Estado de Occidente

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Estado de Occidente
State of Mexico
Flag of New Spain.svg
1824 - 1830 Flag of the Republic of Sonora.svg
 
Flag of Sinaloa.svg
Bandera Historica de la Republica Mexicana (1824-1918).svg Flag
Location of Estado de Occidente Mexico - Sonora y Sinaloa (1824).svg
Location of Estado de Occidente
Sonora y Sinaloa within Mexico
Capital El Fuerte
Government Federal Republic
History
  Established1824
  Disestablished1830
Today part ofFlag of Mexico.svg  Mexico
Flag of the United States.svg  United States

Estado de Occidente (also known as Sonora y Sinaloa) was a Mexican state established in 1824. The constitution was drafted in that year and the government was initially established with its capital at El Fuerte, Sinaloa. The first governor was Juan Miguel Riesgo. The state consisted of modern Sonora and Sinaloa, and also modern Arizona more or less south of the Gila River (although in much of this area the Yaqui, Pima, Apaches, and other native inhabitants did not recognize the authority of the state).

El Fuerte, Sinaloa Place in Sinaloa, Mexico

El Fuerte is a city and El Fuerte Municipality its surrounding municipality in the northwestern Mexican state of Sinaloa. The city population reported in the 2010 census were 12,566 people.

Sonora State of Mexico

Sonora, officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Sonora, is one of 31 states that, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 federal entities of United Mexican States. It is divided into 72 municipalities; the capital city is Hermosillo. Sonora is bordered by the states of Chihuahua to the east, Baja California to the northwest and Sinaloa to the south. To the north, it shares the U.S.–Mexico border with the states of Arizona and New Mexico, and on the west has a significant share of the coastline of the Gulf of California.

Sinaloa State of Mexico

Sinaloa, officially the Estado Libre y Soberano de Sinaloa, is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, compose the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 18 municipalities and its capital city is Culiacán Rosales.

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The constitution was established in 1825 with one of its principals being the making of all inhabitants of the state citizens. This was resented by the Yaqui since they now had to pay taxes, which they had been exempt from before. The Yaqui also considered themselves possessed of sovereignty and territorial rights which were threatened by the states new constitution.

Yaqui ethnic group

The Yaqui or Yoeme are an Uto-Aztecan speaking indigenous people of Mexico who inhabit the valley of the Río Yaqui in the Mexican state of Sonora and the Southwestern United States. They also have communities in Chihuahua, Durango and Sinaloa. The Pascua Yaqui Tribe is based in Tucson, Arizona. Yaqui people live elsewhere in the United States, especially California, Texas and Nevada.

This led to a new outbreak of war between the Mexicans and the Yaquis (see Yaqui Wars) with Juan Banderas as the leader of the Yaqui forces. As a result of this war the capital of Occidente was moved to Cosalá.

Yaqui Wars armed conflicts between indigenous peoples and white people in the Viceroyalty of New Spain, from 1821 Spain, between 1533 and 1929

The Yaqui Wars, were a series of armed conflicts between New Spain, and the later Mexican Republic, against the Yaqui Indians. The period began in 1533 and lasted until 1929. The Yaqui Wars, along with the Caste War against the Maya, were the last conflicts of the centuries long Mexican Indian Wars. Over the course of nearly 400 years, the Spanish and the Mexicans repeatedly launched military campaigns into Yaqui territory which resulted in several serious battles and some infamous massacres.

Juan Banderas was the leader of the Yaqui during part of the Yaqui Wars, specifically from 1825 until 1833.

Cosalá Place in Sinaloa, Mexico

Cosalá is a small city and the seat of its surrounding municipality in the Mexican state of Sinaloa. It stands at 24°24′45″N106°41′30″W. The city reported 6,577 inhabitants in the 2010 census.

Sonora and Sinaloa were again split into two separate states in 1830.

One state: Sonora y Sinaloa

Under its Constitution of 1824, Sonora y Sinaloa was a single state of the Mexican Republic. The federal constitution used the name "Sonora y Sinaloa." However the state constitution adopted on 31 October 1825 used the name Estado de Occidente. The Sonora y Sinaloa state capital was located at El Fuerte, Sinaloa. The first Governor of Sonora y Sinaloa was the Sonoran Juan Miguel Riesgo.

1824 Constitution of Mexico

The Federal Constitution of the United Mexican States of 1824 was enacted on October 4 of 1824, after the overthrow of the Mexican Empire of Agustin de Iturbide. In the new constitution, the republic took the name of United Mexican States, and was defined as a representative federal republic, with Catholicism as the official and unique religion. It was replaced by the Federal Constitution of the United Mexican States of 1857.

Governor of Sonora chief executive of the Mexican state of Sonora

List of Governors of the Mexican state of Sonora since 1911:

Two states: Sonora and Sinaloa

On 30 September 1830, due to constant internal disputes, the state was divided into two states: Sonora and Sinaloa. The territory of Sinaloa corresponds to that of the modern-day state of the same name.

Mexican-American War and territory

Sonora of the 1820s extended north beyond the present day United States–Mexico border. Settlements only existed in the extreme south of the current state of Arizona and the northern frontier was not defined. Maps from the period will show the northern border above today's international border or as far as either the Gila River or the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon. The Mexican-American War, the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, and especially the Gadsden Purchase established the present border.

Gila River river in the United States of America

The Gila River is a 649-mile (1,044 km) tributary of the Colorado River flowing through New Mexico and Arizona in the United States. The river drains an arid watershed of nearly 60,000 square miles (160,000 km2) that lies mainly within the U.S. but also extends into northern Sonora, Mexico. Indigenous peoples have lived along the river for at least 2,000 years, establishing complex agricultural societies before European exploration of the region began in the 16th century. However, European Americans did not permanently settle the Gila River watershed until the mid-19th century.

Colorado River major river in the western United States and Mexico

The Colorado River is one of the principal rivers in the Southwestern United States and northern Mexico. The 1,450-mile-long (2,330 km) river drains an expansive, arid watershed that encompasses parts of seven U.S. and two Mexican states. Starting in the central Rocky Mountains of Colorado, the river flows generally southwest across the Colorado Plateau and through the Grand Canyon before reaching Lake Mead on the Arizona–Nevada border, where it turns south toward the international border. After entering Mexico, the Colorado approaches the mostly dry Colorado River Delta at the tip of the Gulf of California between Baja California and Sonora.

Grand Canyon A steep-sided canyon carved by the Colorado River in Arizona, United States

The Grand Canyon is a steep-sided canyon carved by the Colorado River in Arizona, United States. The Grand Canyon is 277 miles (446 km) long, up to 18 miles (29 km) wide and attains a depth of over a mile.

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