Russian uses phonetic transcription for the Cyrillization of its many loanwords from French. Some use is made of Cyrillic's iotation features to respresent French's front rounded vowels and etymologically-softened consonants.
Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although nearly three decades have passed since the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia.
Phonetic transcription is the visual representation of speech sounds. The most common type of phonetic transcription uses a phonetic alphabet, such as the International Phonetic Alphabet.
Cyrillization is the process of rendering words of a language that normally uses a writing system other than Cyrillic script into the Cyrillic alphabet. Although such a process has often been carried out in an ad hoc fashion, the term "cyrillization" usually refers to a consistent system applied, for example, to transcribe names of German, Chinese, or English people and places for use in Russian, Ukrainian, Serbian, Macedonian or Bulgarian newspapers and books. Cyrillization is analogous to romanization, when words from a non-Latin-script-using language are rendered in the Latin alphabet for use
In the table below, the symbol ⟨ʲ⟩ represents either a "softened" consonant or the approximant /j/. When applicable, a softened consonant can be indicated in transcription either by a following iotified vowel or by ⟨ ь ⟩.
The soft sign also known as the front yer or front er, is a letter of the Cyrillic script. In Old Church Slavonic, it represented a short front vowel. As with its companion, the back yer ⟨ъ⟩, the vowel phoneme that it designated was later partly dropped and partly merged with other vowels.
|[b]||b||б||bateau-lavoir – бато-лавуар|
|[ʃ]||ch||ш||Charles – Шарль|
|[d]||d||д||Bordeaux – Бордо|
|[f]||f, ph||ф||Foucault – Фуко|
|[ɡ]||g, gu||г||Guillaume – Гийом|
|[ɲ]||gn||нь||Boulogne – Булонь|
|–||h||–||Humanité – Юманите|
|г||Hugo – Гюго|
Le Havre – Гавр
|often in the case of h aspiré|
|[ʒ]||j, g(e)||ж||Jean – Жан|
|[k]||c, qu, k||к||Camus – Камю|
|[l]||l||ль||Gilbert – Жильбер||before a consonant or at the end of a word|
|л||Louvre – Лувр||before vowels|
|[lj]||li||ль||Montpellier – Монпелье|
Camille – Камиль
|[m]||m||м||monde – монд|
|[n]||n||н||Rhône – Рона|
|[p]||p||п||Pierre – Пьер|
|[ʁ]||r||р||Renoir – Ренуар|
|[s]||s, ç, c||с||Rousseau – Руссо|
|[sj]||ti||сь||Libération – Либерасьон|
|[t]||t||т||pointe – пуэнт|
|[v]||v||в||Verlaine – Верлен|
|[w]||w||в||Gwénaël – Гвенаэль||sometimes transliterated with ⟨ у ⟩ in loanwords from English|
|Xavier – Ксавье|
Saint-Exupéry – Сент-Экзюпери
|according to the pronunciation of the ⟨x⟩|
|[j]||y, i, il(l)||й||yeuse – йёз|
Bayard – Байяр
Guillaume – Гийом
|after a vowel or word-initially|
|ь||Lavoisier – Лавуазье||after a consonant|
|il(l)||ль||Marseille – Марсель||frozen form|
|[z]||z, s||з||Vierzon – Вьерзон|
Doubled French consonants remain doubled in their Russian transcription: Rousseau – Руссо. Silent consonants (common in French) are generally not transcribed, except where they exist in the surface form due to liaison .
Liaison is the pronunciation of a latent word-final consonant immediately before a following vowel sound. Technically, it is a type of external sandhi, which is disrupted in pausa.
|[a], [ɑ]||a, â||а||Charles – Шарль|
|[e], [ɛ]||é, è, ê, ai, e||е||René – Рене|
|э||Edmond – Эдмон|
Citroën – Ситроэн
|at the beginning of a word, following a vowel, or rarely for [ɛ] at the end of a word|
|[ø], [œ]||eu, œ, œu||ё||Villedieu – Вильдьё||⟨ ё ⟩ is generally simplified to ⟨е⟩ in Russian|
|э||Eugène – Эжен|
Maheu – Маэ
|at the beginning of a word, or after a vowel|
|[ə], —||e||–||Charles – Шарль||e muet|
|е||De Gaulle – Де Голль||only in cases where [ə] is usually pronounced, e.g., le , de , que , rebelle , etc.|
|[i]||i, y||и||Village – Виляж|
|[o], [ɔ]||o, au, ô||o||Rhône – Рона|
|[wa]||oi||уа||Troyes – Труа|
|[u], [w]||ou||у||Louvre – Лувр|
|[y], [ ɥ ]||u||ю||L'Humanité – Юманите|
|[ɑ̃]||an, am, en, em||ан, ам||Ambroise – Амбруаз|
Occidental – Оксиданталь
|nasal vowels are written as the corresponding oral vowel followed by /n/ (or /m/ before /m, b, p/)|
|[ɛ̃]||in, en, ain||ен, ем, эн, эм||Saintes – Сент|
Ain – Эн
|[ɔ̃]||on, om||он, ом||Comte – Конт|
|[œ̃]||un||ен, ем, эн, эм||Verdun – Верден|
|[wɛ̃]||oin||уэн||pointe – пуэнт|
Finally, the softened consonants modify the following vowels:
|hard Russian vowel||softening||Examples||Comments|
|After a vowel or ⟨й⟩||After a consonant or ⟨ь⟩|
|ʲа||я||cognac – коньяк|
Bayard – Байяр
|ʲе ; ʲё||ие, йе ; йё||ье ; ьё||trieur – триер |
Cahiers du cinéma – Кайе дю синема
Richelieu – Ришелье
|э||⟨э⟩ never follows a softened consonant|
|ʲи||йи||ьи||Tilly – Тийи|
|ʲо||йо||ьо||Chillon – Шильон|
|ʲ||before a consonant or at the end of a word, softening is written with ⟨ь⟩|
Neither ⟨й⟩ nor ⟨ь⟩ are doubled.
The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet. It was devised by the International Phonetic Association in the late 19th century as a standardized representation of the sounds of spoken language. The IPA is used by lexicographers, foreign language students and teachers, linguists, speech-language pathologists, singers, actors, constructed language creators and translators.
The Russian alphabet uses letters from the Cyrillic script to write the Russian language. The modern Russian alphabet consists of 33 letters.
A digraph or digram is a pair of characters used in the orthography of a language to write either a single phoneme,
The Erzya language is spoken by about 37,000 people in the northern, eastern and north-western parts of the Republic of Mordovia and adjacent regions of Nizhny Novgorod, Chuvashia, Penza, Samara, Saratov, Orenburg, Ulyanovsk, Tatarstan and Bashkortostan in Russia. A diaspora can also be found in Armenia, Estonia as well as in Kazakhstan and other states of Central Asia. Erzya is currently written using Cyrillic with no modifications to the variant used by the Russian language. In Mordovia, Erzya is co-official with Moksha and Russian.
A yer is one of two letters in Cyrillic alphabets: ъ and ь. The Glagolitic alphabet used, as respective counterparts, the letters
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Yu is a letter of the Cyrillic script used in East Slavic and Bulgarian alphabets.
Yery, Yeru, Ery or Eru is a letter in the Cyrillic script. It represents the phoneme after non-palatalised (hard) consonants in the Belarusian and Russian alphabets.
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In Slavic languages, iotation is a form of palatalization that occurs when a consonant comes into contact with a palatal approximant from the succeeding phoneme. The is represented by iota (ι) in the Cyrillic alphabet and the Greek alphabet on which it is based. For example, ni in English onion has the sound of iotated n. Iotation is a distinct phenomenon from Slavic first palatalization in which only the front vowels are involved, but the final result is similar.
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The letter Ъ of the Cyrillic script is known as er goljam in the Bulgarian alphabet, as the hard sign in the modern Russian and Rusyn alphabets, and as debelo jer in pre-reform Serbian orthography. The letter is called back yer or back jer in the pre-reform Russian orthography, in Old East Slavic, and in Old Church Slavonic. Originally the yer denoted an ultra-short or reduced middle rounded vowel. It is one of two reduced vowels that are collectively known as the yers in Slavic philology.
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