Mayor of Manila

Last updated
Mayor of Manila
Ph seal ncr manila.png
Seal of the City of Manila
Erap at the State Dining Room of the Malacanan Palace 072716.jpg
Incumbent
Joseph Estrada

since June 30, 2013
Style The Honourable
(Formal)
AppointerElected via popular vote
Term length 3 years, not eligible for re-election immediately after three consecutive terms
Inaugural holder Arsenio Cruz-Herrera
Formation1901
Website Office of the Mayor of Manila

The Mayor of Manila (Filipino : Punong Lungsod ng Maynila) is the head of the executive branch of the Manila's government. The mayor holds office at Manila City Hall. Like all local government heads in the Philippines, the mayor is elected via popular vote, and may not be elected for a fourth consecutive term (although the former mayor may return to office after an interval of one term). In case of death, resignation or incapacity, the vice mayor becomes the mayor.

Filipino language official language of the Philippines

Filipino is the national language of the Philippines. Filipino is also designated, along with English, as an official language of the country. It is a standardized variety of the Tagalog language, an Austronesian regional language that is widely spoken in the Philippines. As of 2007, Tagalog is the first language of 28 million people, or about one-third of the Philippine population, while 45 million speak Tagalog as their second language. Tagalog is among the 185 languages of the Philippines identified in the Ethnologue. Officially, Filipino is defined by the Commission on the Filipino Language as "the native dialect, spoken and written, in Metro Manila, the National Capital Region, and in other urban centers of the archipelago."

Manila Capital / Highly Urbanized City in National Capital Region, Philippines

Manila, officially the City of Manila, is the capital of the Philippines. It is the most densely populated city proper in the world. It was the first chartered city by virtue of the Philippine Commission Act 183 on July 31, 1901 and gained autonomy with the passage of Republic Act No. 409 or the "Revised Charter of the City of Manila" on June 18, 1949. Manila, alongside Mexico and Madrid are considered the world's original set of Global Cities due to Manila's commercial networks being the first to traverse the Pacific Ocean, thus connecting Spanish Asia with the Spanish Americas, marking the first time in world history when an uninterrupted chain of trade routes circled the planet. Manila has been damaged by and rebuilt from wars more times than the famed city of Troy and it is also the second most natural disaster afflicted capital city in the world next to Tokyo yet it is simultaneously among the most populous and most wealthy cities in Southeast Asia.

Manila City Hall


The Manila City Hall is the official seat of government of the City of Manila, located in the historic center of Ermita, Manila. It is where the Mayor of Manila holds office and the chambers of the Manila City Council. It was originally intended to be a part of a national government center envisioned by Daniel Burnham in the 1930s. Although the dream plan was not fully implemented, some buildings for the proposed government center was constructed, including the Old Legislative Building, and the Agriculture and Finance Buildings.

Contents

History

Prior to the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi, Manila was a Muslim chiefdom headed by datus. From the defeat of Rajah Sulayman's forces in 1595 to the passage of the Maura Law in 1895, the chief executive of the city was appointed by the Spanish government to a person of Spanish descent. The highest position a Filipino was able to hold was the cabeza de barangay. With the passage of the Maura Law, the office of capitan municipal was established, with the people electing their own town heads, although the Spanish retained considerable influence and can veto decisions.

Miguel López de Legazpi Spanish navigator and colonial governor

Miguel López de Legazpi, also known as El Adelantado and El Viejo, was a Spanish navigator and governor who established the first Spanish settlement in the East Indies when his expedition crossed the Pacific Ocean from the Viceroyalty of New Spain in modern-day Mexico, arrived in Cebu of the Philippine Islands, 1565. He was the first Governor-General of the Spanish East Indies which included the Philippines and other Pacific archipelagos, namely Guam and the Marianas Islands. After obtaining peace with various indigenous nations and kingdoms, he made Cebu the capital of the Spanish East Indies in 1565 and later transferred to Manila in 1571. The capital city of the province of Albay bears his name.

Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God, and that Muhammad is the messenger of God. It is the world's second-largest religion with over 1.8 billion followers or 24% of the world's population, most commonly known as Muslims. Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries. Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful, and unique, and has guided humankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs. The primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, and the teachings and normative examples of Muhammad.

Datu Noble title in the pre-Spanish Philippines

Datu is a title which denotes the rulers of numerous indigenous peoples throughout the Philippine archipelago. The title is still used today, especially in Mindanao, Sulu and Palawan, but it was used much more extensively in early Philippine history, particularly in the regions of Central and Southern Luzon, the Visayas and Mindanao.

With the eruption of the Philippine Revolution and the Philippine–American War, the position reverted to an appointive head. With the advent of World War II, President Manuel L. Quezon appointed Jorge B. Vargas as mayor of the City of Greater Manila (forerunner of Metro Manila) in 1941. With the liberation of Manila in 1945 by combined Filipino and American soldiers under the United States Army and the Philippine Commonwealth Army including local recognized guerrillas against the Japanese Imperial forces, the earlier setup was used once again.

Philippine Revolution armed military conflict between the people of the Philippines and the Spanish colonial authorities

The Philippine Revolution, also called the Tagalog War by the Spanish, was a revolution and subsequent conflict fought between the people and insurgents of the Philippines and the Kingdom of Spain - including its Spanish Empire and Spanish colonial authorities in the Spanish East Indies.

Philippine–American War Armed conflict between the First Philippine Republic and the United States

The Philippine–American War, also referred to as the Filipino–American War, the Philippine War, the Philippine Insurrection or the Tagalog Insurgency, was an armed conflict between the First Philippine Republic and the United States that lasted from February 4, 1899, to July 2, 1902. While Filipino nationalists viewed the conflict as a continuation of the struggle for independence that began in 1896 with the Philippine Revolution, the U.S. government regarded it as an insurrection. The conflict arose when the First Philippine Republic objected to the terms of the Treaty of Paris under which the United States took possession of the Philippines from Spain, ending the short Spanish–American War.

World War II 1939–1945 global war

World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.

With the amendment of the city's charter in 1951, the position became an elective post. The first mayoral election was in 1951, and Manila's congressman from the 2nd district Arsenio Lacson defeated incumbent Manuel de la Fuente. A few years after the declaration of martial law by President Ferdinand Marcos, Manila and nearby cities like Quezon City, Caloocan, Pasay and Makati, were overshadowed by the office of the governor of the newly created Metro Manila, whom Marcos appointed his wife, Imelda Marcos, to the position.

The Legislative Districts of Manila are the representations of the city of Manila in the various national legislatures of the Philippines. The city is currently represented in the lower house of the Congress of the Philippines through its first, second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth districts.

Arsenio H. Lacson was a Filipino journalist and politician who gained widespread attention as Mayor of Manila from 1952 to 1962. An active executive likened by Time and The New York Times to New York's Fiorello La Guardia, he was the first Manila mayor to be reelected to three terms. Nicknamed "Arsenic" and described as "a good man with a bad mouth", Lacson's fiery temperament became a trademark of his political and broadcasting career. He died suddenly from a stroke amidst talk that he was planning to run in the 1965 presidential election.

Ferdinand Marcos former President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986

Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos Sr. was a Filipino politician and kleptocrat who was the tenth President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986. A leading member of the far-right New Society Movement, he ruled as a dictator under martial law from 1972 until 1981. His regime was infamous for its corruption, extravagance, and brutality.

With Arsenio Lacson becoming the first elected Mayor, the City of Manila underwent The Golden Age, [1] was revitalized, and once again became the "Pearl of the Orient", a moniker it earned before the outbreak of the war[ citation needed ]. After Mayor Lacson's term in the fifties, the city was led by Mayor Antonio Villegas during most of the 60's, and Mayor Ramon Bagatsing for nearly the entire decade of the 70's until the 1986 Edsa revolution.

Antonio Villegas Ama Ng Libreng Pilipino

Antonio de Jesus Villegas was a Filipino Mayor of Manila from 1962 to 1971. His term was after the term of Arsenio Lacson as Mayor of Manila, and before the period of martial law in the Philippines.

Ramon Bagatsing Filipino mayor

Ramón Delaraga Bagatsing was the longest-serving Mayor of Manila. He is the only Indian Filipino and person with disability to serve as Mayor of the City of Manila from 1971 to 1986. Bagatsing also holds the unique distinction of being the only person to survive both the Bataan Death March and the military hero for the Liberation of Manila during the Second World War and the Plaza Miranda bombing in 1971.

Mayors Lacson, Villegas, and Bagatsing are often collectively considered as "the Big Three of Manila" for their rather long tenures as the City Hall's chief executive (continuously for over three decades, from 1952 - 1986), but more importantly, for their indelible contribution to the development and progress of the City and their lasting legacy in uplifting the quality of life and welfare of the people of Manila.

With the ouster of Marcos during the People Power Revolution, President Corazon Aquino vacated all local executive officials and appointed officers in charge (OIC) in their place; she appointed party-mate Mel Lopez as OIC of Manila. Local elections were held in 1988, and Lopez was elected as mayor. The Local Government Code was enacted in 1991, and standardized the powers of Manila's mayor making it at par with other cities in the country.

People Power Revolution Series of popular demonstrations in the Philippines in 1986

The People Power Revolution was a series of popular demonstrations in the Philippines, mostly in the capital city of Manila from February 22–25, 1986. There was a sustained campaign of civil resistance against regime violence and alleged electoral fraud. The nonviolent revolution led to the departure of dictator Ferdinand Marcos, the end of his 21-year presidential rule, and the restoration of democracy in the Philippines.

Corazon Aquino Philippine politician and President

María Corazón "Cory" Cojuangco Aquino was a Filipino politician who served as the 11th President of the Philippines, becoming the first woman to hold that office. The first female president in the Philippines, Aquino was the most prominent figure of the 1986 People Power Revolution, which ended the 21-year rule of President Ferdinand Marcos. She was named Time magazine's Woman of the Year in 1986. Prior to this, she had not held any elective office.

Gemiliano "Mel" Campos López, Jr. was a Filipino politician who served as the Mayor of Manila from 1986 to 1987 and 1988 to 1992 and an assemblyman of the Batasang Pambansa of the Philippines from 1984 to 1986. He was also a former chairman of the Philippine Sports Commission.

The office of the mayor is often used as a springboard for further political ambitions. In 1961, Lacson bolted the Nacionalista Party to become the campaign manager of the Liberal Party's Diosdado Macapagal's presidential campaign. After Macapagal's victory, Lacson returned with the Nacionalistas and became a critic of the Macapagal administration. Lacson would've been likely the Nacionalista's candidate for the presidency in 1965, had not death intervened in 1962. [2] In 1998, the sitting mayor of Manila, Alfredo Lim, did run as the Liberal Party's candidate for the presidency, but was beaten by Joseph Estrada, finishing fifth in a field of ten candidates, garnering 9% of the vote.

The longest-serving mayor of the City of Manila is Mayor Ramon Bagatsing, who continuously served as the city's chief executive from 1971 until 1986. His tenure could have been longer if his term was not disrupted by the forced resignation of all local government unit heads and the appointment of officers in charge in their place after the 1986 revolution, to which Bagatsing fully supported and complied with, voluntarily handing over his position to the officer in charge Mel Lopez.

The mayor of Manila holds office at the Manila City Hall. Pic geo photos - ph=mm=manila=ermita=padre burgos ave.=city hall - aerial shot from riverview mansion -philippines--2015-0624--ls-.JPG
The mayor of Manila holds office at the Manila City Hall.

List of Mayors of Manila

(1901–Present)

#NameImageTerm startTerm endFull name
Arsenio Cruz Herrera
7 August 1901
18 September 1905
First Filipino Mayor
Arsenio Cruz Herrera
Félix M. Róxas
19 September 1905
15 January 1917
Félix M. Fernández Róxas
Justo R. Lukban
16 January 1917
6 March 1920
Justo Rilles Lukban
Ramón J. Fernández
7 March 1920
16 July 1923
Ramón J. de Castro Fernández
Eulogio Rodríguez, Sr.
17 July 1923
8 February 1924
Eulogio Adona Rodríguez, Sr.
Miguel Romuáldez
9 February 1924
31 August 1927
Miguel López Romuáldez
Tomás Earnshaw
1 September 1927
31 December 1933
Tomás Noguera Earnshaw
Juan Posadas, Jr.
1 January 1934
4 January 1940
First Mayor under the Commonwealth
Juan Pablo Posadas, Jr.
Eulogio Rodríguez, Sr.
5 January 1940
28 August 1941
second term
Eulogio Adona Rodríguez, Sr.
Juan Nolasco
29 August 1941
23 December 1941
Juan Gómez Nolasco
Jorge B. Vargas
24 December 1941
26 January 1942
Appointed by President Manuel Quezon as Mayor of the City of Greater Manila
Jorge Bartolome Vargas
Leon Guinto, Sr.
27 January 1942
17 July 1944
Mayor of the City of Greater Manila
Leon Gawaran Guinto, Sr.
Hermenegildo Atienza
18 July 1944
18 July 1945
Mayor during the 1945 Battle of Manila
Juan G. Nolasco
19 July 1945
6 June 1946
second term
Juan Gómez Nolasco
Valeriano E. Fugoso, Sr.
7 June 1946
31 December 1947
Mayor during the restoration of independence by the US
Valeriano Estrella Fugoso, Sr.
Manuel dela Fuente
1 January 1948
31 December 1951
Arsenio H. Lacson, Sr.
1 January 1952
15 April 1962
First elective Mayor
Arsenio Hizon Lacson
Antonio Villegas
16 April 1962
31 December 1971
Antonio de Jesús Villegas
Ramón D. Bagatsing, Sr.
1 January 1972
26 March 1986
Mayor during the Martial Law era and the creation of Metro Manila
Ramón Delaraga Bagatsing, Sr.
Gemiliano C. López, Jr.
26 March 1986
1 December 1987
First post-EDSA Mayor
Gemiliano Campos López, Jr.
2 February 1988
30 June 1992
Gregorio Ejército
2 December 1987
2 February 1988
Alfredo S. Lim
30 June 1992
30 June 1995
Alfredo Siojo Lim
30 June 1995
27 March 1998
José L. Atienza, Jr.
27 March 1998
30 June 2001
José Livioko Atienza, Jr.
30 June 2001
30 June 2004
30 June 2004
30 June 2007
Alfredo S. Lim
30 June 2007
30 June 2010
Alfredo Siojo Lim
30 June 2010
30 June 2013
Joseph E. Estrada
30 June 2013
30 June 2016
José Marcelo Ejército
30 June 2016
incumbent

Elections

Vice Mayor of Manila

The Vice Mayor is the second-highest official of the city. The vice mayor is elected via popular vote; although most mayoral candidates have running mates, the vice mayor is elected separately from the mayor. This can result in the mayor and the vice mayor coming from different political parties.

The Vice Mayor is the presiding officer of the Manila City Council, although he can only vote as the tiebreaker. When a mayor is removed from office, the vice mayor becomes the mayor until the scheduled next election.

(1901–Present)

NameNo.TermFull name
Ramón J. Fernández1August 7, 1901 - August 7, 1912Ramón J. de Castro. Fernández
Pablo Ocampo 2August 8, 1912 - March 6, 1920Pablo De Leon. Ocampo
Juan Posadas, Jr.3March 7, 1920 - February 8, 1924Juan Pablo Posadas Jr.
Honorio Lopez4February 9, 1924 - December 31, 1933
Jorge B. Vargas 5January 1, 1934 - January 4, 1940Jorge Bartolome Vargas
Hermenegildo Atienza 6January 5, 1940 - July 17, 1944
Joaquin R. Roces7July 18, 1944 - December 31, 1951Joaquin Reyes Roces
Jesus M. R. Roces8January 1, 1952 - December 30, 1959Jesus Reyes Roces
Antonio J. Villegas 9December 30, 1959 - April 15, 1962Antonio de Jesus. Villegas
Herminio A. Astorga 10April 16, 1962 - December 31, 1967Herminio Aldaba Astorga
Felicisimo Cabigao11January 1, 1968 - December 31, 1970
Gemiliano C. Lopez, Jr. 12January 1, 1971 - December 31, 1971Gemiliano Campos López, Jr.
Martin B. Isidro, Sr.13January 1, 1972 - December 31, 1975Martin Buenaventura Isidro, Sr.
James Barbers14January 1, 1976 - March 26, 1986James Zabala Barbers
Bambi M. Ocampo15March 26, 1986 - April 27, 1987Bambi Malabanan. Ocampo
Ernesto A. Nieva16*April 28, 1987 - February 2, 1988Ernesto Acheco Nieva
Danilo B. Lacuna, Sr.17**February 3, 1988 - January 31, 1992Danilo Bautista Lacuna, Sr.
Ernesto V.P. Maceda, Jr.18February 1, 1992 - June 30, 1992Ernesto Vera Perez Maceda, Jr.
José L. Atienza, Jr. 19June 30, 1992 - March 27, 1998José Livioko Atienza, Jr.
Ernesto A. Nieva20*March 27, 1998 - May 19, 1998Ernesto Acheco Nieva
Hilario C. Silva 21May 20, 1998 - June 30, 1998Hilario Cuenca Silva
Danilo B. Lacuna, Sr.22**June 30, 1998 - June 30, 2007Danilo Bautista Lacuna, Sr.
Isko Moreno Domagoso 23June 30, 2007 - June 30, 2016Francisco Moreno Domagoso
Ma. Sheilah H. Lacuna-Pangan24June 30, 2016 – PresentMa. Sheilah Honrado Lacuna

See also

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References

  1. Hancock 2000 , p. 16
  2. "Arsenio Lacson of Manila Dead (pay site)". New York Times. 1962-04-16. Retrieved 2008-02-02. Mr. Lacson had returned to the Nacionalista party, now in opposition, and was considered likely to be its Presidential candidate in 1965