This article needs additional citations for verification . (June 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
|Romanian Cyrillic alphabet|
The Moldovan Cyrillic alphabet is a Cyrillic alphabet designed for the local language of the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic in the Soviet Union, then known as "Moldavian" and referred to as Moldovan in Transnistria and both Moldovan and Romanian in Moldova proper.It was also in use between 1924 and 1932 in the Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic and between 1938 and 1989 in the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic.
Until the 19th century, Romanian was usually written using a local variant of the Cyrillic alphabet. A variant based on the reformed Russian civil script, first introduced in the late 18th century, became widespread in Bessarabia after its annexation to the Russian Empire, while the rest of the Principality of Moldavia gradually switched to a Latin-based alphabet, adopted officially after its union with Wallachia that resulted in the creation of Romania. [ citation needed ][ clarification needed ] As was the case with other Cyrillic-based languages in the Soviet Union, such as Russian, Ukrainian or Belarusian, obsolete and redundant characters were dropped in an effort to simplify orthography and boost literacy. It was abandoned for a Latin-based alphabet during the Union-wide Latinisation campaign in 1932.[ citation needed ] Its re-introduction was decided by the Central Executive Committee of the Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic on May 19, 1938, albeit with an orthography more similar to standard Russian.[ citation needed ] Following the Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, it was established as the official alphabet of the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic until 1989, when a law returned to the Latin-based Romanian alphabet.The Moldovan Cyrillic alphabet was introduced in the early 1920s, in the Soviet bid to standardise the orthography of Romanian in the Moldavian ASSR; at the same time furthering political objectives by marking a clear distinction from the Latin-based Romanian orthography introduced in Romania in the 1860s.
There were several requests to switch back to the Latin alphabet, which was seen "more suitable for the Romance core of the language", in the Moldavian SSR.[ citation needed ] In 1965, the demands of the 3rd Congress of Writers of Soviet Moldavia were rejected by the leadership of the Communist Party, the replacement being deemed "contrary to the interests of the Moldavian people and not reflecting its aspirations and hopes".
All but one letters of this alphabet can be found in the modern Russian alphabet; the exception is the letter Ӂ . The Russian letter Ъ is also absent from the Moldovan Cyrillic alphabet.
The following chart shows the Moldovan Cyrillic alphabet compared with the Latin alphabet currently in use. IPA values are given for the post-1957 literary standard.
|Cyrillic letter:||Equates to Latin letter:||Name||As employed in this context:||IPA|
|А а||a||а (a)||/a/|
|Б б||b||бе (be)||/b/|
|В в||v||ве (ve)||/v/|
|Г г||g, gh||ге (ge)||gh used before i or e, elsewhere g||/ɡ/|
|Д д||d||де (de)||/d/|
|Е е||e, ie||е (e)||ie after a vowel or if it alternates with ia, elsewhere e||/e/, /je/|
|Ж ж||j||же (je)||/ʒ/|
|Ӂ ӂ||g, ge, gi||ӂе (ġe)||g before i and e, ge before a, gi elsewhere||/dʒ/|
|З з||z||зе (ze)||/z/|
|И и||i, ii[ citation needed ]||и (i)||ii used at end of word, i elsewhere||/i/|
|Й й||i||и скурт (i scurt)||before and after vowels||/j/|
|К к||c, ch||ка (ka)||ch before i and e, c elsewhere||/k/|
|Л л||l||ле (le)||/l/|
|М м||m||ме (me)||/m/|
|Н н||n||не (ne)||/n/|
|О о||o||о (o)||/o/|
|П п||p||пе (pe)||/p/|
|Р р||r||ре (re)||/r/|
|С с||s||се (se)||/s/|
|Т т||t||те (te)||/t/|
|У у||u||у (u)||/u/|
|Ф ф||f||фе (fe)||/f/|
|Х х||h||ха (ha)||/h/|
|Ц ц||ț||це (ce)||/ts/|
|Ч ч||c, ce, ci||че (če)||c before i and e, ce before a, ci elsewhere||/tʃ/|
|Ш ш||ș||ше (še)||/ʃ/|
|Ы ы||â, î||ы (ı)||â and î||/ɨ/|
|Ь ь||i||семнул моале (semnul moale)||At end of word (usually)||/ʲ/ (i.e. palatalization of preceding consonant)|
|Э э||ă||э (ă)||/ə/|
|Ю ю||iu||ю (û)||/ju/, /ʲu/|
|Я я||ea, ia||я (â)||ea after a consonant or е, ia elsewhere||/ja/, /ʲa/|
This text is from Limba noastră .
|Latin script||Moldovan Cyrillic script|
Limba noastră-i o comoară
Лимба ноастрэ-й о комоарэ
The history of Moldova can be traced to the 1350s, when the Principality of Moldavia, the medieval precursor of modern Moldova and Romania, was founded. The principality was a vassal of the Ottoman Empire from 1538 until the 19th century. In 1812, following one of several Russian-Turkish wars, the eastern half of the principality, Bessarabia, was annexed by the Russian Empire. In 1918, Bessarabia briefly became independent as the Moldavian Democratic Republic and, following the decision of the Parliament, united with Romania. During the Second World War it was occupied by the Soviet Union which reclaimed it from Romania and joined it as Moldavian ASSR, until the dissolution of the USSR. In 1991 the country declared independence as the Republic of Moldova.
Moldova, officially the Republic of Moldova, is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe. It is bordered by Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north, east, and south. The capital city is Chișinău.
Romanian is a Balkan Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language. According to another estimate, there are about 34 million people worldwide who can speak Romanian, of whom 30 million speak it as a native language. It is an official and national language of both Romania and Moldova and is one of the official languages of the European Union.
Bessarabia is a historical region in Eastern Europe, bounded by the Dniester river on the east and the Prut river on the west. About two thirds of Bessarabia lies within modern-day Moldova, with the Ukrainian Budjak region covering the southern coastal region and part of the Ukrainian Chernivtsi Oblast covering a small area in the north.
Moldovan, also known historically as Moldavian, is one of the two names of the Romanian language in the Republic of Moldova, prescribed by Article 13 of the current constitution. The other name, recognized by the Declaration of Independence of Moldova and the Constitutional Court of Moldova, is "Romanian".
The Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic was one of the 15 republics of the Soviet Union which existed from 1940 to 1991. The republic was formed on 2 August 1940 from parts of Bessarabia, a region annexed from Romania on 28 June of that year, and parts of the Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, an autonomous Soviet republic within the Ukrainian SSR.
Bender or Bendery, also known as Tighina, is a city within the internationally recognized borders of Moldova under de facto control of the unrecognized Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (Transnistria) (PMR) since 1992. It is located on the western bank of the river Dniester in the Romanian historical region of Bessarabia.
The Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, shortened to Moldavian ASSR, was an autonomous republic of the Ukrainian SSR between 12 October 1924 and 2 August 1940, encompassing as well the modern territory of Transnistria. It was an artificial political creation inspired by the Bolshevik nationalities policy in the context of the loss of larger Bessarabia to Romania in April 1918. In such a manner, the Bolshevik leadership tried to radicalize pro-Soviet feelings in Bessarabia with a goal to return it in the presence of favorable conditions and creation of geopolitical "place d'armes" (bridgehead) to execute a breakthrough in the Balkan direction by projecting influence upon Romanian Bessarabia, which would eventually be occupied in 1940 after the signing of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact.
Moldovans, sometimes referred as Moldavians, are the largest ethnic group of the Republic of Moldova, and a significant minority in Ukraine and Russia.
Moldovenism is a political term used to refer to the support and promotion of the Moldovan identity and Moldovan culture primarily by the opponents of such ideas.
The Metropolis of Chișinău and All Moldova, also referred to as the Moldovan Orthodox Church, is a self-governing metropolitanate under the Russian Orthodox Church. Its canonical territory is the Republic of Moldova.
The official state language of Moldova is Moldovan/Romanian which, under either name, is the native language of 82.2% of the population; it is also spoken as a primary language by other ethnic minorities. Gagauz, Russian, and Ukrainian languages are granted official regional status in Gagauzia and/or Transnistria.
The Union of Bessarabia with Romania was proclaimed on April 9 [O.S. March 27] 1918 by Sfatul Țării, the legislative body of the Moldavian Democratic Republic.
A controversy exists over the national identity and name of the native language of the main ethnic group in Moldova. The issue more frequently disputed is whether Moldovans constitute a subgroup of Romanians or a separate ethnic group. While there is wide agreement about the existence of a common language, the controversy persists about the use of the term "Moldovan language" in certain political contexts.
Russians in Moldova form the second largest ethnic minority in the country. According to the Moldovan Census (2004) and a separate 2004 Census in Transnistria, about 370,000 persons identified themselves as ethnic Russians in Moldova.
Igor Caşu is a historian from the Republic of Moldova.
Literature of Moldova comprises the literature of the principality of Moldavia, the later trans-Prut Moldavia, Bessarabia, the Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic, and the modern Republic of Moldova, irrespective of the language. Although there has been considerable controversy over linguistic identity in Moldova, the Moldovan and Romanian languages are virtually identical and share a common literary history. Moldovan literature, therefore, has considerable overlap with Romanian literature.
Western Moldavia, also called Moldavia or Romanian Moldavia, is the historic and geographical part of the former Principality of Moldavia situated in eastern and north-eastern Romania. Until its union with Wallachia in 1859, the Principality of Moldavia also included, at various times in its history, the regions of Bessarabia, all of Bukovina, and Hertza; the larger part of the former is nowadays the independent state of Moldova, while the rest of it, the northern part of Bukovina, and Hertza form territories of Ukraine.
Greater Moldova or Greater Moldavia in an irredentist concept according to which the territories of the Republic of Moldova should be expanded to the lands that used to belong to the Principality of Moldavia, specifically including Western Moldavia and the whole of Bessarabia, as well as Bukovina and sometimes, parts of Transylvania. The idea of Greater Moldova was briefly promoted by the Soviet Moldavian politician Nikita Salogor in the aftermath of World War II, and has seen some marginal resurgence in the 21st century.
124. ... Prin urmare, Curtea consideră că prevederea conținută în Declarația de Independență referitoare la limba română ca limbă de stat a Republicii Moldova prevalează asupra prevederii referitoare la limba moldovenească conținute în articolul 13 al Constituției.