Cherokee syllabary

Last updated
Cherokee
Type
Languages Cherokee language
Time period
1820s [1] –present [2]
Parent systems
DirectionLeft-to-right
ISO 15924 Cher, 445
Unicode alias
Cherokee

The Cherokee syllabary is a syllabary invented by Sequoyah in the late 1810s and early 1820s to write the Cherokee language. His creation of the syllabary is particularly noteworthy as he could not previously read any script. [3] He first experimented with logograms, but his system later developed into a syllabary. In his system, each symbol represents a syllable rather than a single phoneme; the 85 (originally 86) [4] characters provide a suitable method to write Cherokee. Although some symbols resemble Latin, Greek, and Cyrillic letters, the relationship between symbols and sounds is different.

Syllabary set of written symbols that represent the syllables or moras which make up words

A syllabary is a set of written symbols that represent the syllables or moras which make up words. A symbol in a syllabary, called a syllabogram, typically represents an (optional) consonant sound followed by a vowel sound (nucleus)—that is, a CV or V syllable—but other phonographic mappings such as CVC, CV- tone, and C are also found in syllabaries.

Sequoyah Cherokee polymath and creator of the Cherokee syllabary

Sequoyah (c.1770–1843), was an American and Cherokee polymath. In 1821 he completed his independent creation of a Cherokee syllabary, making reading and writing in Cherokee possible. This was one of the very few times in recorded history that a member of a pre-literate people created an original, effective writing system. After seeing its worth, the people of the Cherokee Nation rapidly began to use his syllabary and officially adopted it in 1825. Their literacy rate quickly surpassed that of surrounding European-American settlers.

Cherokee language Iroquoian language spoken by the Cherokee people

Cherokee is an endangered Iroquoian language and the native language of the Cherokee people. There were 1,520 Cherokee speakers out of 376,000 Cherokee in 2018. The number of speakers is in decline. About 8 fluent speakers die each month, and only a handful of people under 40 are fluent. The dialect of Cherokee in Oklahoma is "definitely endangered", and the one in North Carolina is "severely endangered" according to UNESCO. The Lower dialect, formerly spoken on the South Carolina–Georgia border, has been extinct since about 1900. Cherokee speakers populate several counties within the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma and the Qualla Boundary in Cherokee, North Carolina. Around 200 speakers of the Eastern dialect remain and language preservation efforts include the New Kituwah Academy. The Cherokee Immersion School is also present in Tahlequah, Oklahoma.

Description

Sequoyah, inventor of the Cherokee syllabary Sequoyah.jpg
Sequoyah, inventor of the Cherokee syllabary

Each of the characters represents one syllable, as in the Japanese kana and the Bronze Age Greek Linear B writing systems. The first six characters represent isolated vowel syllables. Characters for combined consonant and vowel syllables then follow.

Japanese is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language. It is a member of the Japonic language family, and its relation to other languages, such as Korean, is debated. Japanese has been grouped with language families such as Ainu, Austroasiatic, and the now-discredited Altaic, but none of these proposals has gained widespread acceptance.

Kana (仮名) are syllabic Japanese scripts, a part of the Japanese writing system contrasted with the logographic Chinese characters known in Japan as kanji (漢字). There are three kana scripts: modern cursive hiragana (ひらがな); modern angular katakana (カタカナ); and the old syllabic use of kanji known as man'yōgana (万葉仮名) that was ancestral to both. Hentaigana are historical variants of modern standard hiragana. In modern Japanese, hiragana and katakana have directly corresponding character sets.

Bronze Age Prehistoric period and age studied in archaeology, part of the Holocene Epoch

The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the three-age Stone-Bronze-Iron system, as proposed in modern times by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen, for classifying and studying ancient societies.

The charts below show the syllabary in recitation order, left to right, top to bottom as arranged by Samuel Worcester, along with his commonly used transliterations. [5] [6] He played a key role in the development of Cherokee printing from 1828 until his death in 1859.

Samuel Worcester Christian missionary to Cherokee, civil rights advocate

Samuel Austin Worcester, was a missionary to the Cherokee, translator of the Bible, printer, and defender of the Cherokee's sovereignty. He collaborated with Elias Boudinot in the American Southeast to establish the Cherokee Phoenix, the first Native American newspaper. The Cherokees gave him the honorary name A-tse-nu-sti, which translates to "messenger" in English.

The chart below uses Unicode characters from the Cherokee block. For an image alternative, see File:Cherokee Syllabary.svg.
aeiouv
a e i ouə̃
gaka ge gi gogugə̃
ha he hi hohuhə̃
la le li lolulə̃
ma me mi momu*
nahnanahne ni nonunə̃
qua que qui quoquuquə̃
ssa se si sosusə̃
data deteditidodudə̃
dlatla tle tli tlotlutlə̃
tsa tse tsi tsotsutsə̃
wa we wi wowuwə̃
ya ye yi yoyuyə̃
* The character Ᏽ was previously used to represent the syllable mv, but is no longer used. [note 1]

The Latin letter 'v' in the transcriptions, seen in the last column, represents a nasal vowel, /ə̃/.

A nasal vowel is a vowel that is produced with a lowering of the soft palate so that the air flow escapes through the nose and the mouth simultaneously, as in the French vowel /ɑ̃/  or Amoy []. By contrast, oral vowels are produced without nasalization. In a stricter sense, nasal vowels shall not be confused with nasalised vowels.

The Cherokee character Ꮩ do has a different orientation in old documents, resembling a Greek Λ (or barless A) rather than a Latin V as in modern documents. [note 2]

There is also a handwritten cursive form of the syllabary; [12] notably, the handwritten glyphs bear little resemblance to the printed forms.

Detailed considerations

The phonetic values of these characters do not equate directly to those represented by the letters of the Latin script. Some characters represent two distinct phonetic values (actually heard as different syllables), while others may represent multiple variations of the same syllable. [13] Not all phonemic distinctions of the spoken language are represented. For example, while /d/ + vowel syllables are mostly differentiated from /t/ + vowel by use of different graphs, syllables beginning with /ɡ/ are all conflated with those beginning with /k/, so that in most cases, /k/ is written with a glyph in the g row. Also, long vowels are not ordinarily distinguished from short vowels, tones are not marked, and there is no regular rule for representing consonant clusters. However, in more recent technical literature, length of vowels can actually be indicated using a colon.

Six distinctive vowel qualities are represented in the Cherokee syllabary based on where they are pronounced in the mouth, including the high vowels i and u, mid vowels e, v, and o, and low vowel a. The syllabary also does not distinguish among syllables that end in vowels, h, or glottal stop. For example, the single symbol, Ꮡ, is used to represent su in su:dali, meaning six (ᏑᏓᎵ). This same symbol Ꮡ represents suh as in suhdi, meaning 'fishhook' (ᏑᏗ). Therefore, there is no differentiation among the symbols used for syllables ending in a single vowel versus that vowel plus "h."

When consonants other than s, h, or glottal stop arise with other consonants in clusters, the appropriate consonant plus a "dummy vowel" is used. This dummy vowel is not pronounced and is either chosen arbitrarily or for etymological reasons (reflecting an underlying etymological vowel). For example, ᏧᎾᏍᏗ (tsu-na-s-di) represents the word ju:nsdi, meaning 'small.' Ns in this case is the consonant cluster that requires the following dummy vowel, a. Ns is written as ᎾᏍ /nas/. The vowel is included in the transliteration, but is not pronounced in the word (ju:nsdi). (The transliterated ts represents the affricate j). [14] [ page needed ] Adult speakers can distinguish words by context.

If a labial consonant such as p or b appears in a borrowed word or name, it is written using the qu row. This /kw/ ~ /p/ correspondence is a known linguistic phenomenon that exists elsewhere (cf. P-Celtic, Osco-Umbrian).

Transliteration issues

Some Cherokee words pose a problem for transliteration software because they contain adjacent pairs of single letter symbols that (without special provisions) would be combined when doing the back-conversion from Latin script to Cherokee. Here are a few examples:

For these examples, the back conversion is likely to join s-a as sa or s-i as si. One solution is to use an apostrophe to separate the two,[ citation needed ] as is done in Japanese (e.g.: Man'yogana): itsalis'anedi.

Other Cherokee words contain character pairs that entail overlapping transliteration sequences. Examples:

If the Latin script is parsed from left to right, longest match first, then without special provisions, the back conversion would be wrong for the latter. There are several similar examples involving these character combinations: naha nahe nahi naho nahu nahv.

A further problem encountered in transliterating Cherokee is that there are some pairs of different Cherokee words that transliterate to the same word in the Latin script. Here are some examples:

Without special provision, a round trip conversion may change ᎠᏍᎡᏃ to ᎠᏎᏃ and change ᎨᏍᎥᎢ to ᎨᏒᎢ.

Character orders

Original Cherokee syllabary order, with the now obsolete letter [?] in red Cherokee syllabary original order.png
Original Cherokee syllabary order, with the now obsolete letter Ᏽ in red
  1. The usual alphabetical order for Cherokee runs across the rows of the syllabary chart from left to right, top to bottom—this is the one used in the Unicode block: Ꭰ (a), Ꭱ (e), Ꭲ (i), Ꭳ (o), Ꭴ (u), Ꭵ (v), Ꭶ (ga), Ꭷ (ka), Ꭸ (ge), Ꭹ (gi), Ꭺ (go), Ꭻ (gu), Ꭼ (gv), Ꭽ (ha), Ꭾ (he), Ꭿ (hi), Ꮀ (ho), Ꮁ (hu), Ꮂ (hv), Ꮃ (la), Ꮄ (le), Ꮅ (li), Ꮆ (lo), Ꮇ (lu), Ꮈ (lv), Ꮉ (ma), Ꮊ (me), Ꮋ (mi), Ꮌ (mo), Ꮍ (mu), Ꮎ (na), Ꮏ (hna), Ꮐ (nah), Ꮑ (ne), Ꮒ (ni), Ꮓ (no), Ꮔ (nu), Ꮕ (nv), Ꮖ (qua), Ꮗ (que), Ꮘ (qui), Ꮙ (quo), Ꮚ (quu), Ꮛ (quv), Ꮜ (sa), Ꮝ (s), Ꮞ (se), Ꮟ (si), Ꮠ (so), Ꮡ (su), Ꮢ (sv), Ꮣ (da), Ꮤ (ta), Ꮥ (de), Ꮦ (te), Ꮧ (di), Ꮨ (ti), Ꮩ (do), Ꮪ (du), Ꮫ (dv), Ꮬ (dla), Ꮭ (tla), Ꮮ (tle), Ꮯ (tli), Ꮰ (tlo), Ꮱ (tlu), Ꮲ (tlv), Ꮳ (tsa), Ꮴ (tse), Ꮵ (tsi), Ꮶ (tso), Ꮷ (tsu), Ꮸ (tsv), Ꮹ (wa), Ꮺ (we), Ꮻ (wi), Ꮼ (wo), Ꮽ (wu), Ꮾ (wv), Ꮿ (ya), Ᏸ (ye), Ᏹ (yi), Ᏺ (yo), Ᏻ (yu), Ᏼ (yv).
  2. Cherokee has also been alphabetized based on the six columns of the syllabary chart from top to bottom, left to right: Ꭰ (a), Ꭶ (ga), Ꭷ (ka), Ꭽ (ha), Ꮃ (la), Ꮉ (ma), Ꮎ (na), Ꮏ (hna), Ꮐ (nah), Ꮖ (qua), Ꮝ (s), Ꮜ (sa), Ꮣ (da), Ꮤ (ta), Ꮬ (dla), Ꮭ (tla), Ꮳ (tsa), Ꮹ (wa), Ꮿ (ya), Ꭱ (e), Ꭸ (ge), Ꭾ (he), Ꮄ (le), Ꮊ (me), Ꮑ (ne), Ꮗ (que), Ꮞ (se), Ꮥ (de), Ꮦ (te), Ꮮ (tle), Ꮴ (tse), Ꮺ (we), Ᏸ (ye), Ꭲ (i), Ꭹ (gi), Ꭿ (hi), Ꮅ (li), Ꮋ (mi), Ꮒ (ni), Ꮘ (qui), Ꮟ (si), Ꮧ (di), Ꮨ (ti), Ꮯ (tli), Ꮵ (tsi), Ꮻ (wi), Ᏹ (yi), Ꭳ (o), Ꭺ (go), Ꮀ (ho), Ꮆ (lo), Ꮌ (mo), Ꮓ (no), Ꮙ (quo), Ꮠ (so), Ꮩ (do), Ꮰ (tlo), Ꮶ (tso), Ꮼ (wo), Ᏺ (yo), Ꭴ (u), Ꭻ (gu), Ꮁ (hu), Ꮇ (lu), Ꮍ (mu), Ꮔ (nu), Ꮚ (quu), Ꮡ (su), Ꮪ (du), Ꮱ (tlu), Ꮷ (tsu), Ꮽ (wu), Ᏻ (yu), Ꭵ (v), Ꭼ (gv), Ꮂ (hv), Ꮈ (lv), Ꮕ (nv), Ꮛ (quv), Ꮢ (sv), Ꮫ (dv), Ꮲ (tlv), Ꮸ (tsv), Ꮾ (wv), Ᏼ (yv).
  3. Sequoyah used a completely different alphabetical order: Ꭱ (e), Ꭰ (a), Ꮃ (la), Ꮵ (tsi), Ꮐ (nah), Ꮽ (wu), Ꮺ (we), Ꮅ (li), Ꮑ (ne), Ꮌ (mo), Ꭹ (gi), Ᏹ (yi), Ꮟ (si), Ꮲ (tlv), Ꭳ (o), Ꮇ (lu), Ꮄ (le), Ꭽ (ha), Ꮼ (wo), Ꮰ (tlo), Ꮤ (ta), Ᏼ (yv), Ꮈ (lv), Ꭿ (hi), Ꮝ (s), Ᏺ (yo), Ꮁ (hu), Ꭺ (go), Ꮷ (tsu), Ꮍ (mu), Ꮞ (se), Ꮠ (so), Ꮯ (tli), Ꮘ (qui), Ꮗ (que), Ꮜ (sa), Ꮖ (qua), Ꮓ (no), Ꭷ (ka), Ꮸ (tsv), Ꮢ (sv), Ꮒ (ni), Ꭶ (ga), Ꮩ (do), Ꭸ (ge), Ꮣ (da), Ꭼ (gv), Ꮻ (wi), Ꭲ (i), Ꭴ (u), Ᏸ (ye), Ꮂ (hv), Ꮫ (dv), Ꭻ (gu), Ꮶ (tso), Ꮙ (quo), Ꮔ (nu), Ꮎ (na), Ꮆ (lo), Ᏻ (yu), Ꮴ (tse), Ꮧ (di), Ꮾ (wv), Ꮪ(du), Ꮥ (de), Ꮳ (tsa), Ꭵ (v), Ꮕ (nv), Ꮦ (te), Ꮉ (ma), Ꮡ (su), Ꮱ (tlu), Ꭾ (he), Ꮀ (ho), Ꮋ (mi), Ꮭ (tla), Ꮿ (ya), Ꮹ (wa), Ꮨ (ti), Ꮮ (tle), Ꮏ (hna), Ꮚ (quu), Ꮬ (dla), Ꮊ (me), Ꮛ (quv).
  4. And the usual order goes: Ꮿ, Ꭳ, Ꭿ, Ꮉ, Ꮐ, Ꮴ, Ꮪ, Ꭴ, Ꭰ, Ꮘ, Ꭲ, Ꮺ, Ꮎ, Ꮹ, Ꮨ, Ꮭ, Ꭼ, Ꮊ, Ꮝ, Ꭱ, Ꮯ, Ꭸ, Ꭵ, Ꮤ, Ꮾ, Ꮀ, Ꮽ, Ꮌ, Ꭷ, Ꮠ, Ꮦ, Ꮔ, Ꭽ, Ꮖ, Ꮻ, Ꮬ, Ꮛ, Ꮷ, Ᏻ, Ꮸ, Ꮧ, Ꮂ, Ꮚ, Ꮗ, Ꮃ, Ꮕ, Ꭾ, Ꮁ, Ꮳ, Ꮹ, Ꮶ, Ᏹ, Ꮒ, Ꮎ, Ꮏ, Ᏺ, Ꮮ, Ꮱ, Ꮫ, Ꮰ,

Numerals

Cherokee uses Arabic numerals (0–9). Sequoyah proposed a system of numerals for Cherokee, but his system was never adopted. [15] Sequoyah's system included symbols for 1–20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100 as well as a symbol for three zeros for numbers in the thousands and a symbol for six zeros for numbers in the millions. These last two symbols representing 000 and 000,000 are made up of three separate symbols each.

Early history

Sequoyah's original syllabary characters, showing both the script forms and the print forms Original Cherokee Syllabary.jpg
Sequoyah's original syllabary characters, showing both the script forms and the print forms
External video
Nuvola apps kaboodle.svg The Cherokee Syllabary, NCLLP [16]

Around 1809, impressed by the "talking leaves" of European written languages, Sequoyah began work to create a writing system for the Cherokee language. After attempting to create a character for each word, Sequoyah realized this would be too difficult and eventually created characters to represent syllables. Sequoyah took some ideas from his copy of the Bible, which he studied for characters to use in print, noticing the simplicity of the Roman letters and adopting them to make the writing of his syllabary easier. He worked on the syllabary for twelve years before completion, and dropped or modified most of the characters he originally created.

After the syllabary was completed in the early 1820s, it achieved almost instantaneous popularity and spread rapidly throughout Cherokee society. [17] By 1825, the majority of Cherokees could read and write in their newly developed orthography. [18]

Some of Sequoyah's most learned contemporaries immediately understood that the syllabary was a great invention. For example, when Albert Gallatin, a politician and trained linguist, saw a copy of Sequoyah's syllabary, he believed it was superior to the English alphabet.[ clarification needed ] He recognized that even though the Cherokee student must learn 85 characters instead of 26 for English, the Cherokee could read immediately after learning all the symbols. The Cherokee student could accomplish in a few weeks what students of English writing might require two years to achieve. [19]

In 1828, the order of the characters in a chart and the shapes of the characters were modified by Cherokee author and editor Elias Boudinot to adapt the syllabary to printing presses. [20] The 86th character was dropped entirely. [21] Following these changes, the syllabary was adopted by the Cherokee Phoenix newspaper, later Cherokee Advocate , followed by the Cherokee Messenger, a bilingual paper printed in Indian Territory in the mid-19th century. [22]

In 1834, Worcester made changes to several characters in order to improve the readability of Cherokee text. Most notably, he inverted the do character (Ꮩ) so that it could not be confused with the go character (Ꭺ). [23] Otherwise, the characters remained remarkably invariant until the advent of new typesetting technologies in the 20th century. [24]

Later developments

Sign in Cherokee, North Carolina Cherokee Central Schools.jpg
Sign in Cherokee, North Carolina
Cherokee syllabary in use today, Tahlequah, Oklahoma Cherokee stop sign.png
Cherokee syllabary in use today, Tahlequah, Oklahoma

In the 1960s, the Cherokee Phoenix Press began publishing literature in the Cherokee syllabary, including the Cherokee Singing Book. [25] A Cherokee syllabary typewriter ball was developed for the IBM Selectric in the late 1970s. Computer fonts greatly expanded Cherokee writers' ability to publish in Cherokee. In 2010, a Cherokee keyboard cover was developed by Roy Boney, Jr. and Joseph Erb, facilitating more rapid typing in Cherokee. The keyboard cover is now used by students in the Cherokee Nation Immersion School, where all coursework is written in syllabary. [20]

In August 2010, the Oconaluftee Institute for Cultural Arts in Cherokee, North Carolina acquired a letterpress and had the Cherokee syllabary recast to begin printing one-of-a-kind fine art books and prints in syllabary. [26] Artists Jeff Marley and Frank Brannon completed a collaborative project on October 19, 2013, in which they printed using Cherokee syllabary type from Southwestern Community College in the print shop at New Echota. This was the first time syllabary type has been used at New Echota since 1835. [27]

In 2015 the Unicode Consortium encoded a lowercase version of the script, since typists would often set Cherokee with two different point sizes, so as to mark beginnings of sentences and given names (as in the Latin alphabet). Handwritten Cherokee also shows a difference in lower- and uppercase letters, such as descenders and ascenders. [28] Lowercase Cherokee has already been encoded in the font Everson Mono.

The syllabary is finding increasingly diverse usage today, from books, newspapers, and websites to the street signs of Tahlequah, Oklahoma and Cherokee, North Carolina. An increasing corpus of children's literature is printed in Cherokee syllabary to meet the needs of Cherokee students in the Cherokee language immersion schools in Oklahoma and North Carolina.[ citation needed ]

Possible influence on Liberian Vai syllabary

In recent years evidence has emerged suggesting that the Cherokee syllabary provided a model for the design of the Vai syllabary in Liberia, Africa. The Vai syllabary emerged about 1832/33. The link appears to have been Cherokee who emigrated to Liberia after the invention of the Cherokee syllabary (which in its early years spread rapidly among the Cherokee) but before the inventions of the Vai syllabary. One such man, Austin Curtis, married into a prominent Vai family and became an important Vai chief himself. It is perhaps not coincidence that the "inscription on a house" that drew the world's attention to the existence of the Vai script was in fact on the home of Curtis, a Cherokee. [29] There also appears to be a connection between an early form of written Bassa and the earlier Cherokee syllabary.

Classes

Oklahoma Cherokee language immersion school student writing in the Cherokee syllabary. Cherokeeclass.png
Oklahoma Cherokee language immersion school student writing in the Cherokee syllabary.

Cherokee language classes typically begin with a transliteration of Cherokee into Roman letters, only later incorporating the syllabary. The Cherokee language classes offered through Haskell Indian Nations University, Northeastern State University, [20] the University of Oklahoma, the University of Science and Arts of Oklahoma, Western Carolina University, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill , and the elementary school immersion classes offered by the Cherokee Nation and the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians Immersion School [30] all teach the syllabary. The fine arts degree program at Southwestern Community College incorporates the syllabary in its printmaking classes. [26]

Unicode

Cherokee was added to the Unicode Standard in September, 1999 with the release of version 3.0. On June 17, 2015, with the release of version 8.0, Cherokee was redefined as a bicameral script; the character repertoire was extended to include a complete set of lowercase Cherokee letters as well as the archaic character (Ᏽ).

Blocks

The first Unicode block for Cherokee is U+13A0U+13FF. It contains all 86 uppercase letters, together with six lowercase letters: [note 3]

Cherokee [1] [2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
 0123456789ABCDEF
U+13Ax
U+13Bx
U+13Cx
U+13Dx
U+13Ex
U+13Fx
Notes
1. ^ As of Unicode version 12.0
2. ^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

The Cherokee Supplement block is U+AB70U+ABBF. It contains the remaining 80 lowercase letters.

Cherokee Supplement [1]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
 0123456789ABCDEF
U+AB7xꭿ
U+AB8x
U+AB9x
U+ABAx
U+ABBxꮿ
Notes
1. ^ As of Unicode version 12.0

Fonts

A single Cherokee Unicode font, Plantagenet Cherokee, is supplied with macOS, version 10.3 (Panther) and later. Windows Vista also includes a Cherokee font. Several free Cherokee fonts are available including Digohweli, Donisiladv, and Noto Sans Cherokee. Some pan-Unicode fonts, such as Code2000, Everson Mono, and GNU FreeFont, include Cherokee characters. A commercial font, Phoreus Cherokee, published by TypeCulture, includes multiple weights and styles. [31]

See also

Notes

  1. Most sources, including materials produced by the Cherokee Nation, state that this character represented the mv syllable. [7] [8] [9] However, Worcester wrote that it represented a syllable similar to hv, but more open. [10]
  2. There is a difference between the old form of do (Λ-like) and the modern form of do (V-like). The standard Digohweli font displays the modern form. Old Do Digohweli and Code2000 fonts both display the old form. [11]
  3. The PDF Unicode chart shows the modern form of the letter do.

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Canadian syllabic writing, or simply syllabics, is a family of abugidas created by James Evans to write a number of indigenous Canadian languages of the Algonquian, Inuit, and (formerly) Athabaskan language families, of which had no formal writing system previously. They are valued for their distinctiveness from the Latin script of the dominant languages and for the ease with which literacy can be achieved; indeed, by the late 19th century the Cree had achieved what may have been one of the highest rates of literacy in the world.

Mandombe script

Mandombe or Mandombé is a script proposed in 1978 in Mbanza-Ngungu in the Bas-Congo province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo by Wabeladio Payi, who related that it was revealed to him in a dream by Simon Kimbangu, the prophet of the Kimbanguist Church. Mandombe is based on the sacred shapes and , and intended for writing African languages such as the four national languages of the Congo, Kikongo, Lingala, Tshiluba and Swahili, though it does not have enough vowels to write Lingala fully. It is taught in Kimbanguist church schools in Angola, the Republic of the Congo, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is also promoted by the Kimbanguist Centre de l’Écriture Négro-Africaine (CENA). The Mandombe Academy at CENA is currently working on transcribing other African languages in the script. It has been classified as the third most viable indigenous script of recent indigenous west African scripts, behind only the Vai syllabary and the N'Ko alphabet.

Vai syllabary writing system

The Vai syllabary is a syllabic writing system devised for the Vai language by Momolu Duwalu Bukele of Jondu, in what is now Grand Cape Mount County, Liberia. Bukele is regarded within the Vai community, as well as by most scholars, as the syllabary's inventor and chief promoter when it was first documented in the 1830s. It is one of the two most successful indigenous scripts in West Africa in terms of the number of current users and the availability of literature written in the script, the other being N'Ko.

Carrier syllabics

Carrier or Déné syllabics is a script created by Adrien-Gabriel Morice for the Carrier language. It was inspired by Cree syllabics and is one of the writing systems in the Canadian Aboriginal syllabics Unicode range.

The Woleai or Caroline Island script, thought to have been a syllabary, was a partially Latin-based script indigenous to Woleai Atoll and nearby islands of Micronesia and used to write the Woleaian language until the mid 20th century. At the time the script was first noticed by Europeans, Micronesia was known as the Caroline Islands, hence the name Caroline Island script.

Writing system any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication.

A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication. While both writing and speech are useful in conveying messages, writing differs in also being a reliable form of information storage and transfer. The processes of encoding and decoding writing systems involve shared understanding between writers and readers of the meaning behind the sets of characters that make up a script. Writing is usually recorded onto a durable medium, such as paper or electronic storage, although non-durable methods may also be used, such as writing on a computer display, on a blackboard, in sand, or by skywriting.

Bamum script writing system

The Bamum scripts are an evolutionary series of six scripts created for the Bamum language by King Njoya of Cameroon at the turn of the 19th century. They are notable for evolving from a pictographic system to a partially alphabetic syllabic script in the space of 14 years, from 1896 to 1910. Bamum type was cast in 1918, but the script fell into disuse around 1931. A project began around 2007 to revive the Bamum script.

History of the Cherokee language

This article is a detailed history of the Cherokee language, the Native American Iroquoian language spoken by the Cherokee people.

References

  1. Sturtevant & Fogelson 2004, p. 337.
  2. "Cherokee language". www.britannica.com. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 22 May 2014.
  3. Diamond, Jared (1999). Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. New York, New York: Norton. p. 228. ISBN   0393317552.
  4. Sturtevant & Fogelson 2004, p. 337.
  5. Walker & Sarbaugh 1993, p. 72, 76.
  6. Giasson 2004, p. 42.
  7. "Syllabary Chart" (PDF). Cherokee Nation. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
  8. Cushman 2013, p. 93.
  9. "Cherokee: Range: 13A0–13FF" (PDF). The Unicode Standard, Version 9.0. Retrieved 10 June 2017.
  10. Walker & Sarbaugh 1993, p. 77, 89–90.
  11. "Cherokee", Language geek font download
  12. http://www.omniglot.com/images/writing/cherokee_orig.gif
  13. Walker & Sarbaugh 1993, p. 72–75.
  14. Scancarelli 2005.
  15. Giasson 2004, p. 7.
  16. "The North Carolina Language and Life Project" . Retrieved April 2, 2016.
  17. Walker & Sarbaugh 1993, p. 70–72.
  18. McLaughlin 1986, p. 353.
  19. Langguth, A. J. (2010). Driven West: Andrew Jackson and the Trail of Tears to the Civil War. New York, Simon & Schuster. p. 71. ISBN   978-1-4165-4859-1.
  20. 1 2 3 "Cherokee Nation creates syllabary keypad." Indian Country Today. 17 March 2010 (retrieved 1 October 2016)
  21. Kilpatrick & Kilpatrick 1968, p. 23.
  22. Sturtevant & Fogelson 2004, p. 362.
  23. Giasson 2004, p. 29–33.
  24. Giasson 2004, p. 35.
  25. Sturtevant & Fogelson 2004, p. 750.
  26. 1 2 "Letterpress arrives at OICA" Archived November 30, 2010, at the Wayback Machine Southwestern Community College (retrieved 21 Nov 2010)
  27. "New Echota days begin this Saturday" . Calhoun Times. Oct 18, 2013. Retrieved 21 July 2017.
  28. "Working group Document : Revised proposal for the addition of Cherokee characters to the UCS" (PDF). Unicode.org. Retrieved 2015-06-21.
  29. Tuchscherer 2002.
  30. "Cherokee Language Revitalization Project." Western Carolina University. (retrieved 23 Aug 2010)
  31. "Phoreus Cherokee". TypeCulture. Retrieved 15 January 2018.

Bibliography

Further reading