|Mayor of Manila|
Seal of the City of Manila
|Style|| The Honourable |
|Appointer||Elected via popular vote|
|Term length||3 years, not eligible for re-election immediately after three consecutive terms|
|Inaugural holder||Arsenio Cruz-Herrera|
|Website||Office of the Mayor of Manila|
The Mayor of Manila (Filipino : Punong Lungsod ng Maynila) is the head of the executive branch of the Manila's government. The mayor holds office at Manila City Hall. Like all local government heads in the Philippines, the mayor is elected via popular vote, and may not be elected for a fourth consecutive term (although the former mayor may return to office after an interval of one term). In case of death, resignation or incapacity, the vice mayor becomes the mayor.
Filipino is the national language of the Philippines. Filipino is also designated, along with English, as an official language of the country. It is a standardized variety of the Tagalog language, an Austronesian regional language that is widely spoken in the Philippines. As of 2007, Tagalog is the first language of 28 million people, or about one-third of the Philippine population, while 45 million speak Tagalog as their second language. Tagalog is among the 185 languages of the Philippines identified in the Ethnologue. Officially, Filipino is defined by the Commission on the Filipino Language as "the native dialect, spoken and written, in Metro Manila, the National Capital Region, and in other urban centers of the archipelago."
Manila, officially the City of Manila, is the capital of the Philippines. It is the most densely populated city proper in the world. It was the first chartered city by virtue of the Philippine Commission Act 183 on July 31, 1901 and gained autonomy with the passage of Republic Act No. 409 or the "Revised Charter of the City of Manila" on June 18, 1949. Manila, alongside Mexico and Madrid are considered the world's original set of Global Cities due to Manila's commercial networks being the first to traverse the Pacific Ocean, thus connecting Spanish Asia with the Spanish Americas, marking the first time in world history when an uninterrupted chain of trade routes circled the planet. Manila has been damaged by and rebuilt from wars more times than the famed city of Troy and it is also the second most natural disaster afflicted capital city in the world next to Tokyo yet it is simultaneously among the most populous and most wealthy cities in Southeast Asia.
The Manila City Hall is the official seat of government of the City of Manila, located in the historic center of Ermita, Manila. It is where the Mayor of Manila holds office and the chambers of the Manila City Council. It was originally intended to be a part of a national government center envisioned by Daniel Burnham in the 1930s. Although the dream plan was not fully implemented, some buildings for the proposed government center was constructed, including the Old Legislative Building, and the Agriculture and Finance Buildings.
Prior to the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi, Manila was a Muslim chiefdom headed by datus. From the defeat of Rajah Sulayman's forces in 1595 to the passage of the Maura Law in 1895, the chief executive of the city was appointed by the Spanish government to a person of Spanish descent. The highest position a Filipino was able to hold was the cabeza de barangay. With the passage of the Maura Law, the office of capitan municipal was established, with the people electing their own town heads, although the Spanish retained considerable influence and can veto decisions.
Miguel López de Legazpi, also known as El Adelantado and El Viejo, was a Spanish navigator and governor who established the first Spanish settlement in the East Indies when his expedition crossed the Pacific Ocean from the Viceroyalty of New Spain in modern-day Mexico, arrived in Cebu of the Philippine Islands, 1565. He was the first Governor-General of the Spanish East Indies which included the Philippines and other Pacific archipelagos, namely Guam and the Marianas Islands. After obtaining peace with various indigenous nations and kingdoms, he made Cebu the capital of the Spanish East Indies in 1565 and later transferred to Manila in 1571. The capital city of the province of Albay bears his name.
Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God, and that Muhammad is the messenger of God. It is the world's second-largest religion with over 1.8 billion followers or 24% of the world's population, most commonly known as Muslims. Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries. Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful, and unique, and has guided humankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs. The primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, and the teachings and normative examples of Muhammad.
Datu is a title which denotes the rulers of numerous indigenous peoples throughout the Philippine archipelago. The title is still used today, especially in Mindanao, Sulu and Palawan, but it was used much more extensively in early Philippine history, particularly in the regions of Central and Southern Luzon, the Visayas and Mindanao.
With the eruption of the Philippine Revolution and the Philippine–American War, the position reverted to an appointive head. With the advent of World War II, President Manuel L. Quezon appointed Jorge B. Vargas as mayor of the City of Greater Manila (forerunner of Metro Manila) in 1941. With the liberation of Manila in 1945 by combined Filipino and American soldiers under the United States Army and the Philippine Commonwealth Army including local recognized guerrillas against the Japanese Imperial forces, the earlier setup was used once again.
The Philippine Revolution, also called the Tagalog War by the Spanish, was a revolution and subsequent conflict fought between the people and insurgents of the Philippines and the Kingdom of Spain - including its Spanish Empire and Spanish colonial authorities in the Spanish East Indies.
The Philippine–American War, also referred to as the Filipino–American War, the Philippine War, the Philippine Insurrection or the Tagalog Insurgency, was an armed conflict between the First Philippine Republic and the United States that lasted from February 4, 1899, to July 2, 1902. While Filipino nationalists viewed the conflict as a continuation of the struggle for independence that began in 1896 with the Philippine Revolution, the U.S. government regarded it as an insurrection. The conflict arose when the First Philippine Republic objected to the terms of the Treaty of Paris under which the United States took possession of the Philippines from Spain, ending the short Spanish–American War.
World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.
With the amendment of the city's charter in 1951, the position became an elective post. The first mayoral election was in 1951, and Manila's congressman from the 2nd district Arsenio Lacson defeated incumbent Manuel de la Fuente. A few years after the declaration of martial law by President Ferdinand Marcos, Manila and nearby cities like Quezon City, Caloocan, Pasay and Makati, were overshadowed by the office of the governor of the newly created Metro Manila, whom Marcos appointed his wife, Imelda Marcos, to the position.
The Legislative Districts of Manila are the representations of the city of Manila in the various national legislatures of the Philippines. The city is currently represented in the lower house of the Congress of the Philippines through its first, second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth districts.
Arsenio H. Lacson was a Filipino journalist and politician who gained widespread attention as Mayor of Manila from 1952 to 1962. An active executive likened by Time and The New York Times to New York's Fiorello La Guardia, he was the first Manila mayor to be reelected to three terms. Nicknamed "Arsenic" and described as "a good man with a bad mouth", Lacson's fiery temperament became a trademark of his political and broadcasting career. He died suddenly from a stroke amidst talk that he was planning to run in the 1965 presidential election.
Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos Sr. was a Filipino politician and kleptocrat who was the tenth President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986. A leading member of the far-right New Society Movement, he ruled as a dictator under martial law from 1972 until 1981. His regime was infamous for its corruption, extravagance, and brutality.
With Arsenio Lacson becoming the first elected Mayor, the City of Manila underwent The Golden Age, [ citation needed ]. After Mayor Lacson's term in the fifties, the city was led by Mayor Antonio Villegas during most of the 60's, and Mayor Ramon Bagatsing for nearly the entire decade of the 70's until the 1986 Edsa revolution.was revitalized, and once again became the "Pearl of the Orient", a moniker it earned before the outbreak of the war
Antonio de Jesus Villegas was a Filipino Mayor of Manila from 1962 to 1971. His term was after the term of Arsenio Lacson as Mayor of Manila, and before the period of martial law in the Philippines.
Ramón Delaraga Bagatsing was the longest-serving Mayor of Manila. He is the only Indian Filipino and person with disability to serve as Mayor of the City of Manila from 1971 to 1986. Bagatsing also holds the unique distinction of being the only person to survive both the Bataan Death March and the military hero for the Liberation of Manila during the Second World War and the Plaza Miranda bombing in 1971.
Mayors Lacson, Villegas, and Bagatsing are often collectively considered as "the Big Three of Manila" for their rather long tenures as the City Hall's chief executive (continuously for over three decades, from 1952 - 1986), but more importantly, for their indelible contribution to the development and progress of the City and their lasting legacy in uplifting the quality of life and welfare of the people of Manila.
With the ouster of Marcos during the People Power Revolution, President Corazon Aquino vacated all local executive officials and appointed officers in charge (OIC) in their place; she appointed party-mate Mel Lopez as OIC of Manila. Local elections were held in 1988, and Lopez was elected as mayor. The Local Government Code was enacted in 1991, and standardized the powers of Manila's mayor making it at par with other cities in the country.
The People Power Revolution was a series of popular demonstrations in the Philippines, mostly in the capital city of Manila from February 22–25, 1986. There was a sustained campaign of civil resistance against regime violence and alleged electoral fraud. The nonviolent revolution led to the departure of dictator Ferdinand Marcos, the end of his 21-year presidential rule, and the restoration of democracy in the Philippines.
María Corazón "Cory" Cojuangco Aquino was a Filipino politician who served as the 11th President of the Philippines, becoming the first woman to hold that office. The first female president in the Philippines, Aquino was the most prominent figure of the 1986 People Power Revolution, which ended the 21-year rule of President Ferdinand Marcos. She was named Time magazine's Woman of the Year in 1986. Prior to this, she had not held any elective office.
Gemiliano "Mel" Campos López, Jr. was a Filipino politician who served as the Mayor of Manila from 1986 to 1987 and 1988 to 1992 and an assemblyman of the Batasang Pambansa of the Philippines from 1984 to 1986. He was also a former chairman of the Philippine Sports Commission.
The office of the mayor is often used as a springboard for further political ambitions. In 1961, Lacson bolted the Nacionalista Party to become the campaign manager of the Liberal Party's Diosdado Macapagal's presidential campaign. After Macapagal's victory, Lacson returned with the Nacionalistas and became a critic of the Macapagal administration. Lacson would've been likely the Nacionalista's candidate for the presidency in 1965, had not death intervened in 1962.In 1998, the sitting mayor of Manila, Alfredo Lim, did run as the Liberal Party's candidate for the presidency, but was beaten by Joseph Estrada, finishing fifth in a field of ten candidates, garnering 9% of the vote.
The longest-serving mayor of the City of Manila is Mayor Ramon Bagatsing, who continuously served as the city's chief executive from 1971 until 1986. His tenure could have been longer if his term was not disrupted by the forced resignation of all local government unit heads and the appointment of officers in charge in their place after the 1986 revolution, to which Bagatsing fully supported and complied with, voluntarily handing over his position to the officer in charge Mel Lopez.
|#||Name||Image||Term start||Term end||Full name|
|Arsenio Cruz Herrera||Arsenio Cruz Herrera|
|Félix M. Róxas||Félix M. Fernández Róxas|
|Justo R. Lukban||Justo Rilles Lukban|
|Ramón J. Fernández||Ramón J. de Castro Fernández|
|Eulogio Rodríguez, Sr.||Eulogio Adona Rodríguez, Sr.|
|Miguel Romuáldez||Miguel López Romuáldez|
|Tomás Earnshaw||Tomás Noguera Earnshaw|
|Juan Posadas, Jr.||Juan Pablo Posadas, Jr.|
|Eulogio Rodríguez, Sr.||Eulogio Adona Rodríguez, Sr.|
|Juan Nolasco||Juan Gómez Nolasco|
|Jorge B. Vargas||Jorge Bartolome Vargas|
|Leon Guinto, Sr.||Leon Gawaran Guinto, Sr.|
|Juan G. Nolasco||Juan Gómez Nolasco|
|Valeriano E. Fugoso, Sr.||Valeriano Estrella Fugoso, Sr.|
|Manuel dela Fuente|
|Arsenio H. Lacson, Sr.||Arsenio Hizon Lacson|
|Antonio Villegas||Antonio de Jesús Villegas|
|Ramón D. Bagatsing, Sr.||Ramón Delaraga Bagatsing, Sr.|
|Gemiliano C. López, Jr.||Gemiliano Campos López, Jr.|
|Alfredo S. Lim||Alfredo Siojo Lim|
|José L. Atienza, Jr.||José Livioko Atienza, Jr.|
|Alfredo S. Lim||Alfredo Siojo Lim|
|Joseph E. Estrada||José Marcelo Ejército|
The Vice Mayor is the second-highest official of the city. The vice mayor is elected via popular vote; although most mayoral candidates have running mates, the vice mayor is elected separately from the mayor. This can result in the mayor and the vice mayor coming from different political parties.
The Vice Mayor is the presiding officer of the Manila City Council, although he can only vote as the tiebreaker. When a mayor is removed from office, the vice mayor becomes the mayor until the scheduled next election.
|Ramón J. Fernández||1||August 7, 1901 - August 7, 1912||Ramón J. de Castro. Fernández|
|Pablo Ocampo||2||August 8, 1912 - March 6, 1920||Pablo De Leon. Ocampo|
|Juan Posadas, Jr.||3||March 7, 1920 - February 8, 1924||Juan Pablo Posadas Jr.|
|Honorio Lopez||4||February 9, 1924 - December 31, 1933|
|Jorge B. Vargas||5||January 1, 1934 - January 4, 1940||Jorge Bartolome Vargas|
|Hermenegildo Atienza||6||January 5, 1940 - July 17, 1944|
|Joaquin R. Roces||7||July 18, 1944 - December 31, 1951||Joaquin Reyes Roces|
|Jesus M. R. Roces||8||January 1, 1952 - December 30, 1959||Jesus Reyes Roces|
|Antonio J. Villegas||9||December 30, 1959 - April 15, 1962||Antonio de Jesus. Villegas|
|Herminio A. Astorga||10||April 16, 1962 - December 31, 1967||Herminio Aldaba Astorga|
|Felicisimo Cabigao||11||January 1, 1968 - December 31, 1970|
|Gemiliano C. Lopez, Jr.||12||January 1, 1971 - December 31, 1971||Gemiliano Campos López, Jr.|
|Martin B. Isidro, Sr.||13||January 1, 1972 - December 31, 1975||Martin Buenaventura Isidro, Sr.|
|James Barbers||14||January 1, 1976 - March 26, 1986||James Zabala Barbers|
|Bambi M. Ocampo||15||March 26, 1986 - April 27, 1987||Bambi Malabanan. Ocampo|
|Ernesto A. Nieva||16*||April 28, 1987 - February 2, 1988||Ernesto Acheco Nieva|
|Danilo B. Lacuna, Sr.||17**||February 3, 1988 - January 31, 1992||Danilo Bautista Lacuna, Sr.|
|Ernesto V.P. Maceda, Jr.||18||February 1, 1992 - June 30, 1992||Ernesto Vera Perez Maceda, Jr.|
|José L. Atienza, Jr.||19||June 30, 1992 - March 27, 1998||José Livioko Atienza, Jr.|
|Ernesto A. Nieva||20*||March 27, 1998 - May 19, 1998||Ernesto Acheco Nieva|
|Hilario C. Silva||21||May 20, 1998 - June 30, 1998||Hilario Cuenca Silva|
|Danilo B. Lacuna, Sr.||22**||June 30, 1998 - June 30, 2007||Danilo Bautista Lacuna, Sr.|
|Isko Moreno Domagoso||23||June 30, 2007 - June 30, 2016||Francisco Moreno Domagoso|
|Ma. Sheilah H. Lacuna-Pangan||24||June 30, 2016 – Present||Ma. Sheilah Honrado Lacuna|
Elections are administered by an independent Commission on Elections every three years starting 1992. Held every second Monday of May, the winners in the elections take office on the following June 30.
Sergio Osmeña Sr., PLH, was a Filipino politician who served as the fourth President of the Philippines from 1944 to 1946. He was Vice President under Manuel L. Quezon. Upon Quezon's sudden death in 1944, Osmeña succeeded him, at age 65, becoming the oldest holder of the office. A founder of the Nacionalista Party, Osmeña was also the first Visayan to become president.
Diosdado Pangan Macapagal was the ninth President of the Philippines, serving from 1961 to 1965, and the sixth Vice-President, serving from 1957 to 1961. He also served as a member of the House of Representatives, and headed the Constitutional Convention of 1970. He is the father of Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, who was the 14th President of the Philippines from 2001 to 2010.
The Liberal Party of the Philippines or LP is a liberal political party in the Philippines, founded by then senators Senate President Manuel Roxas, Senate President Pro-Tempore Elpidio Quirino, and former 9th Senatorial District Senator José Avelino, on January 19, 1946 by a breakaway Liberal wing from the old Nacionalista Party. It was the ruling party from 2010 to 2016 after the election victory of Benigno Aquino III as the President of the Philippines. Today, the Liberals are the opposition and maintain at least five seats in the Senate, and at least 41 of seats in the House of Representatives. Around 50% of governors, 50% of vice governors, and 33% of board members are also Liberals.
The People's Reform Party is a centre-left political party in the Philippines. Founded on April 12, 1991 as the political party of former Agrarian Reform Secretary Miriam Defensor Santiago for her bid as President in the 1992 Presidential Elections. During the 1992 Elections, the party nominated Santiago as President and Ramon Magsaysay, Jr. as Vice President, however both Santiago and Magsaysay lost the elections to former Defense Secretary Fidel Ramos and tehen-Senator Joseph Estrada, respectively. While under the same Miriam Defensor Santiago wing, the Youth Reform Movement Philippines is not related to PRP.
The Vice President of the Philippines is the second-highest executive official of the government of the Philippines, after the President. The Vice President currently holds office at the Quezon City Reception House in Quezon City. Previously, the Vice President of the Philippines held office at the Coconut Palace, the Philippine National Bank Financial Center, and the Philippine International Convention Center, all in Pasay, Metro Manila.
Ronaldo Villanueva Puno, also known as Ronnie Puno, is a campaign manager and strategist in Philippine politics. He supported the presidential bids of eventual winners Fidel V. Ramos, Joseph Estrada, and Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. Puno is also responsible in the campaign of Vice President and UNA presidential candidate Jejomar Binay for the 2016 elections.
José Livioko Atienza Jr., commonly known by his nickname Lito Atienza, is a Filipino politician. He is the former city mayor of Manila and former secretary of the Department of Environment and Resources. He stepped down as mayor of Manila on June 30, 2007, after serving a three-year three-term limit for local government executives set by the Philippine Constitution of 1987. He currently hosts GMA Network's Maynila since 1998.
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Cesar Cortes Climaco was a Filipino politician who served as mayor of Zamboanga City for 11 years and three nonconsecutive terms. A prominent critic of the martial law regime of Ferdinand Marcos, he was famed for his toughness in governance and colorful personality. He was also famous for his refusal to cut his hair until democratic rule was restored in the Philippines. He was assassinated by an unknown gunman in 1984.
José Bayani "Pepito" Laurel Jr. y Hidalgo, also known as José B. Laurel Jr., was a Filipino politician who was elected twice as Speaker of the House of Representatives of the Philippines. A stalwart of the Nacionalista Party, he was the party's candidate for Vice President of the Philippines in the 1957 elections.
Local elections was held in the City of Manila on May 10, 2010 within the Philippine general election. The voters will elect for the elective local posts in the city: the mayor, vice mayor, the six Congressmen, and the councilors, six in each of the city's six legislative districts.
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Manuel Perez Manahan was a Filipino statesman, journalist, businessman, and rural development advocate. He was a key government official during the administration of President Ramon Magsaysay, best known for his stint as the head of the Presidential Complaints and Action Commission. Together with Raul Manglapus, he co-founded the Progressive Party of the Philippines and served as its presidential candidate in 1957. He also served as Senator of the Philippines from 1961 until 1967.
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