Cyrillization of Korean

Last updated

The Kontsevich system (Russian :Систе́ма Конце́вича, tr. Sistema Kontsevicha,IPA:  [sʲɪˈsʲtʲemə kɐnˈt͡sɛvʲɪt͡ɕə] ) is a cyrillization system for the Korean language and currently the main system of transcribing and transliterating Korean words into the Cyrillic alphabet. The Kontsevich system was created by the Soviet-Russian scholar Lev Kontsevich (Russian :Лев Конце́вич,IPA:  [kɐnˈtsɛvʲɪtɕ] ) in the 1950s based on the earlier transliteration system designed by Aleksandr Kholodovich (Russian :Алекса́ндр Холодо́вич,IPA:  [ɐlʲɪkˈsandr xəlɐˈdovʲɪtɕ] ).

Contents

Features

Cyrillization systems for Korean were developed domestically in both North Korea (where it has been proposed to replace the current script in the past) and South Korea; Kontsevich carried out work on the systemization of these rules. In contrast with some systems of romanization of Korean, the transcription is based primarily on the pronunciation of a word, rather than on its spelling.

Consonants

Initial

Hangul
Cyrillic кнтрмпсччхкхтхпххккттппссчч
McCune–Reischauer kntrmpschch'k't'p'hkkttppsstch
Revised Romanization gndrmbsjchktphkkttppssjj

Final

Hangul
Cyrillic кнтльмптттктптктнъ
McCune–Reischauer kntlmptttktptktng
Revised Romanization kntlmptttktptktng

Medial consonant rules

Some letters are transcribed differently in the middle of a word when following certain other letters.

Next initial
Previous
ending
кнтрмпсччхкхтхпхх
кккннктнннмкпкскчкчхккхктхкпхкхг
ннгннндллнмнбнснджнчхнкхнтхнпхнхн
льльгллльттллльмльбльссльччльчхлькхльтхльпхрхр
ммгмнмдмнмммбмсмджмчхмкхмтхмпхмхм
ппкмнптмнммпппспчпчхпкхптхппхпхб
нънгнннднннмнбнснджнчхнкхнтхнпхнхнъ

Vowels

Hangul
Cyrillic аяоёо́ёуюыиэйяе́йе/
вевиый/
вавовэве
McCune–Reischauer ayaŏoyouyuŭiaeyaee/
yeoewiŭiwawaewe
Revised Romanization ayaeoyeooyouyueuiaeyaeeyeoewiuiwawowaewe

Examples

English Hangul (Hanja) RR
(RR transliteration in parentheses)
Kontsevich
(Latin transliteration in parentheses)
wall벽(壁)byeok
(byeog)
пёк
(pyok)
on the wall벽에byeoge
(byeog-e)
пёге
(pyoge)
outside
(uninflected)
bak
(bakk)
пак
(pak)
outside밖에bakke
(bakk-e)
пакке
(pakke)
kitchen부엌bueok
(bueok)
пуок
(puok)
to the kitchen부엌에bueoke
(bueok-e)
пуокхе
(puokhe)
Wikipedia위키백과(百科)wikibaekgwa
(wikibaeggwa)
викхибэкква
(vikhibèkkva)
Hangul 한글hangeulorhan-geul
(han-geul)
хангыль
(hangyl')
Hanja 한자 (漢字)hanja
(han-ja)
ханчча
(hanchcha)
character, letter 글자( - 字)geulja
(geul-ja)
кыльчча
(kyl'chcha)
(an) easy (+ noun)쉬운…swiun…
(swiun…)
свиун…
(sviun…)
Four seasons are distinct.사계절(四季節)이 뚜렷하다.Sagyejeori tturyeotada.
(Sa-gye-jeol-i ttu-lyeos-ha-da.)
Сагеджори ттурётхада.
(Sagedzhori tturyothada)
Just check the line color and width you want.원(願)하시는 선(線) 색(色)깔과 굵기에 체크하시면 됩니다.Wonhasineun seon saekkkalgwa gulgie chekeuhasimyeon doemnida.
(Won-ha-si-neun seon saeg-kkal-gwa gulg-gi-e che-keu-ha-si-myeon doeb-ni-da.)
Вонхасинын сон сэкккальгва кульккие чхекхыхасимён твемнида.
(Vonhasinyn son sèkkal'gva kul'kkie chhekhyhasimyon tvemnida.)
Democratic People's Republic of Korea 조선민주주의인민공화국
(朝鮮民主主義人民共和國)
Joseon Minjujuui Inmin Gonghwaguk
(Jo-seon Min-ju-ju-ui In-min Gong-hwa-gug)

Чосон Минджуджуый Инмин Конъхвагук
(Choson Mindzhudzhuyy Inmin Kon'hvaguk)

Notes

Korean personal names are written by family name first, followed by a space and then the given name. As a rule, syllables in given names are not separated.

See also

Related Research Articles

The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet. It was devised by the International Phonetic Association in the late 19th century as a standardized representation of the sounds of spoken language. The IPA is used by lexicographers, foreign language students and teachers, linguists, speech-language pathologists, singers, actors, constructed language creators and translators.

Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping letters in predictable ways, such as Greek ⟨α⟩ → ⟨a⟩, Cyrillic ⟨д⟩ → ⟨d⟩, Greek ⟨χ⟩ → the digraph ⟨ch⟩, Armenian ⟨ն⟩ → ⟨n⟩ or Latin ⟨æ⟩ → ⟨ae⟩.

Romanization transliteration of characters in a writing system to Latin character system

Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics, is the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Roman (Latin) script, or a system for doing so. Methods of romanization include transliteration, for representing written text, and transcription, for representing the spoken word, and combinations of both. Transcription methods can be subdivided into phonemic transcription, which records the phonemes or units of semantic meaning in speech, and more strict phonetic transcription, which records speech sounds with precision.

Phonetic transcription is the visual representation of speech sounds by means of symbols. The most common type of phonetic transcription uses a phonetic alphabet, such as the International Phonetic Alphabet.

McCune–Reischauer Korean language romanization system

McCune–Reischauer romanization is one of the two most widely used Korean language romanization systems. A modified version of McCune–Reischauer was the official romanization system in South Korea until 2000, when it was replaced by the Revised Romanization of Korean system. A variant of McCune–Reischauer is still used as the official system in North Korea.

Romanization of Korean

Romanization of Korean refers to systems for representing the Korean language in the Latin script. Korea's alphabetic script, called Hangul, has historically been used in conjunction with Hanja, though such practice has become infrequent.

Cyrillization transcription of languages using other writing systems into Cyrillic script

Cyrillization is the process of rendering words of a language that normally uses a writing system other than Cyrillic script into the Cyrillic alphabet. Although such a process has often been carried out in an ad hoc fashion, the term "cyrillization" usually refers to a consistent system applied, for example, to transcribe names of German, Chinese, or English people and places for use in Russian, Ukrainian, Serbian, Macedonian or Bulgarian newspapers and books. Cyrillization is analogous to romanization, when words from a non-Latin-script-using language are rendered in the Latin alphabet for use

Polivanov system is a system of transliterating the Japanese language into Russian Cyrillic script, either to represent Japanese proper names or terms in Russian or as an aid to Japanese language learning in those languages. The system was developed by Yevgeny Polivanov in 1917.

The romanization or Latinization of Ukrainian is the representation of the Ukrainian language using Latin letters. Ukrainian is natively written in its own Ukrainian alphabet, which is based on the Cyrillic script. Romanization may be employed to represent Ukrainian text or pronunciation for non-Ukrainian readers, on computer systems that cannot reproduce Cyrillic characters, or for typists who are not familiar with the Ukrainian keyboard layout. Methods of romanization include transliteration, representing written text, and transcription, representing the spoken word.

The Royal Thai General System of Transcription (RTGS) is the official system for rendering Thai words in the Latin alphabet. It was published by the Royal Institute of Thailand.

Romanization of Hebrew transcription of Hebrew into the Latin alphabet

Hebrew uses the Hebrew alphabet with optional vowel diacritics. The romanization of Hebrew is the use of the Latin alphabet to transliterate Hebrew words.

Khmer romanization refers to the romanization of the Khmer (Cambodian) language, that is, the representation of that language using letters of the Latin (Roman) alphabet. This is most commonly done with Khmer proper nouns such as names of people and geographical names, as in a gazetteer.

There are many systems for the romanization of the Thai language, i.e. representing the language in Latin script. These include systems of transliteration, and transcription.

The SASM/GNC/SRC romanization of Tibetan, commonly known as Tibetan pinyin or ZWPY, is the official transcription system for the Tibetan language in the People's Republic of China for personal names and place names. It is based on pronunciation of China National Radio's Tibetan Radio pronunciation, which is the Lhasa dialect of Standard Tibetan and reflects the pronunciation except that it does not mark tone. It is used within China as an alternative to the Wylie transliteration for writing Tibetan in the Latin script. Within academic circles, Wylie transliteration is more commonly used.

Romanisation of Bengali is the representation of written Bengali language in the Latin script. Various romanisation systems for Bengali are used, most of which do not perfectly represent Bengali pronunciation. While different standards for romanisation have been proposed for Bengali, none has been adopted with the same degree of uniformity as Japanese or Sanskrit.

The Cyrillization of Chinese is the transcription of Chinese characters into the Cyrillic alphabet.

Yo (Cyrillic) Cyrillic letter

Yo is a letter of the Cyrillic script. In Unicode, the letter ⟨Ё⟩ is named CYRILLIC CAPITAL/SMALL LETTER IO.

Orthographic transcription is a transcription method that employs the standard spelling system of each target language.

ISO 11940-2 is an ISO standard for a simplified transcription of the Thai language into Latin characters.

The cyrillization of Japanese is the process of transliterating or transcribing the Japanese language into Cyrillic script, either to represent Japanese proper names or terms in Cyrillic script or as an aid to Japanese language learning in those languages. This can be done in an ad hoc fashion or using one of a number of systems.