Cyrillization of Arabic is the conversion of text written in Arabic script into Cyrillic script. Because the Arabic script is an abjad (a writing system without vowels), an accurate transliteration into Cyrillic, an alphabet, would still require prior knowledge of the subject language to read. Instead, systems of transcription have normally been used.
The Arabic script is the writing system used for writing Arabic and several other languages of Asia and Africa, such as Persian, Kurdish, Azerbaijani, Sindhi, Pashto, Lurish, Urdu, Mandinka, and others. Until the 16th century, it was also used to write some texts in Spanish. Additionally, prior to the language reform in 1928, it was the writing system of Turkish. It is the second-most widely used writing system in the world by the number of countries using it and the third by the number of users, after Latin and Chinese characters.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia and is used as the national script in various Slavic-, Turkic- and Persian-speaking countries in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia.
An abjad is a type of writing system where each symbol or glyph stands for a consonant, leaving the reader to supply the appropriate vowel. So-called impure abjads do represent vowels, either with optional diacritics, a limited number of distinct vowel glyphs, or both. The name abjad is based on the old Arabic alphabet's first four letters—a, b, j, d—to replace the common terms "consonantary" or "consonantal alphabet" to refer to the family of scripts called West Semitic.
The Abaza language is a Northwest Caucasian language spoken by Abazins in Russia and many of the exiled communities in Turkey. In fact the language has gone through several different orthographies based primarily on Arabic, Roman, and Cyrillic letters. Its consonant to vowel ratio is remarkably high; making it quite similar to many other languages from the same parent chain. The language evolved during its popularity in the mid to late 1800s and eventually started to die out.
Cyrillization is the process of rendering words of a language that normally uses a writing system other than Cyrillic script into the Cyrillic alphabet. Although such a process has often been carried out in an ad hoc fashion, the term "cyrillization" usually refers to a consistent system applied, for example, to transcribe names of German, Chinese, or English people and places for use in Russian, Ukrainian, Serbian, Macedonian or Bulgarian newspapers and books. Cyrillization is analogous to romanization, when words from a non-Latin-script-using language are rendered in the Latin alphabet for use
Kumyks are a Turkic people living in the Kumyk plateau, the lands bordering the Caspian Sea, Northern Ossetia, Chechnya and the banks of the Terek river. They speak the Kumyk language, which until the 1930s had been the lingua-franca of the Northern Caucasus.
Kalmyk Oirat, commonly known as the Kalmyk language, is a register of the Oirat language, natively spoken by the Kalmyk people of Kalmykia, a federal subject of Russia. In Russia, it is the standard form of the Oirat language, which belongs to the Mongolic language family. The Kalmyk people of the northwest Caspian Sea of Russia claim descent from the Oirats from Eurasia, who have also historically settled in Mongolia and northwest China. According to UNESCO, the language is "Definitely endangered". According to the Russian census of 2010, there are 80,500 speakers of an ethnic population consisting of 183,000 people.
Altai is a Turkic language, spoken officially in the Altai Republic, Russia. The language was called Oyrot (ойрот) prior to 1948.
Jaꞑalif, Yangalif or Yañalif is the first Latin alphabet used during the Soviet epoch for the Turkic languages in the 1930s. It replaced the Yaña imlâ Arabic script-based alphabet in 1928 and was replaced by the Cyrillic alphabet in 1938-1940; several former Soviet states in Central Asia switched back to Latin script, with slight modifications to the original Jaꞑalif.
The term Common Turkic Alphabet refers to two different systems using the Latin alphabet to write various Turkic languages. The old system was developed in the Soviet Union and used in the 1930s; the current system is an alphabet with 34 letters recognised by the Turkic Council. Its letters are as follows:
The Even language, also known as Lamut, Ewen, Eben, Orich, Ilqan, is a Tungusic language spoken by the Evens in Siberia. It is spoken by widely scattered communities of reindeer herders from Kamchatka and the Sea of Okhotsk in the east to the River Lena in the west, and from the Arctic coast in the north to the River Aldan in the south. Even is an endangered language, with only some 5,700 speakers. These speakers are specifically from the Magadan region, the Chukot region and the Koryak region. Dialects are Arman, Indigirka, Kamchatka, Kolyma-Omolon, Okhotsk, Ola, Tompon, Upper Kolyma, Sakkyryr, Lamunkhin.
The 18th Guards Motor Rifle Division was formed originally as 133rd Rifle Division at Novosibirsk or Biysk in 1939. The division was part of 1st Shock Army on 1 December 1941 during the Battle of Moscow. It was redesignated as the 18th Guards Rifle Division in March 1942 with the 51, 53, 58 Guards Rifle Regiments and 52 Guards Artillery Regiment. The division fought in the East Prussian Offensive. The unit became 30th Guards Mechanised Division in 1945 as part of the 11th Guards Army. In 1965 it was renumbered as 18th Guards MRD. It seems to have been stationed in the Kaliningrad enclave with 11th Guards Army before entering Czechoslovakia in 1968, joining the Central Group of Forces.
Numerous Cyrillic alphabets are based on the Cyrillic script. The early Cyrillic alphabet was developed in the First Bulgarian Empire during the 9th century AD at the Preslav Literary School by Saint Clement of Ohrid and Saint Naum and replaced the earlier Glagolitic script developed by the Byzantine theologians Cyril and Methodius. It is the basis of alphabets used in various languages, past and present, in parts of Southeastern Europe and Northern Eurasia, especially those of Slavic origin, and non-Slavic languages influenced by Russian. As of 2011, around 252 million people in Eurasia use it as the official alphabet for their national languages. About half of them are in Russia. Cyrillic is one of the most-used writing systems in the world.
The Khinalugs are an indigenous people of Azerbaijan and speak the Khinalug language, a Northeast Caucasian language. The Khinalugs are indigenous to the Quba District and have been named after their main village, Khinalug. It is one of the peoples that have traditionally been called Shahdagh. Azerbaijani language is also widely spoken.
The weaver beetle is a species of beetle from Lamiinae subfamily in long-horned beetle family; it is a North Asia species. Larvae develop in willow trees, rare in birch and poplar.
There are several Azerbaijani ethnic groups, each of which has particularities in the economy, culture and everyday life. Some Azerbaijani ethnic groups continued in the last quarter of the 19th century.
Nikolai Vasilyevich Rumyantsev was a Soviet author of several polemics on the history of Christianity. He was also a member of the Soviet circle "Atheist" and the League of Militant Atheists. In the 1920s Rumyantsev was one of the leading proponents of the so-called mythological school in the Soviet academia. He authored such publications, as "The Pre-Christian Christ", "The Pagan Christs – the Ancient Precursors of Christianity", "The Apocalypse – The Revelation of John" and "Orthodox Holidays, Their Origin and Class Essence" (1936). "The Apocalypse – The Revelation of John" was published under the influence of Abram Ranovich. In that publication Rumyantsev, while not explicitly retracting his earlier opinions, offered a study of early Christianity which stressed not its derivation from supposed ancient mythology, but its intrinsic relation to revolutionary, messianic elements in contemporary Judaism.
Vladimir Mikhaylovich Rusalov - Russian psychologist and anthropologist who was first to develop a temperament model within the Activity-specific approach. He is best known for his work in psychology of personality, temperament and differential psychophysiology. His initial and extended versions of Structure of Temperament Questionnaire became the most widely used test in the Russian-speaking countries in the practice of personnel selection, personality studies, educational psychology and clinical psychology in the past 20 years.
The Lopukhin family was a noble family of the Russian Empire, forming one of the branches of the Sorokoumova-Glebov family. Eudoxia Lopukhina, married Peter the Great. When Pyotr Lopukhin's son died childless, the family's princely title passed to Nikolai Petrovich Demidov-Lopukhin. The present Prince Lopukhin-Demidov is Nikolai Alexander Paul Demidoff born in 1976.
Yerevan dialect or Iravan dialect is one of dialects of Azerbaijani language.
Latin-script German words are transcribed into Cyrillic-script languages according to rules based on pronunciation. Because German orthography is largely phonemic, transcription into Cyrillic follows relatively simple rules.
Vitaliy Alekseevich Shishakov, was a Russian popularizer of scientific knowledge, journalist, candidate of pedagogical sciences, honorary member of the All-Union Astronomical and Geodetic Society (1965).
Mark Mendelevich Persits was a Soviet propagandist of atheism and a scientific worker in the study of problems of religion and atheism, Writer, historian of social thought.