr 22–25||OCTA||2,400||±2%||—||0.2||0.2||2||1||58||—||8||5||25||—||0.1 / 0.04||0.3|
|Apr 19–21||Publicus Asia||1,500||±3.0%||1||2||0||4||—||57||—||6||2||21||0||6 / 0||—|
|Apr 16–21||Pulse Asia||2,400||±2.0%||1||0.3||0.1||2||1||56||0.1||4||7||23||—||— / 1||5|
|Apr 14–20||Laylo||3,000||±2.0%||—||—||—||2||—||64||—||5||5||21||0.4||3 / —||—|
|MoE|| Atienza |
| Bello |
| Duterte |
| Lopez |
| Ong |
| Pangilinan |
| Sotto |
|Exit poll||Publicus Asia||29,024||—||—||—||67||—||4||16||—||11||2||—||—|
|May 2–5||Publicus Asia||1,500||±3.0%||1||1||—||59||—||9||16||—||9||0||4 / 1||—|
|Apr 22–25||OCTA||2,400||±2.0%||1||0.03||—||56||0.1||4||16||0.001||22||—||0.5 / 0.7||0.1|
|Apr 19–21||Publicus Asia||1,500||±3.0%||1||1||—||59||—||8||15||—||9||—||6 / 1||—|
|Apr 16–21||Pulse Asia||2,400||±2.0%||0.5||0.4||0.1||55||1||3||16||0.3||18||—||— / 1||5|
|Apr 14–20||Laylo||3,000||±2.0%||1||—||—||62||—||4||12||—||18||0.4||3 / —||—|
Candidates began their campaign-related activities such as motorcades, gatherings and caravans as early as late 2021, even before the mandated start of the campaign period by the COMELEC.
|Original Tagalog||English translation|
|Abella||Johnwin Dionisio||"Bagong Pilipino, Bagong Pilipinas"||"New Filipinos, New Philippines"|
|de Guzman/Bello||Red||Sonny Melencio||"Manggagawa Naman!"||"Workers' turn!"||Details|
|Gonzales||Blue and red||"Puso, Giting at Dangal ng Pilipino"||"Heart, Courage and Honor of the Filipino"|
|Lacson/Sotto||Blue||Ronaldo Puno||"Aayusin ang Gobyerno, Aayusin ang Buhay Mo"||"[We'll] fix the government, fix your life"||Details|
|Marcos/Duterte||Red and green||Benjamin Abalos Jr.||"Sama-sama tayong babangon muli."||"Together, we shall rise again."||Details|
|Montemayor/David||"Sa gabay ng Diyos, ang Bansa ay aayos"||"With God's guidance, the nation will be orderly."|
|Moreno/Ong||White and blue||Lito Banayo||"Tunay Na Solusyon, Mabilis Umaksyon!"||"Real solution, quick to take action!"||Details|
|Pacquiao/Atienza||Blue||Salvador Zamora II||"Panalo ang Mahirap, Panalo ang Pilipino!"||"The poor win, the Filipino wins!"||Details|
|Robredo/Pangilinan||Pink and green||Bam Aquino||"Gobyernong Tapat, Angat Buhay Lahat"||"[With an] honest government, a better life for all"||Details|
The election was held amidst the COVID-19 pandemic, which has severely damaged the country's economy and halted daily activities.According to Finance secretary Carlos Dominguez III, the succeeding administration will face four main issues: debt management, inflation caused by global shortages, pandemic-induced inequalities, and climate change. Other key issues include the continuation of President Rodrigo Duterte's policies and the country's relationship with both China and the United States.
Former senator Bongbong Marcos, despite not being endorsed and even having been criticized by the president,promises broad continuity of his policies, vowing to promote foreign investment and continue infrastructure development alongside some of Duterte's programs, including the Build! Build! Build! program. He has placed his platform mainly on ushering unity among Filipinos. Being the son and namesake of former president Ferdinand Marcos, Marcos's candidacy faces stiff opposition from various groups due to his father's regime's human rights abuses and widespread corruption during his tenure.
Incumbent vice president Leni Robredo is considered to be Marcos's rival,having won by a narrow margin against him in the 2016 vice presidential election. Robredo, a critic of Duterte's policies, is offering a platform based on good governance and transparency. She is leaning on her experience as a human rights lawyer and development worker.
Meanwhile, Manila mayor Isko Moreno has positioned himself as a centrist alternative to both Marcos and Robredo,promising to make an "inclusive and open government" including many viewpoints. He is leaning on his experience as mayor, vowing to duplicate in the country what he has done in Manila. Senator Manny Pacquiao is running on an anti-corruption platform and positioning himself as the candidate of the masses, pledging to initiate programs for the poor if he is elected.
Senator Panfilo Lacson, who is banking on his long tenure as a government official, is campaigning based on a law and order platform similar to Duterte's in 2016;his messaging is centered around restoring trust in the government.
Presidential tickets held their proclamation rallies on February 8, 2022, the start of the campaign period for national positions.Prior to that, the ticket of Faisal Mangondato and Carlos Serapio had their prayer proclamation during the prior weekend in Baguio. The Marcos and Duterte tandem started their campaign at the Philippine Arena in Bulacan. Robredo and Pangilinan held their rally in Plaza Quezon, Naga, Robredo's hometown, on February 8.
Isko Moreno and Willie Ong kicked off their campaign at the Kartilya ng Katipunan just outside Manila City Hall. The Lacson and Sotto tandem held their proclamation rally at the Imus Grandstand in Imus, Cavite, Lacson's hometown. Pacquiao and Atienza commenced their campaign at the Oval Plaza in General Santos, where Pacquiao grew up. The de Guzman and Bello tandem launched their campaign at the Bantayog ng mga Bayani in Quezon City.
Ernesto Abella had his proclamation rally in Dasmariñas, Cavite,while the Montemayor and David ticket started their campaign in Pasay. President Duterte, on his Talk to the People TV show, notably did not endorse a candidate going into the campaign period, saying that "at this time, I am saying that I am not supporting anybody."
While most tickets had their proclamation rallies in the respective hometowns of the presidential candidate, the Marcos campaign explained that they chose the Philippine Arena so as to seat their thousands of supporters, of which 25,000 tickets were made available.Meanwhile, Lito Atienza failed to make it to General Santos as he suffered an injury prior to the event. Prior to their rally, the Partido Lakas ng Masa failed to secure a permit from the Commission on Elections to hold it at the Bantayog ng mga Bayani. De Guzman said that there were missing documentation that caused them not to be given one. A rally without a permit is grounds for disqualifying a candidate.
Aside from the listed presidential tickets, other tandems have been pushed. Representative Joey Salceda has pushed for a "Leni–Sara" (ROSA) tandem, him endorsing Robredo in their campaign in Albay, while endorsing Duterte the next day.In Mindanao, an "Isko–Sara" (ISSA) tandem was promoted when Moreno had a campaign rally in there, where his running mate Willie Ong skipped. The Moreno campaign defended Ong's absence, saying that the ISSA tarpaulins would have brought him into an awkward situation.
By mid-March, the Bureau of Internal Revenue (BIR) confirmed reports that Aksyon Demokratiko, Moreno's political party, asked if they had demanded the estate of Ferdinand Marcos, Bongbong's father and former president, to pay the ₱203 billion-peso (US$3.8 billion) tax liabilities.Marcos's camp had earlier said that the case is under litigation, with the younger Marcos himself stating that "There's a lot of fake news involved there." The Presidential Commission on Good Government, the agency tasked with recovering the ill-gotten wealth of the Marcoses, denied that the case in under litigation, saying that the judgment was "as early as 1997, the judgment on the tax case had become final and executory." In the first PiliPinas Debates 2022 , Moreno, Robredo, Lacson and de Guzman called on the heirs of the elder Marcos, including the younger Marcos who did not attend the debate, to pay the estate and income taxes owed to the state.
On March 24, 2022, amid reports of Partido Reporma and its key officials rescinding their endorsement of Lacson and endorsing another candidate, Lacson resigned as Partido Reporma chairman.He will no longer be the party's standard bearer, thus making him an independent candidate, although Reporma will still be his party in the ballots and will be used to determine the dominant party if he wins. The party's president, Pantaleon Alvarez, later announced that they will be endorsing Robredo for president. Sotto remains as Reporma's vice presidential candidate.
Sources inside the party stated that Lacson already knew about the switch weeks prior, but was permitted to resign as a way to save face.Lacson later claimed that Alvarez' withdrawal of support stemmed from his inability to provide ₱800 million in additional funding for Reporma's local candidates, which Alvarez denies. Some Reporma officials, including founder and chairman emeritus, Renato de Villa, have maintained their support for Lacson.
On March 31, Lito Atienza, who has not been able to campaign after figuring in an accident, said that he was seriously considering withdrawing to push for Pacquiao–Sotto tandem to defeat the Marcos–Duterte ticket. To this end, he urged Panfilo Lacson to withdraw so that he will withdraw too.Lacson rebuffed the offer, saying that Atienza should learn some manners. Atienza said he felt insulted by Lacson's reply to his suggestion. A week later, Atienza publicly apologized to Lacson, saying he did not expect Lacson's reaction to his suggestion to be that way. Lacson then accepted Atienza's apology.
On April 9, Lacson revealed that the camp of vice president Robredo had asked him to withdraw in favor of a Robredo–Sotto tandem.He also claimed that Moreno and Pacquiao were given similar offers to withdraw in favor of Robredo. He later revealed the person who had asked him to withdraw was former Quezon City mayor Jun Simon. Robredo's camp denied the claims, stating that no moves were made by their camp and that Simon was unauthorized to represent her campaign.
On April 16, three presidential candidates, Gonzales, Lacson, and Moreno, held a press conference affirming that they will not withdraw their candidacies despite several calls for them to back down in favor of another candidate.The three candidates, as well as Pacquiao, also signed a joint statement declaring their intention to continue their candidacies. According to Lacson, they held the press conference to remind voters that the election was not a two-way race between Marcos and Robredo. They criticized an unnamed group for allegedly offering money in exchange for their withdrawal and for stripping them of their support groups, although Moreno mentioned the "pink" and "yellow" as perpetrators, both of which are associated with Robredo.
Moreno chastised Robredo for breaking her promise not to run and called her untrustworthy after purportedly "fooling" them during unification talks.Lacson also questioned Robredo's character after some of her campaign staff were allegedly amenable to dropping her running mate, Pangilinan, in exchange for more votes in some provinces. Moreno later called for her to withdraw instead, asserting that Robredo only ran to defeat Marcos, not for the country. Robredo's camp later released a statement questioning the purpose of the press conference, calling the event unnecessary "theatrics," and rejected Moreno's call for her to withdraw from the race. The camp asked, "Who benefits from such theatrics?", adding they were thankful "that the alignments have been made even clearer."
DPP's Rizalito David, who had earlier endorsed his rival vice presidential candidate Sotto for that position, endorsed in COMELEC's PiliPinas Forum 2022 , in front of his presidential running mate Jose Montemayor Jr., Robredo for president, calling frontrunners Marcos and Duterte as "clear and present danger" to the country. David did not withdraw from the election.
The "miting de avance" is the final political rally of the candidates, usually held on the last day of the campaign period or two days before election day. Some candidates have opted to hold multiple mitings de avance.
Marcos's miting de avance was held in Bay City in Pasay on May 7.Prior to that, he held two mitings de avance, one in Guimbal, Iloilo on May 3, and another on May 5 in Tagum, Davao del Norte. In total, the Marcos campaign held three mitings de avance, one for each island group of the country. Meanwhile, Robredo capped her campaign at her miting de avance in Ayala Triangle in Makati on May 7, preceded by a miting de avance at Magsaysay Avenue in Naga on May 6.
Moreno held his miting de avance in Tondo, Manila.Pacquiao held two mitings de avance, one in Cebu City on May 6 and another in General Santos on May 7. The Lacson campaign held their miting de avance in Carmona, Cavite on May 6. They originally planned to hold a miting de avance in Plaza Miranda on May 7, but cancelled it due to time constraints. De Guzman held his miting de avance on May 4 at the Quezon Memorial Circle in Quezon City.
Starting in 2010 with automated elections, preliminary results have been known overnight. However, official results will be canvassed by the Congress of the Philippines in late May. They are also required to declare a winner 30 days after the election, pursuant to the constitution.
Bongbong Marcos was elected President and Sara Duterte was elected Vice President.
Marcos is set to win the largest majority of the Fifth Republic, and the largest majority since 1981 (surpassing his father's 18,309,360 votes); as the opposition boycotted that election, it is the largest majority since 1969 for a competitive election. His vote count is not only the largest ever recorded in a presidential election, but close to the sum total of the two previous records combined.
Marcos won in most of Luzon, including the Solid North except for Batanes, and most of the Lingayen–Lucena corridor except for Quezon, and in the Bicol Region; he also won in Central Visayas, Leyte island, Aklan, Bacolod and Samar in the Visayas, and most of Mindanao except Lanao del Sur and Sarangani.
Robredo won in her home region of Bicol, and in neighboring Quezon, in Batanes, and in Western Visayas except Aklan and Bacolod, and in Northern and Eastern Samar.
Pacquiao won in his adopted home province of Sarangani, while Mangondato won in his home province of Lanao del Sur. No other candidates won a province or city canvassed by Congress.
|Bongbong Marcos||Partido Federal ng Pilipinas||31,463,887||59.08|
|Isko Moreno||Aksyon Demokratiko||1,901,217||3.57|
|Faisal Mangondato||Katipunan ng Kamalayang Kayumanggi||120,142||0.23|
|Leody de Guzman||Partido Lakas ng Masa||92,530||0.17|
|Norberto Gonzales||Partido Demokratiko Sosyalista ng Pilipinas||89,493||0.17|
|Jose Montemayor Jr.||Democratic Party of the Philippines||60,365||0.11|
Just like her running mate, Duterte is set to win the largest majority of the Fifth Republic, and the largest majority since 1969. Duterte also got the most votes by a Filipino for any office in a single-winner election in history.
Duterte won throughout the country except in Guimaras, Iloilo and Iloilo City, and in the Bicol provinces of Albay, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur and Catanduanes, where Robredo's running mate Francis Pangilinan won, and in Sorsogon where Tito Sotto won. Duterte won in all areas in Mindanao canvassed by Congress.
|Francis Pangilinan||Liberal Party||9,277,162||17.91|
|Tito Sotto||Nationalist People's Coalition||8,233,916||15.89|
|Willie Ong||Aksyon Demokratiko||1,850,029||3.57|
|Manny SD Lopez||Labor Party Philippines||158,669||0.31|
|Walden Bello||Partido Lakas ng Masa||100,009||0.19|
|Carlos Serapio||Katipunan ng Kamalayang Kayumanggi||89,352||0.17|
|Rizalito David||Democratic Party of the Philippines||55,850||0.11|
|Percentage of the vote won by each candidate per province and city.||Municipal level breakdown|
|Vice Presidential Candidates|
|Bongbong Marcos||Partido Federal ng Pilipinas||31,104,175|
|Faisal Mangondato||Katipunan ng Kamalayang Kayumanggi||259,576|
|Leody de Guzman||Partido Lakas ng Masa||92,070|
|Norberto Gonzales||Partido Demokratiko Sosyalista ng Pilipinas||89,097|
|Jose Montemayor Jr.||Democratic Party of the Philippines||59,944|
|Clustered precincts reporting||106,008 out of 107,785|
|As of May 13, 2022, 2:47 PM Philippine Standard Time|
|Francis Pangilinan||Liberal Party||9,232,883|
|Tito Sotto||Nationalist People's Coalition||8,183,184|
|Manny SD Lopez||Labor Party Philippines||157,877|
|Walden Bello||Partido Lakas ng Masa||99,740|
|Carlos Serapio||Katipunan ng Kamalayang Kayumanggi||89,920|
|Rizalito David||Democratic Party of the Philippines||55,478|
|Clustered precincts reporting||106,008 out of 107,785|
|As of May 13, 2022, 2:47 PM Philippine Standard Time|
Despite calls to extend voting hours due to technical difficulties with the vote-counting machines (VCMs), the COMELEC closed voting at 7:00 pm, although they allowed those within 30 meters of the polling precinct by that time to cast their votes.
Transmission of election returns (ERs) began shortly after closing. Within four hours, about 80,000 ERs were transmitted to the commission, an improvement from 2016 and 2019 where it took ten and eleven hours respectively.The COMELEC attributed the speed to improvements in the facilities, the training of workers and technicians, and the services by telecommunication companies.
At around 11 pm, three hours after initial results of the elections were released, Marcos made a short speech thanking his supporters for voting for him. Despite leading in the preliminary results, he acknowledged that the counting was not yet over. He also urged his supporters to be vigilant and watch their votes.Shortly after 3:00 am, Robredo issued a statement to thank her supporters, and called their campaign "historic" for being led by volunteers. She reiterated that she will not back down, noting that not all votes have been counted yet and that other issues have yet to be resolved, but called on her supporters to listen to the voice of the electorate.
Isko Moreno conceded to Marcos the day after the elections. He urged his supporters to support Marcos.Pacquiao conceded to Marcos and bid him well wishes. Willie Ong also conceded to Duterte, wishing both her and Marcos success. Faisal Mangondato and Carlos Serapio also conceded, via a statement released by their political party, saying that Marcos and Duterte "obtained the People’s Mandate." Manny SD Lopez conceded to Duterte, saying "Whatever the Filipino electorates considered in their choice of candidates, we have to respect, for this is the essence of democracy." Independent candidate Ernesto Abella also conceded several days after the election, saying he respected the results and acknowledging Marcos as the next president.
Lacson, while he did not concede, said that he is retiring to his home in Cavite. His running mate, Tito Sotto, conceded the vice presidency in a separate statement, and wished the incoming administration, without naming names, "good luck."In a thanksgiving event in Ateneo de Manila University, Robredo and Pangilinan urged their supporters to accept the results of the election, while not explicitly conceding.
Leody de Guzman, while citing irregularties on election day, conceded;his running mate, Walden Bello, slammed Marcos, saying the country may face "six years of instability" and that a large part of the country will "refuse to grant legitimacy and credibility to the rule of a family of thieves".
On May 10, several militant groups protested in front of the COMELEC main office at the Palacio del Gobernador in Intramuros. 'Marcos, Bandit'), a chant popularized during the 1980s. Meanwhile, the Office of the Student Regent of the University of the Philippines called on their students to walk out, announcing that there will be "no classes under a Marcos presidency."They alleged massive electoral fraud, citing reports of 1,800 defective or malfunctioning VCMs, the voters being asked to leave their ballots at the precinct for mass feeding after some VCMs broke down, and the fast transmission of results. Protesters were reportedly chanting "Marcos, Magnanakaw" (lit.
The electoral commission has denied and debunked claims of electoral fraud.Election watchdog Legal Network for Truthful Elections (LENTE) disputed claims that the speedy transmission of ERs was suspicious, while the COMELEC stated that leaving ballots behind if VCMs malfunction is part of the protocol to avoid voter disenfranchisement. The Parish Pastoral Council for Responsible Voting (PPCRV) has found no irregularities in the partial and unofficial count. Meanwhile, the PPCRV and other statisticians dismissed claims of a programmed consistent percentage gap between Marcos and Robredo, after a viral post in social media claimed the consistency was evidence for fraud.
Marcos was congratulated by diplomats from several countries after initial results showing his victory were released. Chinese ambassador to Manila Huang Xilian paid the president-elect a courtesy visit on May 12, saying China was looking forward “to bring the two countries Relationship of Comprehensive Strategic Cooperation to new heights.”.United States Secretary of State Antony Blinken welcomed Marcos's election, stating that the United States looks forward to working with him to "strengthen the enduring alliance between the United States and the Philippines." Meanwhile, other countries such as Japan expressed their willingness to work with the incoming administration.
U.S. president Joe Biden later called Marcos to congratulate him. Biden said he was looking forward to working with Marcos to strengthen Philippines–United States relations and expand cooperation on key issues.However, White House coordinator for the Indo-Pacific Kurt Campbell said there were “historical considerations” that could pose challenges.
On May 19, Marcos said that he had held “very substantial” talks with Chinese President Xi Jinping, who had expressed support for his independent foreign policy. He said that ties with China would expand and “shift to a higher gear”, promising to upgrade relations in “not only diplomatic, not only trade, but also in culture, even in education, even in knowledge, even in health, to address whatever minor disagreements that we have right now”.
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