District of Louisiana

Last updated
District of Louisiana
Territory of the United States
1804–1805
United States 1804-10-1805-01.png
A map of the District of Louisiana
Capital St. Louis
Government
Governor  
 1804–1805
William Henry Harrison
History 
 Established
October 1 1804
 Organized
July 4 1805
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Star-Spangled Banner flag.svg Louisiana Purchase
Louisiana Territory Star-Spangled Banner flag.svg

The District of Louisiana, or Louisiana District, was an official, temporary, United States government designation for the portion of the Louisiana Purchase that had not been organized into the Orleans Territory. It officially existed from March 10, 1804, until July 4, 1805, when it was incorporated as the Louisiana Territory.

United States Federal republic in North America

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or simply America, is a country comprising 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the most populous city is New York City. Most of the country is located contiguously in North America between Canada and Mexico.

Louisiana Purchase Acquisition by the United States of America of Frances claim to the territory of Louisiana

The Louisiana Purchase was the acquisition of the territory of Louisiana by the United States from France in 1803. In return for fifteen million dollars, or approximately eighteen dollars per square mile, the United States nominally acquired a total of 828,000 sq mi. However, France only controlled a small fraction of this area, with most of it settled by Native Americans; for the majority of the area, what the United States bought was the "preemptive" right to obtain Native American lands by treaty or by conquest, to the exclusion of other colonial powers. The total cost of all subsequent treaties and financial settlements over the land has been estimated to be around 2.6 billion dollars.

Organized incorporated territories of the United States United States territory with organized government and to which full constitutional rights are extended

Organized incorporated territories are territories of the United States that are both incorporated and organized. There have been no such territories since 1959.

Contents

The area north of present-day Arkansas was commonly referred to as Upper Louisiana . The United States District of Louisiana had two incarnations: first, as a federally administered military district (March 10, 1804 - September 30, 1804); then as an organized territory (October 1, 1804 - July 4, 1805) under the jurisdiction of the Indiana Territory.

Arkansas State in the United States

Arkansas is a state in the southern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of 2018. Its name is from the Osage language, of Siouan derivation; it denoted their related kin, the Quapaw people. The state's diverse geography ranges from the mountainous regions of the Ozark and the Ouachita Mountains, which make up the U.S. Interior Highlands, to the densely forested land in the south known as the Arkansas Timberlands, to the eastern lowlands along the Mississippi River and the Arkansas Delta.

Illinois Country Historical region in North America

The Illinois Country — sometimes referred to as Upper Louisiana — was a vast region of New France in what is now the Midwestern United States. While these names generally referred to the entire Upper Mississippi River watershed, French colonial settlement was concentrated along the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers in what is now the U.S. states of Illinois and Missouri, with outposts in Indiana. Explored in 1673 from Green Bay to the Arkansas River by the Canadien expedition of Louis Jolliet and Jacques Marquette, the area was claimed by France. It was settled primarily from the Pays d'en Haut in the context of the fur trade. Over time, the fur trade took some French to the far reaches of the Rocky Mountains, especially along the branches of the broad Missouri River valley. The French name, Pays des Illinois, means "Land of the Illinois [plural]" and is a reference to the Illinois Confederation, a group of related Algonquian native peoples.

Military districts are formations of a state's armed forces which are responsible for a certain area of territory. They are often more responsible for administrative than operational matters, and in countries with conscript forces, often handle parts of the conscription cycle.

A similarly named "Louisiana District" had also previously been an administrative division under Spanish and French rule.

Louisiana (New Spain) Administrative district of the Viceroyalty of New Spain

Spanish Louisiana was an administrative district of the Viceroyalty of New Spain from 1763 to 1801 that consisted of a vast territory in the center of North America encompassing the western basin of the Mississippi River plus New Orleans. The area had originally been claimed and controlled by France, which had named it La Louisiane in honor of King Louis XIV in 1682. Spain secretly acquired the territory from France near the end of the Seven Years' War by the terms of the Treaty of Fontainebleau (1762). The actual transfer of authority was a slow process, and after Spain finally attempted to fully replace French authorities in New Orleans in 1767, French residents staged an uprising which the new Spanish colonial governor did not suppress until 1769. Spain also took possession of the trading post of St. Louis and all of Upper Louisiana in the late 1760s, though there was little Spanish presence in the wide expanses of the "Illinois Country".

Louisiana (New France) Administrative district of New France

Louisiana or French Louisiana was an administrative district of New France. Under French control 1682 to 1762 and 1801 (nominally) to 1803, the area was named in honor of King Louis XIV, by French explorer René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle. It originally covered an expansive territory that included most of the drainage basin of the Mississippi River and stretched from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico and from the Appalachian Mountains to the Rocky Mountains.

Military district of Louisiana (1804)

In legislation enacted October 31, 1803, Congress made provisions for a temporary government of the territory purchased from France. The President was authorized to use military forces to maintain order, although the local civil government was to continue as it had under French and Spanish rule. [1]

French First Republic Republic governing France, 1792–1804

In the history of France, the First Republic, officially the French Republic, was founded on 22 September 1792 during the French Revolution. The First Republic lasted until the declaration of the First Empire in 1804 under Napoleon, although the form of the government changed several times. This period was characterized by the fall of the monarchy, the establishment of the National Convention and the Reign of Terror, the Thermidorian Reaction and the founding of the Directory, and, finally, the creation of the Consulate and Napoleon's rise to power.

This military rule was in effect from March 10, 1804 the official date of transfer from French hands (known as Three Flags Day) until September 30, 1804. At this time, the District was further divided into five administrative divisions or districts: New Madrid, Cape Girardeau, Ste. Genevieve, St. Charles, and St. Louis.

Three Flags Day commemorates March 9 and 10, 1804, when Spain officially completed turning over the Louisiana colonial territory to France, who then officially turned over the same lands to the United States, in order to finalize the 1803 Louisiana Purchase.

New Madrid, Missouri City in Missouri, United States

New Madrid is a city in New Madrid County, Missouri, United States. The population was 3,116 at the 2010 census. New Madrid is the county seat of New Madrid County. The city is located 42 miles (68 km) southwest of Cairo, Illinois, and north of an exclave of Fulton County, Kentucky, across the river.

Ste. Genevieve, Missouri City in Missouri, United States

Ste. Genevieve is a city in Ste. Genevieve Township and is the county seat of Ste. Genevieve County, Missouri, United States. The population was 4,410 at the 2010 census. Founded in 1735 by French Canadian colonists and settlers from east of the river, it was the first organized European settlement west of the Mississippi River in present-day Missouri.

Amos Stoddard served during this time as District Commandant.

Amos Stoddard was a career United States Army officer who served in both the American Revolutionary War and the War of 1812, in which he was mortally wounded.

Commandant is a title often given to the officer in charge of a military training establishment or academy. This usage is common in English-speaking nations. In some countries it may be a military or police rank. It is also often used to refer to the commander of a military prison or prison camp.

Civilian district of Louisiana (1804-1805)

On March 26, 1804, Congress enacted legislation effective October 1, 1804, that extended the authority of the governor and judges of the Indiana Territory to provide temporary jurisdiction over the District of Louisiana. [2]

Later that year, Indiana territorial Governor William Henry Harrison and territorial judges Davis, Griffin, and Vandenberg held court in the district capital of St. Louis and enacted laws for the region.

On July 4, 1805, the District of Louisiana was re-designated as the Louisiana Territory (1805-1812), when it acquired its own territorial government, modeled on that of the Indiana Territory.

Inhabitants' concerns

Under the terms of the act establishing the temporary government, the governor and judges of the Indiana Territory were to meet twice a year in St. Louis. However, the settlers west of the Mississippi River complained strongly about the arrangement. Opposition was indicated by:

Upset citizens of the Louisiana District met in St. Louis in September 1804 to sign a declaration formally protesting the annexation. Among the signers were Auguste Chouteau. [3]

A notable event during this period was the signing of the Treaty of St. Louis, in which the Sac and Fox Indian tribes ceded northeastern Missouri, northern Illinois, and southern Wisconsin to the United States. Resentment over this treaty was to cause the tribes to side with the British during the War of 1812 in raids along the Missouri, Ohio, and Mississippi Rivers and was to spur the Black Hawk War in 1832.

On March 3, 1805, Congress enacted legislation organizing the District of Louisiana into the Louisiana Territory, effective July 4, 1805. The territorial government was organized similarly to that of the Indiana Territory. [4]

See also

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References

  1. "An Act to enable the President of the United States to take possession of the territories ceded by France to the United States, by the treaty concluded at Paris, on the thirtieth of April last; and for the temporary government thereof"
  2. "An Act erecting Louisiana into two territories and providing for the temporary government thereof"
  3. A History of Missouri by Louis Houck 1909 pp 376–391
  4. "An Act further providing for the government of the district of Louisiana"