Korean Braille

Last updated
Korean Braille
Korean Braille.jpg
Type
Tactile alphabet , syllabically marked
LanguagesKorean
Parent systems
Night writing
Print basis
Hangul
Korean Braille
Hangul
Hanja
한글
Revised Romanization hangeul jeomja
McCune–Reischauer han’gŭl chŏmja

Korean Braille is the braille alphabet of the Korean language. It is not graphically-related to other braille scripts found around the world. Instead, it reflects the patterns found in hangul, and differentiates initial consonants, vowels, and final consonants.

Contents

Charts

It features characters for grammatical devices and punctuation. Numerals are similar to those of other braille systems.

Consonants

Consonants have different syllable-initial and -final variants, capturing some of the feel of hangul. The initial and final variants have the same shapes, but are shifted across the braille block. There are two patterns: The consonants that span the width of the block are shifted one space downward when final. Those that don't span the width of the block are on the right side of the block when initial, but on the left side when final.

No consonant occupies more than two rows.

romangndrmbsjchktphng
hangul
initial Korean Initial G Braille.svg Korean Initial N Braille.svg Korean Initial D Braille.svg Korean Initial R Braille.svg Korean Initial M Braille.svg Korean Initial B Braille.svg Korean Initial S Braille.svg Korean Initial J Braille.svg Korean Initial Ch Braille.svg Korean Initial K Braille.svg Korean Initial T Braille.svg Korean Initial P Braille.svg Korean Initial H Braille.svg *
final Korean Final G Braille.svg Korean Final N Braille.svg Korean Final D Braille.svg Korean Final R Braille.svg Korean Final M Braille.svg Korean Final B Braille.svg Korean Final S Braille.svg Korean Final J Braille.svg Korean Final Ch Braille.svg Korean Final K Braille.svg Korean Final T Braille.svg Korean Final P Braille.svg Korean Final H Braille.svg Korean Final Ng Braille.svg

*There is no initial version of ng. Initial ieung in hangul is not written in Korean Braille. However, the expected form is reserved and may not serve other uses, such as punctuation.

The heavy (double) consonants are written by prefixing an s, an old hangul convention. In initial position, they are: [1]

ss
kk
tt
pp
jj

Vowels

All vowels span the width and height of the block. Because the consonants are specifically syllable-initial or syllable-final, a syllable that begins with a vowel causes no confusion when written without ieung.

The simpler vowels reflect the symmetries of hangul: the yin–yang pairs a, eo and o, u are related through inversion, and yotization of a, eo, o, u is indicated by reflecting the vowel. This creates a different pattern of symmetry than in hangul. The graphically-similar hangul letters i and eu are also related by reflection. The w in wa, wo is indicated by making the left side of the block solid, while the i in ui, oe is shown by making the right side solid. However, the diphthongs e, ae and their yotized variants show no such patterns.

Four diphthongs are represented with two braille blocks, by adding to the appropriate vowel for the final element -i.

romanayaeoyeooyouyueuieaeye
hangul
braille Braille E.svg Braille A.svg Braille S.svg Braille U.svg Braille U.svg Braille O.svg Braille M.svg Braille SH.svg Braille O.svg Braille O.svg Braille N.svg Braille R.svg Braille ST.svg
romanuiwawooeyaewaewewi
hangul
braille Braille W.svg Braille V.svg Braille P.svg Braille Y.svg Braille A.svg Braille R.svg Braille V.svg Braille R.svg Braille P.svg Braille R.svg Braille M.svg Braille R.svg

Abbreviations

Korean Braille contains several single cell syllable defined. Many are the braille cell for an initial consonant, with an assumed vowel "a" added. Some make use of unused cell definitions, while others utilize multi-cell abbreviations, often using malformed consonant clusters or consonant/vowel combinations otherwise abbreviated.

romanganadamabasajakatapaha-sseogong
hangul-ㅆ
braille Braille E.svg Braille C3.svg Braille I9.svg Braille E5.svg Braille Currency.svg Braille L.svg Braille DecimalPoint.svg Braille F6.svg Braille H8.svg Braille D4.svg Braille J0.svg Braille ST.svg Braille O.svg Braille E.svg
romanulogyeonunoneoneolyeolinyeong [2] euleungeos
hangul [2]
braille Braille AND.svg Braille X.svg Braille A.svg Braille G7.svg Braille A.svg Braille U.svg Braille T.svg Braille U.svg Braille Q.svg Braille I.svg Braille E.svg Braille Z.svg Braille CursiveSign.svg Braille S.svg
romangeureonageureomyeongeuraeseogeureondegeureomeurogeurigogeurihayeo
hangul그러나그러면그래서그런데그러므로그리고그리하여
braille Braille A1.svg Braille C3.svg Braille A1.svg Braille Colon.svg Braille A1.svg Braille S.svg Braille A1.svg Braille N.svg Braille A1.svg Braille QuestionMark.svg Braille A1.svg Braille U.svg Braille A1.svg Braille U.svg

Punctuation

print,;:.?!“...”‘...’(...)
braille Braille ContractionPrefix.svg Braille Correction.svg Braille Semicolon.svg Braille ContractionPrefix.svg Braille Comma.svg Braille Period.svg Braille QuoteOpen.svg Braille ExclamationPoint.svg Braille QuoteOpen.svg Braille NULL.svg Braille QuoteClose.svg Braille CapitalSign.svg Braille QuoteOpen.svg Braille NULL.svg Braille QuoteClose.svg Braille Apostrophe.svg Braille Hyphen.svg Braille NULL.svg Braille Hyphen.svg
print-·/+×÷=
braille Braille Hyphen.svg Braille Hyphen.svg Braille Hyphen.svg Braille Asterisk.svg Braille Asterisk.svg Braille ContractionPrefix.svg Braille Semicolon.svg Braille CursiveSign.svg Braille ST.svg Braille QuestionMark.svg Braille Asterisk.svg Braille A.svg Braille ST.svg Braille ST.svg Braille Colon.svg Braille Colon.svg

Formatting

print(number)(roman)
braille Braille NumberSign.svg Braille QuoteClose.svg

As in most braille scripts, is prefixed to digits, which are the same as in English Braille. is prefixed to the 26 basic roman letters in the same way.

History

The first tactile encoding of hangul was developed by Rosetta Sherwood Hall in 1894. It used a cell 4 dots wide by 2 dots high, like New York Point. 6-dot braille was adapted to Korean by Park Du-seong in 1926. There have since been a number of revisions. The current form was announced in 1994.

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References

  1. UNESCO (2013) World Braille Usage, 3rd edition.
  2. 1 2 eong after s, ss, j, jj, and ch.

Sources