Moldovan Cyrillic alphabet

Last updated
Moldovan Cyrillic
Script type
Time period
1924–today
Languages Moldovan
Related scripts
Parent systems
Sister systems
Romanian Cyrillic alphabet
 This article contains phonetic transcriptions in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA).For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.For the distinction between [ ], / / and  , see IPA § Brackets and transcription delimiters.
Welcome (Bine ati venit!) sign in Moldovan Cyrillic in Tiraspol, the capital of Transnistria, in 2012 SignInMoldovanCyrillic.JPG
Welcome (Bine ați venit!) sign in Moldovan Cyrillic in Tiraspol, the capital of Transnistria, in 2012

The Moldovan Cyrillic alphabet is a Cyrillic alphabet designed for the local language of the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic in the Soviet Union, then known as "Moldavian" and referred to as Moldovan in Transnistria and both Moldovan and Romanian in Moldova proper. [1] It was also in use between 1924 and 1932 in the Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic and between 1938 and 1989 in the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic.

Contents

History

Until the 19th century, Romanian was usually written using a local variant of the Cyrillic alphabet. A variant based on the reformed Russian civil script, first introduced in the late 18th century, became widespread in Bessarabia after its annexation to the Russian Empire, while the rest of the Principality of Moldavia gradually switched to a Latin-based alphabet, adopted officially after its union with Wallachia that resulted in the creation of Romania. [2] The Moldovan Cyrillic alphabet was introduced in the early 1920s, in the Soviet bid to standardise the orthography of Romanian in the Moldavian ASSR; at the same time furthering political objectives by marking a clear distinction from the Latin-based Romanian orthography introduced in Romania in the 1860s.[ citation needed ][ clarification needed ] As was the case with other Cyrillic-based languages in the Soviet Union, such as Russian, Ukrainian or Belarusian, obsolete and redundant characters were dropped in an effort to simplify orthography and boost literacy. It was abandoned for a Latin-based alphabet during the Union-wide Latinisation campaign in 1932.[ citation needed ] Its re-introduction was decided by the Central Executive Committee of the Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic on May 19, 1938, albeit with an orthography more similar to standard Russian.[ citation needed ] Following the Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, it was established as the official alphabet of the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic until 1989, when a law returned to the Latin-based Romanian alphabet.

There were several requests to switch back to the Latin alphabet, which was seen "more suitable for the Romance core of the language", in the Moldavian SSR.[ citation needed ] In 1965, the demands of the 3rd Congress of Writers of Soviet Moldavia were rejected by the leadership of the Communist Party, the replacement being deemed "contrary to the interests of the Moldavian people and not reflecting its aspirations and hopes". [3]

Description

All but one letters of this alphabet can be found in the modern Russian alphabet; the exception is the letter Ӂ . The Russian letter Ъ is also absent from the Moldovan Cyrillic alphabet.

The following chart shows the Moldovan Cyrillic alphabet compared with the Latin alphabet currently in use. IPA values are given for the post-1957 literary standard.

Cyrillic letter:Equates to Latin letter:NameAs employed in this context: IPA
А аaа (a) /a/
Б бbбе (be) /b/
В вvве (ve) /v/
Г гg, ghге (ge)gh used before i or e, elsewhere g/ɡ/
Д дdде (de) /d/
Е еe, ieе (e)ie after a vowel or if it alternates with ia, elsewhere e/e/, /je/
Ж жjже (je) /ʒ/
Ӂ ӂg, ge, giӂе (ġe)g before i and e, ge before a, gi elsewhere/dʒ/
З зzзе (ze) /z/
И иi, ii[ citation needed ]и (i)ii used at end of word, i elsewhere/i/
Й йiи скурт (i scurt)before and after vowels/j/
К кc, chка (ka)ch before i and e, c elsewhere/k/
Л лlле (le) /l/
М мmме (me) /m/
Н нnне (ne) /n/
О оoо (o) /o/
П пpпе (pe) /p/
Р рrре (re) /r/
С сsсе (se) /s/
Т тtте (te) /t/
У уuу (u) /u/
Ф фfфе (fe) /f/
Х хhха (ha) /h/
Ц цțце (ce) /ts/
Ч чc, ce, ciче (če)c before i and e, ce before a, ci elsewhere/tʃ/
Ш шșше (še) /ʃ/
Ы ыâ, îы (ı)â and î/ɨ/
Ь ьiсемнул моале (semnul moale)At end of word (usually)/ʲ/ (i.e. palatalization of preceding consonant)
Э эăэ (ă) /ə/
Ю юiuю (û) /ju/, /ʲu/
Я яea, iaя (â)ea after a consonant or е, ia elsewhere/ja/, /ʲa/

Example text

This text is from Limba noastră .

Latin script  Moldovan Cyrillic script

Limba noastră-i o comoară
în adîncuri înfundată
Un șirag de piatră rară
pe moșie revărsată.

Limba noastră-i foc ce arde
într-un neam, ce fără veste
S-a trezit din somn de moarte
ca viteazul din poveste.

Limba noastră-i numai cîntec
doina dorurilor noastre
Roi de fulgere, ce spintec
noruri negri, zări albastre.

Limba noastră-i graiul pîinii
cînd de vînt se mișcă vara
In rostirea ei bătrînii
cu sudori sfințit-au țara.

Limba noastră-i frunză verde
zbuciumul din codrii veșnici
Nistrul lin, ce-n valuri pierde
ai luceferilor sfeșnici.

Nu veți plînge-atunci amarnic
că vi-i limba prea săracă
Și-ți vedea, cît îi de darnic
graiul țării noastre dragă.

Limba noastră-i vechi izvoade
povestiri din alte vremuri
Și citindu-le ’nșirate
te-nfiori adînc și tremuri.

Limba noastră îi aleasă
să ridice slava-n ceruri
Să ne spiue-n hram și-acasă
veșnicele adevăruri.

Limba noastră-i limbă sfîntă
limba vechilor cazanii
Care-o plîng și care-o cîntă
pe la vatra lor țăranii.

Înviați-vă dar graiul
ruginit de multă vreme
Ștergeți slinul, mucegaiul
al uitării ’n care geme.

Strîngeți piatra lucitoare
ce din soare se aprinde
Și-ți avea în revărsare
un potop nou de cuvinte.

Răsări-va o comoară
în adîncuri înfundată
Un șirag de piatră rară
pe moșie revărsată.

Лимба ноастрэ-й о комоарэ
ын адынкурь ынфундатэ
Ун шираг де пятрэ рарэ
пе мошие ревэрсатэ.

Лимба ноастрэ-й фок че арде
ынтр-ун ням, че фэрэ весте
С-а трезит дин сомн де моарте
ка витязул дин повесте.

Лимба ноастрэ-й нумай кынтек
дойна дорурилор ноастре
Рой де фулӂере, че спинтек
ноурь негри, зэрь албастре.

Лимба ноастрэ-й граюл пыйний
кынд де вынт се мишкэ вара
Ин ростиря ей бэтрыний
ку судорь сфинцит-ау цара.

Лимба ноастрэ-й фрунзэ верде
збучумул дин кодрий вешничь
Ниструл лин, че-н валурь пиерде
ай лучеферилор сфешничь.

Ну вець плынӂе-атунчь амарник
кэ ви-й лимба пря сэракэ
Ши-ць ведя, кыт ый де дарник
граюл цэрий ноастре драгэ.

Лимба ноастрэ-й векь извоаде
повестирь дин алте времурь
Ши читинду-ле ’нширате
те-нфиорь адынк ши тремурь.

Лимба ноастрэ ый алясэ
сэ ридиче слава-н черурь
Сэ не спиуе-н храм ши-акасэ
вешничеле адевэрурь.

Лимба ноастрэ-й лимбэ сфынтэ
лимба векилор казаний
Каре-о плынг ши каре-о кынтэ
пе ла ватра лор цэраний.

Ынвиаць-вэ дар граюл
руӂинит де мултэ време
Штерӂець слинул, мучегаюл
ал уйтэрий ’н каре ӂеме.

Стрынӂець пятра лучитоаре
че дин соаре се апринде
Ши-ць авя ын ревэрсаре
ун потоп ноу де кувинте.

Рэсэри-ва о комоарэ
ын адынкурь ынфундатэ
Ун шираг де пятрэ рарэ
пе мошие ревэрсатэ.

See also

Related Research Articles

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References

Notes

  1. "Hotărâre Nr. 36 din 05.12.2013 privind interpretarea articolului 13 alin. (1) din Constituție în corelație cu Preambulul Constituției și Declarația de Independență a Republicii Moldova (Sesizările nr. 8b/2013 și 41b/2013)" (in Romanian). Constitutional Court of Moldova. Retrieved 20 December 2013. 124. ... Prin urmare, Curtea consideră că prevederea conținută în Declarația de Independență referitoare la limba română ca limbă de stat a Republicii Moldova prevalează asupra prevederii referitoare la limba moldovenească conținute în articolul 13 al Constituției.
  2. Denis Deletant, Slavonic letters in Moldova, Wallachia and Transylvania from the tenth to the seventeenth centuries, Ed. Enciclopedicӑ, Bucharest 1991
  3. Michael Bruchis. The Language Policy of the CPSU and the Linguistic Situation in Soviet Moldavia, in Soviet Studies, Vol. 36, No. 1. (Jan., 1984), pp. 118-119.