Cyrillization of German

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Latin-script German words are transcribed into Cyrillic-script languages according to rules based on pronunciation. Because German orthography is largely phonemic, transcription into Cyrillic follows relatively simple rules.

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Russian and Bulgarian

The standard rules for orthographic transcription into Russian were developed by Rudzhero S. Giliarevski (ru) and Boris A. Starostin (ru) in 1969 for various languages; [1] they have been revised by later scholars including D. I. Ermolovich (ru) and I. S. Alexeyeva (ru). The established spellings of a few names which were already common before this time sometimes deviates from these rules; for example, the Ludwig is traditionally Людвиг (including in placenames), with ю instead of у. It was also historically common to render personal names into their Russian forms or cognates, rather than strictly transliterating them, as with Peter being rendered as Пётр . German phonemes which do not exist in Russian are rendered by their closest approximations: the umlauts ö and ü are rendered as ё (yo) and ю (yu), and ä and e are mostly rendered as е (not э). H (when not part of a cluster) is now rendered with х or omitted (when silent); it was historically often rendered with г (g), as in the name of Heinrich Heine (Russian: Генрих Гейне). The Cyrillic letters ы and щ are not used.

GermanRussianBulgarian [2]
aа (but at the end of a word, following i, я is used: Bavaria → Бавария)
aaа (Aachen → Ахен)
aetranscribed like ä when it stands for that letter; otherwise, transcribed like a + edepending on pronunciation
aiай (Mainz → Майнц)
ayай
äе after consonants, э after vowels and at the beginning of a wordе
äuой (historically also ей: Bäumler → Беймлер)ой
bб
cas к (Calw → Кальв) or ц (Celle → Целле) depending on pronunciationas к or ц depending on pronunciation
chх (or, in loanwords, ш, ч, к etc. based on pronunciation) (Chiemsee → Кимзе, historically also Химзе or Химское озеро)к at the start of the word (Chiemsee → Кимзе); х after vowels (Achim → Ахим)
chhхг (traditionally), or хх (modern variant) [3] [4] (Hochhuth → Хоххут; Eichhorn → Айххорн)хх if ch and h belong to different morphemes (Hochheim → Хоххайм)
chsкс, when pronounced as x, otherwise transcribed like ch + s
ckк, or between vowels (and always, according to the rules for transcribing geographic names) [5] кк (Boris Becker → Борис Беккер)к
dд
eе after consonants, э after vowels and at the beginning of a word (Erfurt → Эрфурт)е
eelike e (Spree → Шпре)
eiай (Eider → Айдер) (historically also эй, ей: Einstein → Эйнштейн)ай
euой (Neumünster → Ноймюнстер) (historically also эй, ей: Neumann → Нейман)ой
eyай (Eider → Айдер) (historically also эй, ей: Meyer → Мейер)ай
fф
gг (in loanwords, before e, i, y, sometimes ж or дж based on pronunciation)г
gkгк (Woldegk → Вольдегк), sometimes г (Burgkmair → Бургмайр)?
hх, when pronounced: Herne → Херне; Dietharz → Дитхарц; omitted when silent: Ehenbichl → Ээнбихль, Lahr → Лар (historically also transcribed with г)х at the start of a word or morpheme; otherwise not transcribed
iи at the beginning of a word or after consonants, й after vowels
ieи when e indicates a long i, ие when divided between two syllables (Marienberg → Мариенберг)
jй at the end of a syllable; at the beginning of a word or between vowels, jaя, е, jeе, joйо, йё, juю, йю; after consonants: jaья, ье, jeье, joьо, ьё, juью, ью; when between parts of a compound word, then ъ instead of ьdepending on the following vowel: jaя; je, йе (only at the start of the word or after a vowel, otherwise: е); ju, , juiю
kк
lл before vowels, ль before consonants or at the end of a word (exceptions include Karl → Карл); after l, u becomes ю instead of у in some traditional cases (Ludwigsburg → Людвигсбург)л
llлл except between consonants and vowels; at the end of a word is appended (exceptions include Rheinmetall → Рейнметалл)л
mм
nн (but -mann-ман)
oо
oetranscribed like ö when it stands for that letter; if it stands for a long o then transcribed as о: Coesfeld → Косфельд; if the two letters form separate syllables, then transcribed like o + etranscribed like ö when it stands for that letter; if it stands for a long o then transcribed as о: Coesfeld → Косфелд; if the two letters form separate syllables, then transcribed like o + e: Buchloe → Бухлое
ooо (Koopmann → Копман)
öэ at the beginning of a word, otherwise ё (Österreich (as a last name) → Эстеррайх)ьо after a consonant, otherwise йо
pп
phф, unless divided by a syllable boundary: Diepholz → Дипхольцф, unless divided by a syllable boundary: Diepholz → Дипхолц
quкв (Querfurt → Кверфурт)
rр
sз for /z/, с for /s/: Sassnitz → Засниц, Kiste → Кистеlikewise: з at the start of the word or if between vowels (or between a vowel and a sonorant), in all other cases: с
schш
spшп at the beginning of a word (including inside compound words), otherwise сп
ssсс or с (when ss stands for ß, then с), unless divided between two syllables: Ludwigsstadt → Людвигсштадтs unless at morpheme boundary
stшт at the beginning of a word (including inside compound words), otherwise ст: Rostock → Ростокщ at the beginning of a word (including inside compound words), otherwise ст
ßс
tт, but the suffix -tion-цион
tschч (unless divided between two syllables, in which case тш: Altschul → Альтшуль)ч
tzтц between vowels, otherwise ц (Ratzeburg → Ратцебург)ц: Рацебург
uу
uetranscribed like ü when it stands for that letter; if it stands for a long u then transcribed as у: Buer → Бур; if the two letters form separate syllables, then transcribed like u + e: Adenauer → Аденауэрtranscribed like ü when it stands for that letter; if it stands for a long u then transcribed as у: Buer → Бур; if the two letters form separate syllables, then transcribed like u + e: Adenauer → Аденауер
üи at the beginning of a word, otherwise ю (Neumünster → Ноймюнстер, Uelzen → Ильцен)ю
vф when pronounced like f; в when pronounced like w
wв (Wagner → Вагнер)
xкс
yи at the beginning of a word and after consonants (even when pronounced as ü) (Bad Pyrmont → Бад-Пирмонт), й after vowels; as a consonant, yaя (Yanina Wickmayer → Янина Викмайер)
zц
zschч (unless divided between two syllables, in which case цш: so, Delitzsch → Делич, but Nietzsche → Ницше)

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References

  1. Гиляревский Р. С., Старостин Б. А., Иностранные имена и названия в русском тексте: Справочник (М.: Международные отношения, 1969), pages 113—123.
  2. Наредба № 6 за транскрипция и правопис на чужди географски имена, 1995–1999
  3. Архипов, А. Ф., Письменный перевод с немецкого языка на русский язык. Рецензент: проф., к. ф. н., и. о. зав. кафедрой теории, истории и критики перевода МГЛУ Цвиллинг М. Я. — Изд.: Книжный дом «Университет» (КДУ), page 51, 2008, ISBN   978-5-98227-318-5
  4. Ермолович Д. И. (ru), Имена собственные: теория и практика межъязыковой передачи. (М.: Р. Валент, 2005, ISBN   5-93439-153-4, page 333: «Hochhuth — Хоххут»
  5. Инструкция по русской передаче немецких географических названий / сост.: В. С. Широкова; ред. Г. П. Бондарук. — Москва: Типография издательства «Известия», 1974, С. 10, 1000 экз., § 25

Further reading