Native American tribes in the U.S. state of Nebraska have been Plains Indians, descendants of succeeding cultures of indigenous peoples who have occupied the area for thousands of years. More than 15 historic tribes have been identified as having lived in, hunted in, or otherwise occupied territory within the current state boundaries.
The 19th-century history of the state included the establishment of eight Indian reservations, including a half-breed tract. Today six tribes, (Omaha, Winnebago, Ponca, Iowa, Santee Sioux, Sac and Fox), have reservations in Nebraska. In 2006 American Indian and Alaska Native persons comprised one percent of the state's population.Towns at the northern border also have relations with on reservations within South Dakota.
Several language groups were represented by the American Indians in present-day Nebraska. The Algonquian-speaking Arapaho lived for more than a thousand years throughout the western part of Nebraska.In a prehistoric period; Nebraska was home to the Arikara, who spoke a Caddoan language, as did the Pawnee; after 1823 they returned from present-day North Dakota to live with the Skidi Pawnee for two years. The Kiowa once occupied western Nebraska. The eastern range of the Algonquian-speaking Cheyenne included western Nebraska, after the Comanche who had formerly lived in the territory had moved south toward Texas.
The Great Sioux Nation, including the Ihanktowan-Ihanktowana and the Lakota located to the north and west, used Nebraska as a hunting and skirmish ground, although they did not have any long-term settlements in the state.
The Omaha belong to the Siouan-language family of the Dhegihan branch, and have been located along the Missouri River in northeastern Nebraska since the late seventeenth century, after having migrated from eastern areas together with other tribes. Originally living along the Ohio and Wabash rivers to the east, the Omaha, along with the Dhegihan Ponca, moved into Nebraska in the 1670s. Other Siouan-Dheigihan tribes who moved west from the Ohio River about then were the Osage, Kansa and Quapaw, who settled to the southwestern part of the territory. At that point the Ponca split, and the Omaha settled on Bow Creek in present-day Cedar County.Before 1700, the Iowa, a Siouan people whose language was Chiwere, moved from the Red Pipestone Quarry into Nebraska.
The Omaha separated from the Ponca at the mouth of White River in present-day South Dakota. The latter moved west into the Black Hills, but later they rejoined the Omaha. The Ponca settled at the Nemaha River while the Omaha became established to the south at Bow Creek.
By the Treaty of 1854, the Omaha ceded most of their land to the United States. They moved to a reservation within two years and later shared their land with the Winnebago. Also known by their autonym of Ho-Chunk, the latter moved to the reservation in 1862 after an uprising by the Lakota. The US government later granted land within the Omaha reservation boundaries to the Ho-Chunk, whose descendants still live there.
In 1877 the United States forced the Ponca tribe to move south to Indian Territory in Oklahoma, although they had wanted to stay on a reservation in Nebraska. The failure of the government to support the people adequately after the removal and poor conditions on the reservation led to many deaths. The US Army's detention of some Ponca leaders who returned to Nebraska was challenged in court and the case followed nationally by many Americans. It resulted in the landmark civil rights case of Standing Bear v. Crook (1872), which established that American Indians shared in certain rights under the constitution. Following the court case, the US assigned the tribe some land in Nebraska. Today the Ponca Tribe of Nebraska live in Knox County; another part of the people live on their federally recognized reservation in Oklahoma.
The Missouri lived south of the Platte River and, along with the Otoe, met with the Lewis and Clark Expedition at the Council Bluff. Like the Iowa, both tribes are part of the Chiwere branch of the Siouan-language family.In 1804 the Otoe had a town on the south side of the Platte River not far from its mouth on the Missouri. On March 3, 1881 the tribe sold all of their land in Nebraska to the federal government and moved to Indian Territory (now Oklahoma).
In 1830 the Fox Meskwaki and the Sauk, distinct Algonquian-speaking tribes that were closely related, ceded a great deal of land in Nebraska to the United States.Today the tribes are federally recognized together.
The Pawnee, which included four tribes, lived in villages along the Platte River. In the mid-nineteenth century, they ceded all of their lands in Nebraska to the United States except one reservation; in 1876 they surrendered this tract and moved to Indian Territory. The battle of Massacre Canyon on August 5, 1873, was the last major battle between the Pawnee and the Sioux. About 70 Pawnee were killed, mostly women and children.
Between 1857 and 1862 tribes gave up, or ceded, land for sale in Nebraska in five separate treaties with the U.S. government in the years immediately leading up to the passage of the Homestead Act.In 1854 Logan Fontenelle was chief and also translated the negotiations that led the Omaha to the first of five cessions of their lands to the United States. During the same negotiations, the tribe agreed to move to their present reservation to the north in Thurston County. The Otoe and Missouri tribes negotiated the last of four treaties that same year, and the Pawnee, Arapaho and Cheyenne all signed treaties within a few years.
In the 1870s the Nebraska Legislature petitioned the U.S. Congress for the extinction of the original holders' land rights in the state by drafting the following statement:
Whereas, the Indians now on special reservations in Nebraska hold and occupy valuable and important tracts of land, which while occupied will not be developed and improved; and Whereas the demand for lands which will be improved and made useful, are such that these Indian lands should no longer be held, but should be allowed to pass into the hands of enterprising and industrious citizens; ... [W]e urge upon our delegation in Congress to secure the removal of all Indians now on special reservations in Nebraska to other ... localities, where their presence will not retard settlements by the whites.
There are 18 separate treaties between American Indian tribes and the U.S. government for land in Nebraska which were negotiated between 1825 and 1892. By the 1850s the Pawnee, Omaha, Oto-Missouri, Ponca, Lakota, and Cheyenne were the main Great Plains tribes living in the Nebraska Territory.
|U.S. government treaties with American Indian tribes for land in Nebraska.|
|Kansas||1825||Ceded much of severe southeast Nebraska.|
|Oto||1830||The severe southeastern corner of Nebraska.|
|Oto||1833||Southeast Nebraska, near the mouth of the Platte, included land where the Moses Merill Mission was located.|
|Pawnee||1848||A small tract along the Platte River in central Nebraska.|
|Omaha||1854||Almost all of east-central and northeast Nebraska.|
|Oto and Missouri||1854||East-central Nebraska immediately south of the Platte River.|
|Pawnee||1857||All of north-central Nebraska between the Platte River and the South Dakota border.|
|Arapaho and Cheyenne||1861||All of southwestern and some of west-central Nebraska south of the North Platte River.|
|Omaha||1865||A small parcel of land compromising 1/4 of their reservation.|
|Lakota||1875||All of west-central Nebraska north of the North Platte River.|
|Pawnee||1875||A small tract north of the Platte River that included the land that became the Genoa Indian Industrial School.|
|Lakota, Northern Cheyenne and Arapaho||1876||All of severe northwestern Nebraska.|
|Omaha||1882||Two parcels of land in two treaties comprising 1/2 of their reservation lands, including land for the Winnebago reservation.|
|Lakota||1892||Ceded a parcel of land including Pine Ridge, Nebraska.|
Today the United States government recognizes several tribes in Nebraska. They include the Iowa Tribe of Kansas and Nebraska, the Omaha Tribe of Nebraska, the Ponca Tribe of Nebraska, the Sac & Fox Nation of Missouri in Kansas and Nebraska, the Santee Sioux Tribe of the Santee Reservation of Nebraska, and the Winnebago Tribe of Nebraska.
Indian reservations in Nebraska currently include land of the Ioway, Santee Sioux, Omaha, Sac and Fox, Winnebago, and Ponca. The Omaha ceded their Boone County lands to the U.S. government in 1854. The Pawnee gave up their Boone County lands in 1857. Nance County was a Pawnee reservation until 1875, when harassment by the whites and Sioux helped convince the Pawnee to relocate to Oklahoma.The Oto, Omaha, and Ioway ceded much of their land to the U.S. government in 1854, agreeing to settle on reservations in eastern Nebraska. That year the Nebraska Territory was organized and opened to settlement.
|Indian reservations in Nebraska.|
|Niobrara Reservation||Santee Sioux||1863||41,000 acres (17,000 ha)||Established by Act of March 3, 1863 (12 Stat. 819); treaty of April 29, 1868 (15 Stat. 637); Executive orders, February 27, 1866, November 16, 1867, August 31, 1869, December 31, 1873, and February 9, 1885. 32,875.75 acres (133.0434 km2) were selected as homesteads, 38,908.01 acres (157.4551 km2) as allotments, find 1,130.70 acres (4.5758 km2) for Indian agency, school, and mission purposes; unratified agreement of October 17, 1882.||The tribal offices are located in Niobrara, with reservation lands in Knox County.|
|Omaha Reservation||Omaha||1854||12,421 acres (5,027 ha)||Established by Treaty of March 16, 1854 (10 Stat. 1043); selection by Indians with the President's approval, May 11, 1855; treaty of March 6, 1865 (14 Stat. 667); act of June 10, 1872 (17 Stat. 391); act of June 22, 1874 (18 Stat. 170); deed to the Winnebago, dated July 31, 1874: act of August 7, 1882 (22 Stat. 341): act of March 3, 1893 (27 Stat. 612); 129,470 acres (523.9 km2) allotted to 1,577 Indians; the residue, 12,421 acres (50.27 km2), unallotted.||The reservation is located mostly in Thurston County, with sections in Cuming County and Burt County. The tribal council offices are in Macy, with the towns of Rosalie, Thurston, Pender and Walthill located in reservation boundaries.|
|Ogallala Sioux reservation||Ogallala Sioux||1882||640 acres (260 ha)||Established by Executive order on January 24, 1882 and sold to the U.S. government in 1899.|
|Oto Reservation||Oto||1834||160,000 acres (65,000 ha)||Located near the Platte River in eastern Nebraska, the reservation was the site of the Moses Merrill Mission. It was completely sold to the U.S. government by 1884.|
|Pawnee Reservation||Pawnee||1833||19,200 acres (7,800 ha)||The Pawnee sold all of their land to the U.S. government by 1870.||Located along the Loup River.|
|Ponca Reservation||Ponca||1858||27,500 acres (11,100 ha)||Established by Treaty of March 12, 1858 (12 Stat. 997), and supplemental treaty March 10, 1865 (14 Stat. 675); act of March 2, 1899 (25 Stat. 892). 27,202.08 acres (110.0829 km2) were allotted to 167 Indians, and 160 acres (0.65 km2) reserved and occupied by agency and school buildings.||The tribal council offices are located in Niobrara. This is also the location of the historic Ponca Fort called Nanza.|
|Sac and Fox Reservation||Sac and Fox||15,129 acres (6,122 ha)||Located in southeastern Richardson County, Nebraska and northeastern Brown County, Kansas|
|Winnebago Reservation||Winnebago||1863||1,711 acres (692 ha)||Established by Act of February 21, 1863 (12 Stat. 658): treaty of March 8, 1865 (14 Stat. 671): act of June 22, 1874 (18 Stat. 170); deed from the Omaha, dated July 31, 1874 (Indian Deeds, VI, 215). 106,040.82 acres (429.1320 km2) were allotted to 1,200 Indians; 480 acres (1.9 km2) reserved for agency, etc.; the residue, 1,710.80 acres (6.9234 km2), unallotted.||The tribal council offices are located in the town of Winnebago. The city of Emerson, south of First Street, as well as Thurston, is located on the reservation, as well. The reservation occupies northern Thurston County, Nebraska, as well as southeastern Dixon County and Woodbury County, Iowa, and a small plot of off-reservation land of southern Craig Township in Burt County, Nebraska.|
The Nemaha Half-Breed Reservation was located between the Great and Little Nemaha rivers in Nemaha County. Because the Omaha and some other tribes had patrilineal systems, mixed-race children with white fathers had no place in the tribe; they were considered white. When it came to land allocation, they could not take part. At the same time, many frontier societies were prejudiced against such mixed-race people. The tribes asked the federal government to allot land to their mixed-race descendants, so they would be provided for. On September 10, 1860, Louis Neal received the first patent to own land there. Owners were never required to live on their property. After many sold their lands to whites, the formal designation of the reservation was eliminated in 1861. Descendants of mixed-blood pioneers still live in the area.The town of Barada is named in honor of Antoine Barada, an early settler who became a folk hero.
Generally, no Nebraska state taxes are imposed on an American Indian living on an Indian reservation located within the state of Nebraska. A Nebraska State Tax Exemption Identification Card and number will be issued by the Nebraska Department of Revenue, upon request to any "reservation Indian". A reservation Indian registering a motor vehicle at a location within the boundaries of an Indian reservation in Nebraska is exempt from the state motor vehicle tax but is not exempt from license and registration fees.
The Omaha Tribal Council office is located in Macy, with the Winnebago Tribal Council in nearby Winnebago. The offices of the Ponca Tribe of Nebraska and the Santee Sioux Tribal Council offices are in Niobrara. The Bureau of Indian Affairs office serving Nebraska is located in Aberdeen, South Dakota, while the Winnebago Agency office serves the Omaha and Winnebago.
The Lakota are a Native American tribe. Also known as the Teton Sioux, they are one of the three tribes of the Great Sioux Nation. Their current lands are in North and South Dakota. They speak Lakȟótiyapi—the Lakota language, the westernmost of three closely related languages that belong to the Siouan language family.
The Sioux or Oceti Sakowin are groups of Native American tribes and First Nations peoples in North America. The term is an exonym created from a French transcription of the Anishinaabe term "Nadouessioux", and can refer to any ethnic group within the Great Sioux Nation or to any of the nation's many language dialects. The modern Sioux consist of two major divisions based on language divisions: the Dakota and Lakota.
As general terms, Indian Territory or the Indian Territories describe an evolving land area set aside by the United States Government for the relocation of Native Americans who held aboriginal title to their land. In general, the tribes ceded land they occupied in exchange for land grants in 1803. The concept of an Indian Territory was an outcome of the US federal government's 18th- and 19th-century policy of Indian removal. After the American Civil War (1861–1865), the policy of the US government was one of assimilation.
The Iowa or Ioway, known as the Bah-Kho-Je in their own language, are a Native American Siouan people. Today, they are enrolled in either of two federally recognized tribes, the Iowa Tribe of Oklahoma and the Iowa Tribe of Kansas and Nebraska.
The Treaty of Fort Laramie was an agreement between the United States and the Oglala, Miniconjou, and Brulé bands of Lakota people, Yanktonai Dakota and Arapaho Nation, following the failure of the first Fort Laramie treaty, signed in 1851.
The Otoe are a Native American people of the Midwestern United States. The Otoe language, Chiwere, is part of the Siouan family and closely related to that of the related Iowa and Missouri tribes.
The Ponca are a Midwestern Native American tribe of the Dhegihan branch of the Siouan language group. There are two federally recognized Ponca tribes: the Ponca Tribe of Nebraska and the Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma. Their traditions and historical accounts suggest they originated as a tribe east of the Mississippi River in the Ohio River valley area and migrated west for game and as a result of Iroquois wars.
Standing Bear was a Ponca chief and Native American civil rights leader who successfully argued in U.S. District Court in 1879 in Omaha that Native Americans are "persons within the meaning of the law" and have the right of habeas corpus, thus becoming the first Native American judicially granted civil rights under American law. His first wife Zazette Primeau (Primo), daughter of Lone Chief, mother of Prairie Flower and Bear Shield, was also a signatory on the 1879 writ that initiated the famous court case.
The Omaha are a federally recognized Midwestern Native American tribe who reside on the Omaha Reservation in northeastern Nebraska and western Iowa, United States. The Omaha Indian Reservation lies primarily in the southern part of Thurston County and northeastern Cuming County, Nebraska, but small parts extend into the northeast corner of Burt County and across the Missouri River into Monona County, Iowa. Its total land area is 796.355 km2 (307.474 sq mi) and a population of 5,194 was recorded in the 2000 census. Its largest community is Macy.
Joseph LaFlesche, also known as E-sta-mah-za or Iron Eye (1822–1888), was the last recognized head chief of the Omaha tribe of Native Americans who was selected according to the traditional tribal rituals. The head chief Big Elk had adopted LaFlesche as an adult into the Omaha and designated him in 1843 as his successor. LaFlesche was of Ponca and French Canadian ancestry; he became a chief in 1853, after Big Elk's death. An 1889 account said that he had been the only chief among the Omaha to have known European ancestry.
The Dakota are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government in North America. They compose two of the three main subcultures of the Sioux people, and are typically divided into the Eastern Dakota and the Western Dakota.
The Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma, also known as the Ponca Nation, is one of two federally recognized tribes of Ponca people. The other is the Ponca Tribe of Nebraska. Traditionally, peoples of both tribes have spoken the Omaha-Ponca language, part of the Siouan language family.
A Half-Breed Tract was a segment of land designated in the western states by the United States government in the 19th century specifically for Métis of American Indian and European or European-American ancestry, at the time commonly known as half-breeds. The government set aside such tracts in several parts of the Midwestern prairie region, including in Iowa Territory, Nebraska Territory, Kansas Territory, Minnesota Territory, and Wisconsin Territory.
The Nemaha Half-Breed Reservation was established by the Fourth Treaty of Prairie du Chien of 1830, which set aside a tract of land for the mixed-ancestry descendants of French-Canadian trappers and women of the Oto, Iowa, and Omaha, as well as the Yankton and Santee Sioux tribes.
The Niobrara Reservation is a former Indian Reservation in northeast Nebraska. It originally comprised lands for both the Santee Sioux and the Ponca, both Siouan-speaking tribes, near the mouth of the Niobrara River at its confluence with the Missouri River. In the late nineteenth century the United States government built a boarding school at the reservation for the Native American children in the region. By 1908 after allotment of plots to individual households of the tribes under the Dawes Act, 1,130.7 acres (4.576 km2) were reserved for an agency, school and mission for a distinct Santee Sioux Reservation; the neighboring Ponca Reservation had only 160 acres (0.65 km2) reserved for agency and school buildings.
The Ponca Reservation of the Ponca Tribe of Nebraska is located in northeast Nebraska, with the seat of tribal government located in Niobrara, Knox County. The Indian reservation is also the location of the historic Ponca Fort called Nanza. The Ponca tribe does not actually have a reservation because the state of Nebraska will not allow them to have one. However, they do in fact have a 15-county service delivery area, including counties spread throughout Nebraska, South Dakota and Iowa.
American Indians of Iowa include numerous Native American tribes and prehistoric cultures that have lived in this territory for thousands of years. There has been movement both within the territory, by prehistoric cultures that descended into historic tribes, and by other historic tribes that migrated into the territory from eastern territories. In some cases they were pushed by development pressure and warfare.
The fourth Treaty of Prairie du Chien was negotiated between the United States and the Sac and Fox, the Mdewakanton, Wahpekute, Wahpeton and Sisiton Sioux, Omaha, Ioway, Otoe and Missouria tribes. The treaty was signed on July 15, 1830, with William Clark and Willoughby Morgan representing the United States. Through additional negotiations conducted in St. Louis on October 13, 1830, Yankton Sioux and Santee Sioux agreed to abide by the 1830 Treaty of Prairie du Chien. The US government announced the treaty and its numerous adherents on February 24, 1831.