|Korean writing systems|
|Chosŏn'gŭl (in North Korea)|
The Kontsevich system (Russian :Систе́ма Конце́вича, tr. Sistema Kontsevicha,IPA: [sʲɪˈsʲtʲemə kɐnˈt͡sɛvʲɪt͡ɕə] ) is a cyrillization system for the Korean language and currently the main system of transcribing and transliterating Korean words into the Cyrillic alphabet. The Kontsevich system was created by the Soviet-Russian scholar Lev Kontsevich (Russian :Лев Конце́вич,IPA: [kɐnˈtsɛvʲɪtɕ] ) in the 1950s based on the earlier transliteration system designed by Aleksandr Kholodovich (Russian :Алекса́ндр Холодо́вич,IPA: [ɐlʲɪkˈsandr xəlɐˈdovʲɪtɕ] ).
Cyrillization systems for Korean were developed domestically in both North Korea (where it has been proposed to replace the current script in the past) and South Korea; Kontsevich carried out work on the systemization of these rules. In contrast with some systems of romanization of Korean, the transcription is based primarily on the pronunciation of a word, rather than on its spelling.
Some letters are transcribed differently in the middle of a word when following certain other letters.
|English||Hangul (Hanja)|| RR |
(RR transliteration in parentheses)
(Latin transliteration in parentheses)
|on the wall||벽에||byeoge|
|to the kitchen||부엌에||bueoke|
|character, letter||글자( - 字)||geulja|
|(an) easy (+ noun)||쉬운…||swiun…|
|Four seasons are distinct.||사계절(四季節)이 뚜렷하다.||Sagyejeori tturyeotada.|
|Just check the line color and width you want.||원(願)하시는 선(線) 색(色)깔과 굵기에 체크하시면 됩니다.||Wonhasineun seon saekkkalgwa gulgie chekeuhasimyeon doemnida.|
(Won-ha-si-neun seon saeg-kkal-gwa gulg-gi-e che-keu-ha-si-myeon doeb-ni-da.)
|Вонхасинын сон сэкккальгва кульккие чхекхыхасимён твемнида.|
(Vonhasinyn son sèkkal'gva kul'kkie chhekhyhasimyon tvemnida.)
|Democratic People's Republic of Korea||조선민주주의인민공화국|
|Joseon Minjujuui Inmin Gonghwaguk|
(Jo-seon Min-ju-ju-ui In-min Gong-hwa-gug)
|Чосон Минджуджуый Инмин Конъхвагук|
(Choson Mindzhudzhuyy Inmin Kon'hvaguk)
Korean personal names are written by family name first, followed by a space and then the given name. As a rule, syllables in given names are not separated.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet. It was devised by the International Phonetic Association in the late 19th century as a standardized representation of the sounds of spoken language. The IPA is used by lexicographers, foreign language students and teachers, linguists, speech-language pathologists, singers, actors, constructed language creators and translators.
Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping letters in predictable ways, such as Greek ⟨α⟩ → ⟨a⟩, Cyrillic ⟨д⟩ → ⟨d⟩, Greek ⟨χ⟩ → the digraph ⟨ch⟩, Armenian ⟨ն⟩ → ⟨n⟩ or Latin ⟨æ⟩ → ⟨ae⟩.
Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics, is the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Roman (Latin) script, or a system for doing so. Methods of romanization include transliteration, for representing written text, and transcription, for representing the spoken word, and combinations of both. Transcription methods can be subdivided into phonemic transcription, which records the phonemes or units of semantic meaning in speech, and more strict phonetic transcription, which records speech sounds with precision.
Phonetic transcription is the visual representation of speech sounds by means of symbols. The most common type of phonetic transcription uses a phonetic alphabet, such as the International Phonetic Alphabet.
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Khmer romanization refers to the romanization of the Khmer (Cambodian) language, that is, the representation of that language using letters of the Latin (Roman) alphabet. This is most commonly done with Khmer proper nouns such as names of people and geographical names, as in a gazetteer.
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The Cyrillization of Chinese is the transcription of Chinese characters into the Cyrillic alphabet.
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The cyrillization of Japanese is the process of transliterating or transcribing the Japanese language into Cyrillic script, either to represent Japanese proper names or terms in Cyrillic script or as an aid to Japanese language learning in those languages. This can be done in an ad hoc fashion or using one of a number of systems.